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behind sunken eyes, sallow cheeks, and pithless | there was a great and glittering profusion; and limbs. Smokers, especially young smokers, a the mistress of the house was beyond all precedent word in your ear. That saliva which you draw liberal in the distribution of her tea. “ Hand in abnormally from the pores of your cheeks, and your cups, gentlemen,” she said, with a benignant squirt upon the ground sometimes, when the smile, as she filled the tea-pot once more from wind is contrary, on me—that saliva is a solution the boiling kettle,“ hand in your cups again; wisely and kindly provided by your Maker to aid there is plenty here.” “I did not thank her," the stomach in its appointed task of converting said Adam aside, with one eye sarcastically closed, food into blood and flesh and bones. That pre- “I did not thank her for her tea, for by that time cious liquid is needed within your own body, and I could have seen to spear a salmon seven fathom it is not needed on our floors and railway car- deep in it.” Thus it may be conceded that, after riages : our floors and railway carriages would be all the saliva that a smoker spills on the ground, decidedly pleasanter wanting it. It hurts you to there is still some left to go into his stomach, want it, and it is not agreeable to us to get it. but the oft-watered remnant is thin and pithHe was a great man—they should erect a monu- less. ment to his memory-who said, “You complain We have not wandered from our subject; inof your stomachs; your stomachs have more cause deed, there is nothing in which we are disposed to complain of you."

to take greater pride than in the strict accuracy A clever young man who liked tobacco, and of our logic in these dissertations. We would therefore cultivated arguments to justify its use, rather lose the opportunity of saying a good thing attempted once to turn aside this blow, which than introduce it in an irregular way. Our subwithout compunction I was dealing on his darling. ject at present is Drainage; and while we expa"Granted,” he said, " that smoking drains off vast tiate on the beneficent drainage of the earth, we quantities of saliva which is generated in the are bound to notice also the mischievous drainfauces as

à necessary ingredient of the gastric age of man. juice, such is the profuse fecundity of nature, that But draining is, in some forms, healthful to the more you draw off to pour upon the ground, man, as well as to the ground he cultivates. the more springs up in the multitudinous pores When water is allowed to accumulate in a of the mouth; so that while he who saves all has field, and not drained off

, the soil becomes sour nothing over, he who wastes most prodigally has and unproductive. I think I have seen some no lack.” I replied on the spot by telling a story; people standing much in need of an analogous and I have since been informed by men of science operation. In some money hoarded, and in some that there is weight enough in my tale to crush affections pent up, constitute the stagnant water the specious argument drawn from the redun- that damages the ground. Open plenty of drains dancy of nature. I shall submit the facts to my to let your guineas and your love run off, and readers, and leave them to judge for themselves. don't fear a famine as you see them flowing.

A long-headed, sharp-witted old man, Adam God will open windows in heaven, and rain down Bell by name, who fished a portion of the river plenty to supply their place. Keep the sap cirEarn for salmon, and farmed a piece of land on culating in your little world, as He does in his the adjoining bank, gave me long ago a graphic great one, and you will more certainly please description of a tea-party at which he had once Him than by closing the gates, and keeping all been taken in. A new tenant had taken posses- you get. sion of a neighbouring farm, and, to celebrate his Turn now to the parallel and converse process accession, had invited all of the comfortable class of IRRIGATION. The pair might conveniently be who resided within an easy distance to drink designated off and on. tea at his house. At time and place appointed In regions where rain is rarer than in the the guests convened, old Adam among the rest. British Isles, one of the chief cares of the cultiEverything was in the newest fashion, the fisher-vator is to get his fields watered in a time of man reported; of china cups and silver spoons | drought. For this purpose streams are intercepted and led aside in artificial channels, that deity in long and vehement prayers to stand upon they may spread the water on the thirsty ground. his dignity, and leave the impious ditches dry. Small streams are carried off bodily for this pur- The law of gravity and the spades of the navvies pose, and portions of larger rivers are seduced combined were too many for the Brahmins and into the service of the agriculturist. The pasture their god. The mighty and mysterious Gunga, and hay-fields of Switzerland, for example, are under the application of human skill, is silently veined like a human hand or the leaf of a tree accomplishing its Maker's purpose in the earthi, by small ducts, which convey the water in ever- all heedless of the dark superstitious which have diminishing bulk as the subdivision proceeds to for ages flourished on its brim. Thus a right every portion of the surface.

