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considered that a formal recognition of the im- less extravagant and unreasonable light than a superperial suzerainty was quite compatible with the right ficial acquaintance with its details would at first sight of local self-goveroment, and he accordingly approved of suggest. In the first place, much allowance should be the immediate administration of civil affairs being en- made for the eminently favourable character of the trusted to the senate and people of Rome. In his times. The revival of republican ideas all over Italy enthusiasm for the ancient forms of government, he even was the characteristic feature of the age, and no appeal went further than this. His political dream fell little thrilled the breast of a Roman with such fervent enshort of a complete re-establishment of all the dignities thusiasm as that which reminded him of the heritage and functions of the old republic; and with this in view of political traditions beqneathed to him by an illushe proposed the reconstruction of the equestrian order, trious ancestry. When, moreover, we consider that the election of consuls, and the appointment of tribunes. Pope and Emperor, his real and nominal rulers, were At his instigation the ancient Capitol was rebuilt and alike absent, and therefore equally unable to assert fortified, and at the same time some of the more im- their supremacy, we cease to wonder that a man, preportant palaces and churches were made available for eminently endowed with every needful quality for the defence against a papal reaction. History is silent work-eloquence, energy, bigh moral purpose, practical as to the extent to which his projects of reform were aims, and profound sympathy with the wants and actually carried out ; a few old coins of the period, wishes of his time-should show himself equal to bearing republican inscriptions, alone remain to at- the occasion, and throw himself heart and soul into a test the existence of that curious political movement movement which promised the means of carrying out over which the moral authority of Arnold maintained his darling scheme of Church reform. Nor should it be itself for nearly ten years.

forgotten that to be absolute master of the destinies of At the very outset of his career in Rome, he received Rome at an epoch when she was shorn of all her former a check which bade fair to nip all his fine schemes in grandeur, and reduced to the contracted dimensions of the bud. Eugene III., as soon as he found himself in more primitive times, did not by any means carry with firm possession of the papal dignity, determined on it such important consequences as a similar title would bringing his refractory Romans to reason. Having formerly have done. No conquest of the neighbouring launched a decree of excommunication against the states being attempted by the revived republic, the Patrician, he collected a military force, with which he possession of Rome by any other master than the was able, from the neighbourhood of Viterbo, to overawe spiritual ruler of Christendom simply implied the the city. Unable to cope with their spiritual father in sovereignty of a single great city along with a small the field, the haughty citizens were obliged to submit to portion of surrounding territory; and it should always the conditions he proposed. The Patrician was dis- be borne in mind that this was the furthest limit to missed to make way for the Prefect, the senate, though which Arnold's influence extended. Still, after making in a sadly eclipsed condition, being allowed to remain. every allowance for the favourable combination of cirThe republic was thus practically abolished. The cumstances which rendered his tenure of authority posPope, attended by a brilliant train of nobles and clergy, sible, there is much remaining in his whole career and entered the city, and celebrated his triumph amid cir- position which cannot otherwise be explained than on cumstances of considerable pomp and splendour. But the ground of his high personal merits and qualificathis sudden collapse of the republic proved only tein- tions. Had no untoward event occurred to mar the porary. The truce concluded by the Pontiff with the prosperity of the republic, it is hard to say how long he Romans was too hollow to endure. The citizens of might have continued in power, or with what results to Rome were excessively jealous of the neighbouring cities, Christianity his experiment in Church politics might and particularly of Tivoli, by the help of whose arms have been attended. But the disintegrating elements the Pope had conquered them. Eugene, seeing no which were already at work in the minds of the Romans prospect of internal peace so long as he adhered to his against the government of their choice, conspired, with allies, and determined on his side not to forsake those contemporaneous events in the political world, to cut who had befriended him in his hour of need, had no short his term of power. The native fickleness and alternative but to withdraw, and leave the city once selfishness of the people had begun to appear, in the more to the control of the republicans. There being shape of discontent at the losses to which their material nothing in his absence to hinder the resumption of interests were subjected by the absence of the pontifical the democratic programme, the hastily suppressed court. The clergy also favoured a reaction against an reforms were once more introduced, and continued in administration which repressed abuses with such unfull vigour till about the close of Arnold's life.

sparing severity, and they were not slow to seize every In estimating the causes of this elevation to power of opportunity off anning the flame. Accordingly, when, a humble monk, who but recently had been chased from towards the close of the year 1153, the chair of St. conntry to country by his enemies, it is necessary to Peter was at length filled by a man of energy and take into account various circumstances, the due con- resolution, at once able and eager to turn to the sideration of which will present his enterprise in a much account of the Church the changing under-currents of As a

popular opinion, the position of Arnold began to grow he fearlessly remained at his post, and continned to dangerous.

