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The procurement of one 16-inch pipeline dredge for the Government of the Philippines and three 12-inch and four 8-inch pipeline dredges with attendant plant, such as tugs and fuel barges, for Indochina, were initiated during the year; and qualified engineering specialists were detailed to Pakistan to study and make recommendations for harbor development and flood control. The Corps of Engineers received foreign government representatives and engineers from 20 friendly nations, and afforded them the opportunity to visit laboratories and construction projects to study construction methods, use of modern heavy equipment, and contractors' organizations. In addition, the Corps upon request made available engineering information to foreign engineers and Government representatives on a diversity of subjects in the field of flood control, harbor and power engineering.

8. WORK FOR OTHER AGENCIES Major dredging operations were carried out during the year for the United States Maritime Administration, with funds transferred from that agency, at the reserve fleet site at Astoria, Oreg. Construction of cathodic protection systems for vessels was performed at the United States Maritime Administration reserve fleet sites at Wilmington, N. C.; Suisun Bay, Calif.; Astoria, Oreg.; Olympia, Wash. There were also constructed for that agency facilities for furnishing commercial power to ships at the Hudson River reserve fleet site and a bulkhead at the reserve fleet site at Beaumont, Tex., as well as undertaking surveys and preparation of plans and specifications for rehabilitation of Maritime North Carolina Shipyard.

Major dredging operations were carried out for the Department of the Navy, with funds transferred from that agency, in Ribault Bay, Fla.; in St. Johns River, Fla.; at approach channel and turning basin at Naval Air Station, Alameda, Calif.; at Pearl Harbor, T. H.; in turning basin and slips at Norfolk naval shipyard, Portsmouth, Va.; and for shore protection at United States Naval Air Missile Text Center, Point Mugu, Port Hueneme, Calif.

Dredging was performed for the Civil Aeronautics Authority at Four-Mile Run, Va., with funds transferred from that agency. Planning was continued on the DeLuz Dam project, Santa Margarita River, Calif., with funds provided by the Department of the Navy. This project has been transferred to the Bureau of Reclamation in accordance with Public Law 547, 83d Congress 2d Session, approved 28 July 1954.

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Overhead costs. During the year, continuing efforts were exerted to decrease the percentage of overhead costs. The success of these efforts during the past 5 years and a picture showing the share of the construction dollar on river and harbor and floodcontrol work which has gone to the construction industry is indicated on the following chart.

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Consolidation of field offices. It is the established policy of the Corps of Engineers to modify the structure of its field organization as necessary to compensate for changes in workload. Pursuant to this policy, decision was made during the year to abolish the Upper Mississippi Valley Division office, merging its functions with those of the Great Lakes Division and Lower Mississippi Valley Division. It is estimated that this move will result in annual savings of not less than $100,000. The Duluth and Fort Peck Districts, already attached to the Milwaukee and Garrison Districts, respectively, have been reduced still further to the status of operating districts as the result of declining workloads in those districts. The above realinement in field organization will effect important economies in personnel and office costs without impairing service to the public in carrying out the authorized program of the Corps.

Reduction in personnel. Continued successful efforts were made to eliminate unnecessary positions and to accomplish the greatest amount of work with the least number of employees consistent with good business practice and proper employee relationships. Chart VIII shows the declining number of civilians employed on civil functions since 1949,

Other economy efforts. In view of the tremendous expense of clearing the pool areas of multiple-purpose projects, a committee was set up to study the economies of various practices in partial clearing. As a result, modifications were made in the previous policy of 100 percent clearing of pool areas and a decided reduction was achieved in the amount of clearing to be done. On projects underway 2 years ago, this change in policy has resulted in savings of approximately $40 million without an appreciable increase in operational costs or hazards.

2. CIVIL WORKS INVESTIGATIONS PROGRAM During the last 7 years the Corps of Engineers has conducted a program of investigations aimed at improving design and construction procedures for and decreasing the costs of civil-works projects. A large portion of this program has been administered and accomplished by the Waterways Experiment Station, the Corps' principal laboratory for the conduct of technical investigations, model testing, and development work in such fields as hydraulics, soil mechanics, and concrete. It is estimated that direct savings in construction costs which have resulted from the Civil Works Investigations Program amount to several million dollars annually. The most outstanding are described in the paragraphs which follow.

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Paints and protective coatings. Investigation of commercially available paints and protective coatings suitable for application to hydraulic structures, and of improved techniques for preparation of surfaces and application has increased the useful service life of coatings from about 2 years to as much as 8 years. Resulting savings are estimated to be $500,000 annually.

Spillway design investigations. Investigation by means of models of the proper shapes for spillway crests and piers has resulted in adoption of improved designs with increased discharge capacities. Smaller and fewer crest gates and shorter spillways can thus be utilized without sacrifice of discharge capacity, with consequent savings in cost of structures. At Garrison Dam the number of crest gates was reduced from 30 to 28 and the spillway shortened 100 feet as a result of the improvements in design. The resulting saving in cost of construction at this project alone is estimated at $1 million.

Slide gates for regulating discharge through conduits at high heads. Model and prototype investigations were conducted for the purpose of improving the design of slide gates to make them usable for regulating discharge under operating heads up to 200 feet. Prior to completion of these investigations for such regu lating, it has been necessary to use more costly regulating devices such as needle and Howell-Bunger valves. As a result of these investigations, it was possible to reduce the number of outlet conduits at Pine Flat Dam from the 15 originally considered to 10, with a saving of $500,000 in construction cost. Comparable savings will be made on other high-head dams built in the future,

Slope protection for earth dams. In 1946 a comparative survey of 100 selected earth dams was started to obtain data on the performance of various types of slope protection. A report of this survey was published in 1949 in bulletin form. As a result of the survey, improved criteria for selecting riprap on the basis of wind velocity, duration, and fetch were adopted. Savings in the construction cost of slope protection since then is estimated at more than $2 million. Bore hole camera.

A unique device for photographing the surface of small diameter bore holes drilled for the purpose of investigating subsurface conditions at dam sites has been developed. Work was started in 1944, and the first camera was completed and tested in 1950. An ingenious optical system involving a conical mirror for the camera eye produces the required 360° image of the bore-hole surface, which is photographed on 16-mm. moving-picture film. The flat image picture is projected by reverse optics on a cylindrical screen, and the observer is thus

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