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opening of the sixteenth century. Spain imme-commercial treaties were framed with foreign diately offered terms of peace, and France, weary | countries; and France, during these ten years, of civil war, sheathed the sword with joy. showed as conclusively as in a recent instance

Now that Henry had rest from war, he gave how speedily it can recover from the effects of himself to the not less glorious and more fruitful the most terrible disasters, when the passions of labours of peace. France, in all departments of its children permit the development of the boundher organization, was in a state of frightful dis- less resources which Nature has stored up in its order—was, in fact, on the verge of ruin. Castles soil and climate. burned to the ground, cities half in ruins, lands Henry's views in the field of foreign politics reverting into a desert, roads unused, marts and were equally comprehensive. He clearly saw that harbours forsaken, were the melancholy memo- the great menace to the peace of Europe and the rials which presented themselves to one's eye independence of its several nations was the Auswherever one journeyed. The national exchequer trian power in its two branches, the German and was empty; the inhabitants were becoming few, Spanish. Philip II. was dead; Spain was waning for those who should have enriched their country Nevertheless that ambitious power waited an opwith their labour or adorned it with their intel portunity to employ the one half of Christendom, ligence were watering its soil with their blood. of which she was still mistress, in crushing the Some two millions of lives had perished since other half. Henry's project, formed in concert with the breaking out of the civil wars. Summoning Elizabeth of England, for humbling that power, all his powers, Henry set himself to repair this was a vast one, and he had made such progress vast ruin. In this arduous labour he displayed in it that twenty European states had promised talents of a higher order, and a more valuable to take part in the campaign which Henry was to kind than any he had shown in war, and proved lead against Austria. The moment for launching himself not less great as a statesman than he that great force was come, and Henry's contingent was as a soldier. There was a debt of three had been sent off, and was already on German hundred millions of francs-equivalent, according soil. He was to follow his soldiers in a few days to the relative value of money, to about thirty- and open the campaign. But this deliverance for two millions sterling-pressing upon the kingdom. Christendom he was fated not to achieve. His The annual expenditure exceeded the revenue by queen, Marie de Medici, to whom he was recently upwards of one hundred millions of francs. The married, importuned him for a public coronation, taxes paid by the people amounted to two hun- and Henry resolved to gratify her. The ceremony, dred millions of francs, but owing to abuses of which was gone about with great splendour, collection, not more than thirty millions found was over, and he was now ready to set out, when their way into the treasury. Calling Sully to his a melancholy seized him, which he could neither aid, the king set himself to grapple with these account for nor shake off. This pensiveness as gigantic evils, and displayed in the cabinet no all the more remarkable that his disposition was less fertility of resource and comprehensiveness naturally gay and sprightly. In the words of of genius than in the field. He cleared off the Schiller, in his drama of “ Wallenstein":national debt in ten years. He found means of

“The king making the income not only balance the expen

Felt in his breast the phantom of the knife

Long ere Ravaillac armed himself therewith. diture, but of exceeding it by many millions. He

His quiet mind forsook him; the phantasma accomplished all this without adding to the bur

Startled him in his Louvre, chased him forth

Into the open air: like funeral knells dens of the people. He understood the springs

Sounded that coronation festival;

And still with boding sense he heard the tread of the nation's prosperity, and taught them to

Of those feet that even then were seeking him flow again. He encouraged agriculture, promoted

Throughout the streets of Paris." industry and commerce, constructed roads, bridges, When the coming campaign was referred to, he and canals. The lands were tilled, herds were told his queen and the nobles of his court that Gerreared, the silk-worm was introduced, the ports many he would never see-that he would die soon, were opened for the free export of corn and wine, and in a carriage. They tried to laugh away these


gloomy fancies, as they accounted them. “Go to

“ Go to is God, and God is the Pope. Years before, Germany instantly," said his minister Sully," and Rome had launched her excommunication against go on horseback.” The 19th of May 1610 was fixed the “two Henries,” and now both had fallen by for the departure of the king. On the 16th May, her dagger. Henry was so distressed as to move the compas- On the character of Henry IV. we cannot dwell. sion of the attendants. After dinner he retired It was a combination of great qualities and great to his cabinet, but could not write ; he threw faults. He was a brave soldier and an able ruler; himself on his bed, but could not sleep. He was but we must not confound military brilliance or overheard in prayer. He asked, “What o'clock political genius with moral greatness. Entire deis it ?" and was answered, “ Four of the after- votion to a great cause—the corner-stone of great