preach as before, ignoring the ban as innocuous, and The closing scenes of Arnold's life possess a more pronouncing the excommunication illegal and invalid. than ordinary attraction for the English reader, in con- In this posture of affairs a trivial incident occurred to sequence of their connection with the name of Nicholas turn the scale and precipitate events. It happened Breakspear, the only Englishman who has ever worn that Cardinal Santa Pudenzianza, one of the Pope's the Papal tiara. His personal disposition and ante- most devoted adherents, was attacked in the streets, cedents held out little hope of his submitting as quietly and in the skirmish that ensued between his retinue as his predecessor to the anomalous state of affairs in and the rabble received a wound which proved fatal. Rome. Beginning life as a poor boy, dependent for his Nothing could have occurred more opportunely for bread upon the charity of the monks of St. Albans, it carrying out Adrian's designs. Seizing with prompt was no effeminate or gently-nurtured character which and daring alacrity the advantage so unexpectedly prehe brought to the task of setting the affairs of the Holy sented, he made this petty street brawl the pretext for See in order. Driven, as the story runs, from the door laying the city under interdict. The unprecedented of the monastery by his own father, he had turned his character of this extreme proceeding united with the back upon England while yet a youth, crossed the season of its occurrence to invest the solemnity with Channel, and travelled over France, till he reached terrors well calculated to work upon the minds of an Arles, where he took service with a body of canons ignorant and superstitious people. Never before in regular. The handsome lad soon proved deft and quick Rome had the crowds, which thronged to listen to the at his duties, and spared no pains to ingratiate himself | Lent sermons of their favourite preachers, found the with his masters. In course of time he became so po- church doors closed. Mass was no longer said in pular that he was chosen one of their number. church or chapel; the familiar tinkle of the bell, ancanon of the order of St. Rufus, he made such good use nouncing the passage of the host on its way to the of his opportunities for the acquisition of knowledge couch of the dying, was hushed; the new-born infant and the extension of his influence, that when the and the venerated dead were alike denied those solemn abbot's place fell vacant, he got himself elected to the rites which religion and humanity accord ; and, as Holy office. His appointment seems to have procured him a Week was rapidly approaching, the people became fair share of the envious detraction which not uncom- uneasy and even clamorous. Stimulated by the clergy, monly accompanies success in life ; and in order to they at last yielded to the Pope's demands; and, like meet the slanders of his enemies, he found it necessary some unruly child brought by terror to its knees, to visit the court of Rome. On that occasion his gifts humbly consented to the abrogation of the republic. of speech, powers of mind, and graces of person so fasci- From that moment Arnold's career was at an end. nated Pope Eugene, that Nicholas received orders to With the fall of the republic perished all his hopes, remain at court for special service in the interests of and the fruit of his long and laborious exertions was the Church. He soon received the see of Albano in blasted. He was driven with a few followers from the compensation for the loss of his abbey; and having city, and compelled to seek refuge in the neighbourbeen sent on a mission to Norway, to regulate and hood. Tracked to his hiding-place by the emissaries of establish on a permanent basis the affairs of the infant the Cardinal St. Nicholas, he was arrested at Otricoli, Church of that country, he distinguished himself by and would have been conveyed to Rome as a prisoner, the consummate skill and tact with which be discharged but for the timely arrival of certain Counts of Camhis functions. Shortly after returning froin Norway, pania, who, on hearing of his danger, hurried to the his services received, in his appointment to the pontifi- spot and effected his rescue. By them he was carried cal dignity, the highest recognition which the Church off and concealed in one of their strongholds, where he could bestow. But the stern experiences of life had passed in tranquillity and honour the closing weeks of exercised no softening influence upon his character ; his life. prosperity had only served to develop its harsher and Meanwhile the great Barbarossa, lately elected Emmore arrogant features.

