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profitable, but now profitable to thee and to me: whom I have sent 12 again: thou therefore receive him, that is, mine own bowels. Whom I 13 would have retained with me, that in thy stead he might have ministered unto me in the bonds of the gospel: but without thy mind would I do 14 nothing; that thy benefit should not be as it were of necessity, but willingly. For perhaps he therefore departed for a season, that thou 15 shouldest receive him for ever; not now as a servant, but above a ser- 16 vant, a brother beloved, especially to me, but how much more unto thee, both in the flesh, and in the Lord? If thou count me therefore a part- 17 ner, receive him as myself. If he hath wronged thee, or oweth thee 18 aught, put that on mine account. I Paul have written it with mine own 19 hand, I will repay it: albeit I do not say to thee how thou owest unto me even thine own self besides. Yea, Brother, let me have joy of thee 20 in the Lord: refresh my bowels in the Lord. Having confidence in 21 thy obedience I wrote unto thee, knowing that thou wilt also do more than I say. But withal prepare me also a lodging: for I trust that 22 through your prayers I shall be given unto you. There salute thee 23 Epaphras, my fellow-prisoner in Christ Jesus, 'Marcus, Aristarchus, 24 Demas, Lucas, my fellow-laborers. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ 25 be with your spirit. Amen.




I. As respects its
(1) Jesus Christ



as Mediator, was greatly superior to all messengers of God, whether men or angels; as such, he is now exalted.


GOD, who at sundry times and in divers manners 1 spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets, hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom 2 he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds, who being the brightness of his glory, 3 and the express image of his person, and upholding all things by the word of his power, when he had by himself purged our sins, sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high; being made so much better than the Angels, as he hath by inher- 4 itance obtained a more excellent name than they. For unto which of 5 the Angels said he at any time, "Thou art my Son, this day have I be gotten thee?" And again, "I will be to him a Father, and he shall be to me a Son?" And again, when he bringeth in the first-begotten into 6 the world, he saith, " And let all the Angels of God worship him." And 7 of the Angels he saith, "Who maketh his Angels spirits, and his ministers a flame of fire." But unto the Son, he saith, "Thy throne, O 8 God, is for ever and ever: a sceptre of righteousness is the sceptre of thy kingdom; ' thou hast loved righteousness, and hated iniquity; there fore God, even thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows." And, "Thou, LORD, in the beginning hast laid the 10 foundation of the earth; and the heavens are the works of thy hands. They shall perish; but thou remainest: and they all shall wax old as 11 doth a garment,' and as a vesture shalt thou fold them up, and they shall 12 be changed: but thou art the same, and thy years shall not fail." But 13 to which of the Angels said he at any time, "Sit on my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool?" Are they not all ministering 14 spirits, sent forth to minister for them who shall be heirs of salvation?

To One of such dignity, implicit

obedience is due.

THEREFORE We ought to give the more earnest heed


to the things which we have heard, lest at any time we should let them slip. For if the word spoken by 2 Angels was stedfast, and every transgression and disobedience received a just recompence of reward; how shall we escape, if we neglect so 3 great salvation; which at the first began to be spoken by the Lord, and was confirmed unto us by them that heard him, God also bearing them 4 witness, both with signs and wonders, and with divers miracles, and gifts of the Holy Ghost, according to his own will ?

Though He was manifested in human nature,

(John i. 14. 1 Tim.

iii. 16.) yet he is superior to the

FOR unto the Angels hath he not put in subjection the 5 world to come, whereof we speak. But one in a certain 6 place testified, saying, "What is man, that thou art mindful of him? or the son of man, that thou visitest angels; for in that him? Thou madest him a little lower than the Angels; 7 nature is he exalted. thou crownedst him with glory and honor, and didst set him over the works of thy hands; thou hast put all things in subjection 8 under his feet." For in that he put all in subjection under him, he left nothing that is not put under him. But now we see not yet all things put under him: but we see Jesus, who was made a little lower than the 9

angels, for the suffering of death, crowned with glory and honor; that he by the grace of God should taste death for every man.