Would not your Majesty be the better of ness—he lacked. France-in other words, the a little of the fresh air ? " The king took the glory and dominion of himself and house—was the hint and ordered his carriage. He went out, ac- supreme aim and end of all his toils, talents, and companied by two of his nobles. He was talking manoeuvrings. The great error of his life was his with one of them, the Duke d'Epernon, his left abjuration. The Catholics it did not conciliate, hand resting upon the shoulder of the other, and and the Protestants it alienated. It was the thus leaving his side exposed. The carriage was Edict of Nantes that made him strong, and gave in the narrow Rue de la Ferroniere, when, stopped to France almost the only ten years of real prosby the accidental meeting of two carts, it drew perity and glory which it has seen since the reign up close to the curbstone. A monk, François of Francis I. Had Henry nobly resolved to asRavaillac, who had followed the royal cortège un- cend the throne with a good conscience, or not observed, stole up, and mounting on the wheel, at all-had he not paltered with the Jesuitsand leaning over the carriage, struck his knife had he said, I will give toleration to all, but will into the side of Henry. "I am wounded," faintly myself abide in the faith my mother taught meuttered the king. The monk struck again, and his own heart would have been stronger, his life this time reached the heart. The king fell for- purer, his course less vacillating and halting; the ward in the carriage and expired. The monk Huguenots, the flower of French valour and inmade no attempt to escape. He stood with his telligence, would have rallied round him and bloody knife in his hand till he was apprehended; borne him to the throne, and kept him on it, in and when brought before his judges and sub- spite of all his enemies. On what different founjected to the torture, he justified the deed, saying dations would his throne in that case have rested, that the king was too favourable to heretics, and and what a different glory would have encircled that he had purposed making war on the Pope, his memory! He set up a throne by abjuration, which was to make war on God, seeing the Pope to be cast down on the scaffold of 1793 !

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MONG the various powers and ele

ments of Nature, water seems to have specially volunteered as maid

of-all-work to man. All but infinite in number and variety are its uses in the minuter

processes of human art. We fail to realize the extent of our obligation to this unwearied worker. Because she is present everywhere, we do not notice her anywhere. It will richly repay our care to stand near and watch her at work in any

department where her services may be required. with the lime. She takes him into her embrace, It will do your heart good to mark how cleverly as who should say, Let us now unite for better or and completely she accomplishes, in the service for worse. He, poor simpleton, imagines they of her chosen master, whatever she undertakes, shall never part; he believes his bliss will last or he requires at her hand.

for ever. Instead of the dry, hard, burning, miserHere is a group of masons employed in throw- able life he led alone before, he is fresh and cool ing an arch over the gateway. The stones are and luscious. He is a new man. She has been ready-cut into shape, and lying at hand. The the making of him.

the making of him. In the midst of his newwooden frame is erected as a temporary support. born happiness, she proposes that they should go Lay the stones, now gently, each in its place, and together into the thin opening between the stones close them with the keystone. But here a grand of the arch. Anywhere with you, love! instantly difficulty meets us. The stones are cut either too answers the too happy swain-with you that exactly into shape, or not exactly enough. They

They narrow cave is paradise. In they go. But as are not so exactly fitted as to stand and keep soon as she has brought him in, she prepares to their places, stone upon stone, bard and dry; and make her own escape, and leave him in durance. yet, on the other hand, they are so nearly fitted She flies into the air, and he is left as hard and --and for permanence must be so nearly fitted— dry as he was when water met him—left precisely that no hand, no tool can be introduced between because when alone he is hard and dry, to lie them for the purpose of adjusting their bed, and there for ever, or at least till some catastrophe packing in the interstices. You cannot reach the overturn the structure, spot to give the joint its final fastening. Here is It was after this manner that the genii in lime, the very thing that is fitted to fasten them, Eastern tales led fair princesses into prison; and if we could bring it to the spot ; but the stones then, turning themselves into smoke, escaped by lie so close, that no instrument can penetrate to the keyhole. The two processes resemble each lay the mortar in its place.