peror by the unanimous consent of the German nation, Under his official designation of Adrian IV., he lost had crossed the Alps on his march into Italy, to receive no time in inaugurating the new and more vigorous from the hand of the Pope the crown of the empire. policy which he considered it necessary for the Roman His rapid and vigorous advance filled even the haughty curia to pursue, in order to regain its lost supremacy. Adrian with trepidation, and determined him upon Elected Pope in December 1154, he replied in the follow- sending an embassy to meet the German potentate on ing spring to the demand of the republic for a formal his route southward. Three cardinals were dispatched acknowledgment of its authority, by pronouncing upon from Viterbo, who, whilst empowered to offer Frederick Arnold the double sentence of excommunication and the imperial diadem, were charged to make certain outlawry. For a time the papal thunders played harm- stipulations in favour of his Holiness and the Church. lessly about the head of the intrepid monk. Protected One of the demands of the Pope was the surrender of by the senate and nobles, who still stood true to him, | Arnold's person. The emperor, willing to gratify Adrian in an affair so insignificant as the delivery of position lead us to the conclusion that he was nothing an individual who had proved a dangerous enemy to more than a restless political agitator. It should be all constituted authority, both temporal and spiritual, remembered on his behalf, that if in the prosecuinstantly issued orders for the seizure and imprisonment tion of his designs he resorted to the doubtful exof a inember of the noble family to which Arnold owed pedients of party politics, he adopted this course merely protection, and kept him in durance till the fugitive's as the means of attaining a noble end. The establishplace of retreat was disclosed. In this way the poor ment of a republic was the only medium by which he monk was discovered, and dragged off without loss of a conceived it possible to effect a permanent separation of moment by the prefect's officers to Rome, where he the temporal and spiritual prerogatives of the Roman Fas lodged in the castle of St. Angelo. A council of pontiffs, and this separation was regarded in turn as the cardinals having been convened there and then to dis- most powerful instrument for the restoration of primitive pose of his case, sentence of death was passed upon purity of discipline to the ranks of the clergy. The lead him, and amid circumstances of the most indecent he took in the arena of politics was therefore entirely haste he was led out to execution. He met his fate subservient to the accomplishment of a higher ecclesiabout midsummer of the year 1155. To make doubly astical purpose. sure of their victim, the clergy caused him to be hanged, In our desire to give his attempt full justice, we must impaled, and burnt; and at the same time, to prevent not on the other hand overlook the fact that the great the people from revering his remains as a martyr's, they aini which he set before himself as the goal of all his gave the finishing touch to their work by throwing his efforts was, from its very nature, partial and inadequate. ashes into the Tiber. The closing tragedy of his life, A movement which aimed at nothing deeper than a sudden and barbarous though it was, does not seem to reform of the clergy contained within itself germs of have taken him by surprise. With prophetic instinct weakness, which could not fail to manifest themselves he had long foreseen that the relentless animosity of the with disastrous effect when the hour of trial came. priesthood would not spare bim, if he should ever fall into Arnold never went the length of questioning any of the their hands; and on one occasion, when preaching be- received beliefs of the Church; so far as we can ascerfore the assembled members of the sacred college, he was tain, he seems to have confined his attention almost frank enough to give expression to his foreboding in exclusively to questions of Church discipline and adtheir hearing. “I know,” said he, “ that you will in a ministration. We are not therefore surprised to find short time secretly kill me..... I call heaven and earth that his preaching, eagerly as it was greeted by both to witness that I have declared to you those things which Lombards and Romans, was never attended with purely the Lord directs me, but you despise both your Creator religious results. Deeply as it influenced the people in and me. Nor is it wonderful that you should deliver up politics, it never appears, to any great extent at least, to death a sinful man like me, who tells you the truth, to have possessed sufficient vitality to penetrate and since even if St. Peter were to rise from the dead and stir their inner life ; and the readiness with which they censure your manifold vices, you would spare him least finally parted with him both at Rome and Brescia, of all.” Of one thing there can be no doubt, that Ar- can be explained, we fear, on no other supposition than nold's blood lies at the door of the Catholic Church, and that his previous popularity had been due as much to of Nicholas Breakspear as its responsible head. Even political as to religious influences. A reform, which in that dark and bigoted time there were to be found was clerical rather than lay, canonical rather than docecclesiastics possessed of sufficient candour and humanity trinal, outward rather than inward, was intrinsically to disown the part the Church had taken in this cruel one-sided in character, and doomed in consequence to transaction. In particular, the words of Gerard of Reich- decay. In a word, with much that was good on the ersperg, a German canon, should not be forgotten in destructive side, his teaching contained too little of the this connection : "I could have wished that he had been constructive element to insure it permanent success ; punished for such teaching as his, wicked though it was, or, as Dorner comprehensively puts it, “Opposition either with exile or imprisonment, or some other penalty sects had never been wanting in the middle ages, but short of death; or at least, put to death in such a way the church-forming and nation-reforming power was that the Roman Church or its curia might be free from wanting, because the evangelical principle had neither all question regarding it."

appeared in its purity and constructive power, nor been We should carry away a very imperfect conception of able to set the nation in motion."