Why the Mediator assumed human



FOR it became him, for whom are all things, and by 10 whom are all things, in bringing many sons unto glory, to make the Captain of their salvation perfect through sufferings. For both he that sanctifieth, and they who are sanctified, 11 are all of one for which cause he is not ashamed to call them brethren, saying, "I will declare thy name unto my brethren, in the midst 12 of the church will I sing praise unto thee." And again, "I will put my 13 trust in him." And again, "Behold, I, and the children which God hath given me." Forasmuch then as the children are partakers of flesh and 14 blood, he also himself likewise took part of the same; that through death he might destroy him that had the power of death, that is, the devil, 'and deliver them, who, through fear of death, were all their 15 life-time subject to bondage. For verily he took not on him the nature 16 of angels; but he took on him the seed of Abraham. Wherefore in all 17 things it behoved him to be made like unto his brethren; that he might be a merciful and faithful High Priest in things pertaining to God, to make reconciliation for the sins of the people. For in that he himself 18 hath suffered, being tempted, he is able to succor them that are tempted. WHEREFORE, holy brethren, partakers of the 3 heavenly calling, consider the Apostle and High Priest of our profession, Christ Jesus; who was faithful to him 2 the servant of God, that appointed him, as also Moses was faithful in all his CHRIST his SON. house. For this man was counted worthy of more glory 3 than Moses, inasmuch as he who hath builded the house, hath more honor than the house. (For every house is builded by some man; but 4 he that built all things is God.) And Moses verily was faithful in all 5 his house, as a servant, for a testimony of those things which were to be spoken after: ' but Christ as a Son over his own house: whose house are we, if we hold fast the confidence, and the rejoicing of the hope firm unto the end.

(2.) MOSES, great as

he was, was far in

ferior to Jesus Christ: Moses was

The servant was

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WHEREFORE, as the Holy Ghost saith, "To-day if ye 7 not disobeyed with will hear his voice, 'harden not your hearts, as in the 8 impunity, much less shall the SON. provocation, in the day of temptation in the wilderness, 'when your fathers tempted me, proved me, and saw my works forty 9 years. Wherefore I was grieved with that generation, and said, They 10 do always err in their heart. And they have not known my ways; 'so 11 I sware in my wrath, They shall not enter into my rest." Take heed, 12 brethren, lest there be in any of you an evil heart of unbelief, in departing from the living God. But exhort one another daily, while it 13 is called To-day; lest any of you be hardened through the deceitfulness of sin, (for we are made partakers of Christ, if we hold the beginning 14 of our confidence stedfast unto the end ;) ' while it is said, "To-day if ye 15 will hear his voice, harden not your hearts, as in the provocation." For some, when they had heard, did provoke: howbeit, not all that 16 came out of Egypt by Moses. But with whom was he grieved forty 17 years? was it not with them that had sinned, whose carcasses fell in the wilderness? And to whom sware he that they should not enter into his 18 rest, but to them that believed not? So we see that they could not 19 enter in because of unbelief.

God promised eternal

happiness by Moses only to believers;

So now it is offered

only to those who

believe in Christ.


LET us therefore fear, lest a promise being left us of 4 entering into his rest, any of you should seem to come short of it. For unto us was the gospel preached, as well as unto them: but the word preached did not profit them, not being mixed with faith in them that

heard it. For we which have believed do enter into rest, as he said, 3 "As I have sworn in my wrath, if they shall enter into my rest," although the works were finished from the foundation of the world. For 4 he spake in a certain place of the seventh day on this wise," And God did rest the seventh day from all his works:" and in this place again, 5 "If they shall enter into my rest." Seeing therefore it remaineth that 6 some must enter therein, and they to whom it was first preached entered not in because of unbelief:--(again, he limiteth a certain day, saying 7 in David, To-day, after so long a time; (as it is said,) "TO-DAY, if ye will hear his voice, harden not your hearts." For if Jesus had given 8 them rest, then would he not afterward have spoken of another day. There remaineth therefore a rest to the people of God. For he that 9

is entered into his rest, he also hath ceased from his own works, as God did from his :)--let us labor therefore to enter into that rest, lest any 11 man fall after the same example of unbelief.

unbelievers, and will


He has threatened For the word of God is quick and powerful, and 12 inflict those threat- sharper than any two-edged sword, piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and of the joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart: 'neither is there any creature that is not manifest in his sight: but all 13 things are naked and opened unto the eyes of him with whom we have to do.

(3.) Jesus Christ of

fered atonement for

sinners; (ii. 10-18.) this was the office of a Priest: Christ

is a great and per

petual HIGH PRIEST, far superior

to Aaron, and constituted "after the

order of Melchisedec."