other, with this difference, that the one is a play Bring water ; pour it into the lime until it of the human fancy, and the other, though become of the consistency as well as the colour stranger of the two, is a solid fact accomplished of milk. Pour this liquid now over the seam, daily before our eyes by the forces of Nature. and it will percolate into the smallest crevice, As shown in this example, the value of water until it has occupied absolutely all the space. as an agent in human art lies not all in its capaBut this is not enougb ; at this stage you are no city of going into a narrow place with its burden, nearer your object than at first. The lime, mixed but partly, and even mainly, in the adroitness with water, will indeed go into the place; but with which it comes out again leaving the burden lime mixed with water will do no good there. behind. The water that is employed in any proThis soft cream between stone and stone would cess is not needed permanently in the product be worse than nothing; instead of the binding to Its presence indeed would be a blemish. It is hold them together, it would become the lubrica- accordingly dismissed as quickly as possible

. tion which would enable them to slip. The joints The dyers who dip their web in a running stream would gradually open, and the whole structure at the commencement of the process, hang it in fall. After the water has carried the lime into a kiln to dry at the close. They call the water the crevice, her next care is to come out again in to help with the operation ; but as soon herself, leaving the lime behind. This, accordingly, as the operation is completed, they dismiss it she does ; but she is not able to do this unaided. Nor is it, when so dismissed, cast away ss She is obliged to summon back her old ally, waste. It is all quickly purified and gathered Heat. By help of heat, the water takes to her again, and made ready for another task, as the self wings and flies away. There is an aspect of help-mate of man. The story of a drop of water, cunning and cruelty, not pleasant to contemplate, if it could be truly written, would turn out a about our clever handmaid's conduct in this sensational biography. That same portion, for transaction. She goes into loving partnership example, that betrayed the lime into a useful

position, was that same night on wing again, no further reply ; but stands silent, expectant. ready for another call. Falling on the mountain- For a few moments no effect is visible, and you top and sinking through a seam of the rock, it begin to think bis water has been spilt in vain may have risen through a well's eye near the city, upon the ground. The stones are stones still, and been carried in a golden cup to a lady's after his empiric baptism. But, as you prepare lip, the next articulate service it may have per- to mock the credulity of the labourer, you performed after doing the needful to the mason's ceive a slender white mist ascending straight and mortar.

pure like a pillar of incense from the summit of Nor is she dainty in her tastes, this creature the heap. You next hear a slight hum among of God—this servant of man. She will operate the stones, as if bees were hiving in the interin clean places or in unclean with equal willing- stices. The hum increases, and breaks into a ness. Like holy angels sent to haunts of sin, quick crackling, like platoon firing from a regiment water will swoop down to grasp any kind or of volunteers under review. Meantime the column degree of impurity that defiles the earth; and of incense grows broader and denser, and streams when her task is done, she shakes herself, and more swiftly upward. At its base, hidden under ascends to heaven again as pure as she came. the cloud, the stones may be heard as they sink The identical portions of water that are told off and melt away into dust. The baptism by water to do duty in the grand new sewers of London, has prevailed, and the great shaggy mass is comburst away from their impure burden when they pletely subdued. To the simple sprinkling of have deposited it in a safe place, and rise to the water they yield wholly ; but to nothing else will upper strata of the air, where they lie like white they yield at all. ships in the offing, waiting for another order, and A baptism by fire, it is true, had preceded the another errand of mercy to a needy earth. baptism by water; otherwise no effect would have

That same lime that keyed the arch did not then been produced. This leads us up one step further and there for the first time become acquainted into the mysteries of nature, -mysteries that lay with water. At an earlier stage of its own career, themselves willingly open, as far as is necessary it felt and owned the sway of the softer element. for the use of man, and then draw the curtain If it had not come in contact with water at an round to keep prying eyes at a distance. earlier epoch of its own development, it could On the other side, in the moral hemisphere of pot have been made useful in the later stages of our world, a parallel phenomenon has been someindustrial art.

times observed. The hardest and roughest of the Here is a heap of rugged, hard, heavy stones of race, lewd fellows of the baser sort, like those : whitish-blue colour that have been brought in whom the first missionaries met in the purlieus arts and thrown down on the ground where a of Thessalonica, abandoned professionals in the house is in process of erection. A man in the darkest vice,—have bent when the story of the employment of the contractor approaches and Cross has been poured upon their heads, and sprinkles a quantity of water over the jagged, un- crumbled and melted into a soft, deep repentance gainly heap. You, an ignorant spectator, demand while the incense of new-born trustfulness rose he meaning of his uncouth act. He replies that