T. T. G. Arnold's character, did the prominence of his public


To give (In Elberfeld-Barmen, the seat of vigorous missionary institutions, an evangelical magazine is published, called The Sower.

our readers some idea of the precious seeds which our cotemporary is scattering over the Fatherland, we submit translations of several brief papers, all from the last number. )

1.-THE SOLDIER SOFTENED BY A MOTHER'S PRAYERS. In the year 1796, when the armies of Replio poor mother thus praying in anguish over her child,


he stood as if thunderstruck, on beholding the France beset the Rhineland many, and terror reigned throughout the while she seemed utterly regardless of her own safety.

land, the quiet of the peaceful little town He caught the words which she was uttering—" Lord of Lisberg was disturbed one September morning by the Jesus, hear a mother's cry! Take my child to thyself ii entrance of nine French cavalry soldiers. They demanded thou so willest; but let it not fall into the hands of those quarters for five hundred men. The inhabitants pro- who, if they spared its life, would lead it on in the way tested that they were not in a position to provide for so of sin and death!” J:urge a number, but offered the soldiers food and drink, Was it this prayer, or was it the remembrance of the and provender for their horses. They hoped thus to prayers of his own mother, uttered on his behalf while escape the danger of having so many enemies in their he was yet a child, that now overcame and softened town; but their refusal of the requisition had terrible him ? May we not hope that the Spirit of God then results. The soldiers rode off in a rage, and soon the touched his heart, as he heard the voice of prayer, perwhole regiment appeared, and stormed the defenceless haps for the first time for many years ? After the town. All the inhabitants that were unable to make a woman had ceased praying, he stepped forward to the rapid flight were either killed or wounded, and fifty- cradle, and knelt there too; and while he laid his hand eight houses were burned down.

gently on the child's head, his lips moved, and tears fell But in the midst of these fearful deeds, it is plea- from his eyes upon the little one. Then he gave the sant to hear that one soul was softened, and that the woman his hand, and quietly left the house. The poor voice of prayer touched the heart of even a rough soldier. mother remained on her knees a few moments longer, A young man lived with his wife and infant in a

thanking God for her deliverance from the dreaded danhouse a little apart from the town, and almost hidden ger. When she rose and looked out of the window, by trees. He thought it his duty to stand by his fellow- what was her astonishment when she saw that the solcitizens in their hour of danger; and as soon as he saw dier had posted himself under the trees, as if on guard, the soldiers marching on the town, he left his house, watching there to defend her against every attack. after desiring his wife to take their child and fly to a And there he remained until all his fellow-soldiers jart of the forest which he' indicated, and conceal her- had passed by from the devastated town, laden with self there. He hoped to find her there by-and-by, when their booty. Then he turned, and making a gesture of his strength was no longer needed by his fellow-citizens, farewell with his hand towards the house, he departed, when they had either agreed with or beaten back the leaving his post, we may hope, with happier and more foe. But the poor wife had not quite understood what satisfied feelings than his comrades could have, in spite her husband said ; for, besides her anxiety about him, of all their booty. her child was sickly, and her mind being occupied about The father of the child was one of those who had sticit, she forgot herself and remained in the house. ceeded in escaping to the forest, and when he did not

She soon heard shots and cries, and saw smoke and find his wife and child at the appointed place, he never Hames rising up from the burning houses and barns, doubted they had been killed. One can imagine how and her anxiety and alarm increased every monient. great his joy was when lie found them both safe at But she was one who knew the support and comfort home. They never heard anything inore of the soldier ; that prayer gives in every time of need; so, after fasten- but the woman always pictured him to herself as one ing the door and windows, she sat down beside the converted to God, and living quietly somewhere in his cradle in which her infant lay, and lifted up her heart own little house, with a wife and child of his own. And to God in prayer. She pleaded his own promise, “Call if her husband smiled in unbelief over her happy picmpon me in the day of trouble; I will deliver thee, and ture, she would say, “But why not? I prayed that it thou shalt glorify me.”

might be so; and do I not know for a certainty that Soon some one knocked loudly at the door. Then she God hears our prayers ?" threw herself on her knees, and spread her arms ont over the cradle, as if she would thus shield her child. II.-REMARKABLE ANSWER TO THE PRAYERS The door was but a feeble obstacle, and soon gave way