SEEING then that we have a great High Priest, that 14 is passed into the heavens, Jesus the Son of God, let us hold fast our profession. For we have not a high priest 15 which cannot be touched with the feeling of our infirmities but was in all points tempted like as we are; yet Without sin. Let us therefore come boldly unto the 16 throne of grace, that we may obtain mercy, and find grace to help in time of need. For every high priest 5 taken from among men, is ordained for men in things pertaining to God, that he may offer both gifts and sacrifices for sins; who can have com- 2 passion on the ignorant, and on them that are out of the way; for that he himself also is compassed with infirmity: and by reason hereof he 3 ought, as for the people, so also for himself, to offer for sins. And 4 no man taketh this honor unto himself, but he that is called of God, as was Aaron. So also Christ glorified not himself to be made a high 5 priest; but he that said unto him, "Thou art my Son, to-day have I begotten thee." As he saith also in another place, "Thou art a priest 6 for ever, after the order of Melchisedec." Who in the days of his flesh, 7 when he had offered up prayers and supplications with strong crying and tears unto him that was able to save him from death, and was heard in that he feared; though he were a Son, yet learned he obedience by 8 the things which he suffered; and being made perfect, he became the 9 author of eternal salvation unto all them that obey him; called of God 10 an high priest after the order of Melchisedec....

[A Digression, con

the Hebrews for

their ignorance of the doctrines of religion;

Of whom we have many things to say, and hard to be 11 taining a reproof of uttered, seeing ye are dull of hearing. For when for 12 the time ye ought to be teachers, ye have need that one teach you again which be the first principles of the oracles of God; and are become such as have need of milk, and not of strong meat. For every one that useth milk, is un- 13 skilful in the word of righteousness: for he is a babe. But strong meat 14 belongeth to them that are of full age, even those who by reason of use have their senses exercised to discern both good and evil. Therefore 6 leaving the principles of the doctrine of Christ, let us go on unto per


fection; not laying again the foundation of repentance from dead works, and of faith toward God, of the doctrine of baptisms, and of laying 2 on of hands, and of resurrection of the dead, and of eternal judgment. And this will we do, if God permit. For it is impossible for those 3,4 who were once enlightened, and have tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost, and have tasted the good 5 word of God, and the powers of the world to come, if they shall fall 6 away, to renew them again unto repentance; seeing they crucify to themselves the Son of God afresh, and put him to an open shame. For 7 the earth, which drinketh in the rain that cometh oft upon it, and bringeth forth herbs meet for them, by whom it is dressed, receiveth blessing from God: but that which beareth thorns and briers is rejected, and is nigh unto cursing; whose end is to be burned. But, beloved, we are 9 persuaded better things of you, and things that accompany salvation, though we thus speak. For God is not unrighteous to forget your 10 work and labor of love, which ye have showed toward his name, in that and an exhortation ye have ministered to the saints, and do minister. And 11 we desire that every one of you do show the same diligence to the full assurance of hope unto the end: that 12 ye be not slothful, but followers of them who through faith and patience inherit the promises. For when God 13 made promise to Abraham, because he could swear by no greater, he sware by himself, saying, "Surely blessing I will bless thee, and mul- 14 tiplying I will multiply thee." And so, after he had patiently endured, 15 he obtained the promise. (For men verily swear by the greater: and 16 an oath for confirmation is to them an end of all strife.) Wherein God, 17 willing more abundantly to show unto the heirs of promise, the immutability of his counsel, confirmed it by an oath," that by two immutable 18 things, in which it was impossible for God to lie, we might have a strong consolation, who have fled for refuge to lay hold upon the hope set before us; which hope we have as an anchor of the soul, both sure and 19 stedfast, and which entereth into that within the vail, whither the fore- 20 runner is for us entered, even Jesus, made an high priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec.....

to constancy and implicit trust in the promises of God, after the example of Abraham.]

Melchisedec was a
perpetual priest,
(having neither

nor successor; and

far superior to

of all Levitical



FOR this Melchisedec, king of Salem, priest of the 7 most high God,--who met Abraham returning from the predecessor in office, slaughter of the kings, and blessed him, ' to whom also 2 not enrolled in the Abraham gave a tenth part of all; first being by interLevitical catalogues,) pretation King of righteousness, and after that also Abraham, the pro- King of Salem; (which is, King of peace ;) 'without genitor and superior father, without mother, without descent, having neither beginning of days, nor end of life: but made like unto the Son of God;--abideth a priest continually. Now consider how 4 great this man was, unto whom even the patriarch Abraham gave the tenth of the spoils. And verily they that are of the sons of Levi, who 5 receive the office of the priesthood, have a commandment to take tithes of the people according to the law, that is, of their brethren, though they come out of the loins of Abraham: but he whose descent is not 6 counted from them received tithes of Abraham, and blessed him that had the promises. (And without all contradiction the less is blessed of 7 the better. And here men that die receive tithes; but there he receiveth 8 them of whom it is witnessed that he liveth.) And as I may so say, 9 Levi also, who receiveth tithes, payed tithes in Abraham. For he was 10 yet in the loins of his father, when Melchisedec met him. If therefore 11 perfection were by the Levitical priesthood, (for under it the people received the law,) what further need was there that another priest should

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