He replies that from broken hearts to heaven. By turning here he has poured water on the stones in order to but a very little to the side from the plain prosaic reduce them to a small, soft, white powder, which path of our observations, we find ourselves sudhis employer requires as a constituent of his denly thrown into a great deep. These are waters fabric. You smile— perhaps you sneer. Soft in which the foot can find no bottom-yet waters water poured over these stones, and that to con- in which we would gladly swim. We return to vert them into a white, dry, impalpable powder! the beaten highway. Stones not so hard as these have resisted yonder Water in alliance with heat does yeoman sercataract since the world was made, and they are vice in the kitchen of the human family. She not softened yet ; will the rock melt when you takes a large share of the labour involved in the baptize it from your pail? The workman deigns preparation of our food. But observe at this point how all the elements of nature and all the that we could not have procured them for love or orbs of space are nicely balanced for the best, and for money in a world that wore a thinner atmoshow living creatures would suffer on every side phere than ours. if the cosmical relations were materially changed. Water at the Hospice of St. Bernard will boil The use of water in cooking, for example, depends at a temperature several degrees lower than that on the depth of the atmosphere over our heads. of boiling-water on the sea-shore. We sbal If the girdle of air that encircles the globe had measure the altitude of that spot; and when we been a little thinner, and so a little lighter than climb another mountain of height unknown, we it is, there would have been no boiling in this shall kindle a fire, boil some water, and by the world for hungry men. You say, How not ? | temperature of the boiling point we shall deterPut plenty of fire beneath the kettle, and the mine how far the spot is elevated above the level water must boil, whatever the depth of the at- of the sea. Thus the fruits of science grow in mosphere may be. Yes; it will boil, all too

Yes; it will boil, all too clusters; and he who finds one rich, ripe sphere easily and too soon; and when it has boiled for will probably find others in the neighbourhood half a day, your beef will be as raw when you ready to drop into his palm at a touch. take it out as it was when you put it in.

Besides its serviceableness, in the simplest form Pascal was surprised when the monks of St. as a running stream to drive a mill-wheel, and 23 Bernard told him they could not boil their venison, steam, more ubiquitous and more swift, to relieve and were obliged to roast it always. The monks mankind of all their hardest tasks, water has been supplied the philosopher with the fact; and the pressed into the service in modern times, in the philosopher thereafter gave the reason of the fact form of the Bramah press, with even more marto the world. The monks had built their kitchen vellous results. If hot water produces the most so high in the strata of the atmosphere that there rapid motion, cold water puts forth the most was not a sufficient weight of air resting on the gigantic power. For raising the greatest weights water in their pot to keep it down till it was hot slowly, water is the force employed—water cold enough. It boiled too soon and too furiously; and quiescent. With proper appliances and a it boiled readily, but it never became hot; and supply of cold water, one man, by driving a pump so the venison came out raw. Just think of it, handle, may raise a ship with her cargo sheer of what a world to live in, if no soup had been the water, and poise it in the air. Thus water in possible, and no tea. Let us remember as we man's service can become a giant for strength as sip these beverages, each delicious after its kind, well as a fairy for lightness.




N 1769, the year before Frederic William On the other hand, who could have foretold that after

was born at Berlin, Napoleon Buonaparte Napoleon had, by his genius and rare tact in turning first saw the light in Corsica. Who would the events of the times to his own advantage, rais

then have thought that by a native of this himself step by step to the imperial throne of France, insignificant island great peril was to arise to the Prus- Prussia was to play among Continental powers tie di sian state and to the powerful house of Hohenzollern- part in casting down the usurper, and giving the deatsso great as to bring both to the very brink of destruction ? | blow to his arrogant and unbounded pretensions ? Frederic the Great was still in life, and no one dreamed The Almighty often accomplishes his high designs that what he had defended against most of the powers towards mankind by nigsterious means. Happy they of Europe combined, would be lost in a single battle. who, submitting themselves with lowly and belieria; Yet all this came to pass on the day of the disastrous minds to the frequently dark and incomprehensille engagements of Jena and Auerstädt.

leadings and decrees by which God sees fit to govern

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