OF A FATHER AND MOTHER. before the strength of the French soldier who was de- A GODLY couple had long borne their son on their hearts manding admittance. But, instead of coming into the before God in prayer ; but it seemed as though all their



prayers and cries were in vain. The son, who, even as But then, how could she get at so distinguished a man ? a boy, was very self-willed, grew up to be a worldly, “ Lausanne is not far off,” said her pastor ; “just go godless young man, who prepared endless care and sorrow and seek the Professor yourself.” But she had not for his parents; and at length, feeling his father's house courage for that, and her minister did not persuade her too strait for him, hired himself as sailor on board a to it, knowing how oppressed Vinet was with business, ship.

and visits, and every kind of claim on his attention. There he was one day engaged on the rigging, when But at last, after a long struggle, the poor woman he lost his balance and fell overboard. A boat was sent one Sunday morning took heart, and set off to Lauto his rescue as soon as possible ; but as the ship was

She found herself at Professor Vinet's house speeding on at a rapid rate, it was a considerable time between ten and eleven in the morning, and pulled the before her course could be checked, and they could bell with a beating heart. She was not admitted to reach him; and when the young man was at last brought him just at once ; for as Vinet was so overborne with on board, he was apparently lifeless. 'The ship's doctor work, they tried to spare him every unnecessary disimmediately used every possible means for his recovery; turbance ; but at last she was admitted to his presence. but it seemed as if all were fruitless, and they had | No one was witness of their interview; but the issue of already given up all hopes of being able to save him, it was that Vinet kept the woman to dinner, and when at last he gave some signs of life. Then the efforts devoted the entire day to her, till she had to depart in for his revival were renewed, and after some time the order to reach home that night. yonng man opened his eyes, and uttered the joyful cry, “Now," asked her pastor, on the evening of her " Jesus Christ has saved me !" Then he relapsed into return, “have you really seen and spoken with the silence, and it was a good while before he could relate Professor ?” what had passed in his mind while he was struggling with Yes, truly; and never before have I found any man death in the midst of the waves.

who so humbled me." “ As I fell from the ship,” he said, “and felt that I “Humbled ? How so? It is not Vinet's usual was in danger of death, it was as if at once all the sins way to humble any one." of my whole life rose up before me. I saw how awfully “Yes, humbled ; indeed, deeply humiliated me. By great my guilt had been, and was afraid, not so much contact with his own humility and goodness, my highof death, as of the damnation to which I felt I was mindedness was broken down, and I was humbled to going. In the midst of my agony, a word came back to the dust. Often when I have spoken with you, or with me that my father had often uttered in my hearing : others from whom I songht teaching and comfort, ny “This is a faithful saying, and worthy of all acceptation, pride rose up in arms ; for what you said to me was that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners; indeed true and good, but you said it with the air of a of whom I am chief.' To him, therefore, I turned in teacher, who speaks to me as from a higher level than my time of deep need ; and I know that I have obtained mine. He placed himself beside me, on my level, and mercy."

spoke as if he were just like myself. I have been with He continned firm in this conviction, and his subse- him the whole day, and have not heard a word—no, not quent life showed that his faith was no transient flame. one single word—that was as if he held himself for As soon as possible he went back to his parents, who better than I am. All that I have felt, he too had felt; received their returning prodigal with the heartiest joy, and it was as if he were my brother. And such a man and gave him every help they could, so that he might too !" become a preacher of the gospel.

Some days after, Vinet sent the woman a newly published volume of his writings, one of the last of his

works. III.-A VISIT TO VINET. A POOR woman in Switzerland, of but little education, who had to struggle with many spiritual doubts and

IV.-THE TAP-ROOT. perplexities, was made very uneasy and unhappy by A MINISTER of the gospel relates the following inthese conflicts. She had repeatedly made known her cident :difficulties to her minister; but he did not rightly On a beautiful evening early in March I was returnunderstand her, and could give her no comfort. In hering from visiting a distressed family. The setting sun unhappy state of mind she not only read her Bible with its crimson rays spread a peculiar glory over the much, but many good books, even such as are not very western heavens. Whilst I feasted my eyes on its easy to understand, and understood them very well. splendour, I came to where one of my flock, an intelliIn that way most of Vinet's writings were well known gent farmer, was sitting on a block of wood. He was to her, and she loved them well ; and a longing de evidently resting a little from some stiff piece of work. sire grew up in her heart to see and speak, if even “What are you about ?" I inquired in a friendly for a very short time, with this man, who she believed would be able to understand her difficulties. “I am anxious," he replied, “to transplant this


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