You may see from understanding and use of the Creator's works time to time a solitary peasant stalking through may open up a way for the spread of his Word: the meadows with a large slate in his hand, the living water may yet flow over India in the plunging it into the sod, successively across each wake of that beneficent material stream. of the miniature rivers, compelling them for the The Ganges, the Godavery, and other great time to overflow their banks and flood the sur- continental streams, have been compelled to part rounding space. The district of Colorado, in the with a portion of their ample volumes, that is centre of the American continent, could not, it is may be sent on the blessed errand of converting said, be successfully cultivated without artificial the wilderness into a fruitful field. Considerable irrigation. They intercept the streams as they progress has already been made; but the capacity descend from the base of the Rocky Mountains, of the rivers, on the one hand, to give, and of the and train them on the valleys. Some of the scorched plains, on the other, to receive, is su canals are twenty-two miles long. The average vast, that imagination fails to represent the mar. cost to the cultivator is said to be about two sbil- nitude of the result when the work shall hare lings per acre per annum. The grain crops thus been completed. We have not yet replenished watered are abundant in quantity, and of excel- the earth; we have not nearly reached the limi: lent quality. Egypt, the greatest grain-producing of its productiveness. country of antiquity, has in all ages been, and I once heard a missionary from Southern Africa still is, entirely dependent for its fertility on irri- narrating a curious incident connected with praegation by artificial canals. One peculiarity of tical irrigation. The missionaries, while they the Egyptian system, dictated by natural con- taught the natives scriptural truth, endeavoured ditions, distinguishes it broadly from all others. also to communicate to them the arts of civilized Instead of intercepting a natural flow, and leading life. With this view they obtained for thenthe water in a new direction, it prepares reser

selves a tract of ground, capable of bearing crop, voirs above the level of the river, and waits till but, in its natural state, liable to destructive the inundation comes to fill them.

droughts. The unskilful inhabitants, finding that The process has been carried out on a vast the grain crops on this account were extremely scale of late years by the British Government in uncertain, had abandoned the effort in despair. India. Canals hundreds of miles in length, and Having secured their ground and built their of dimensions equal to those of important rivers houses, the missionaries made it their next esse in this country, have been constructed, and are to bring water from a neighbouring river, thai now carrying fertility to tracts that formerly they might be in a condition to counteract the were desert. The work has incidentally, it is effects of the dry season when it should arrive. said, struck another blow at the root of the na- With this view, they hired a band of the natives tional idolatry; for the multitude can scar

carcely put tools in their hands, and directed them to dig be persuaded to rest so peacefully as before in a ditch for the river, along a zig-zag, circuitoas the belief that the Ganges is a god, after he has tracing, and terminating conveniently on the upper consented meekly to flow in the channel which verge of the farm. A small portion, next the the heretical English made, and that, too, although river, was left uncut till the last. After all wis a hundred barefooted Brahmins besought the ready, a gala was prepared and a procession fornized

a

to inaugurate the work. Under the direction of refreshing stream is conducted into the vineyard, the missionaries, the Caffre navvies soon dug out and poured over all its surface. The axle of the the sods that remained, and admitted the water water-wheel is a tall, straight pine-tree, cut from of the river into the new canal. Away went the the neighbouring mountains. The wheel is hung water along its unwonted course, turning every on its thicker extremity; and the rest of the tree, corner as if it knew the way : away went the stretching as it tapers far up the bank, is emCaffres, dancing and screaming after it like a ployed as a lever to raise or lower the bearings band of children. Neither the stream nor the with the rising and falling of the water in the accompanying natives stopped till both brought up stream. exactly where they were wanted, on the edge of In the soaking flats of Holland you may obthe missionaries' farm. The ground was abund- serve the counterpart process equally ingenious antly moistened, and the crops, untouched by the and, in its place, equally useful. The water is sun, went on to perfection. The natives, clever collected in vast bulk into wide, open ditches, enough to put two things together, but baffled by with its surface only a few inches lower than the the intervention of a third, reasoned among them- surface of the ground; and the problem is to selves, If the river by means of a long crooked persuade the water so situated to rise and run ditcb waters the field of the missionaries, it will away. A wind-mill is erected at a convenient spot, in the same manner water ours. Away they went, and attached to a wheel, like the Tyrolese irrigaand repeated the process. They dug a canal from tor in form, but of much smaller dimensions, with the river to their own field, giving it many grace- its rim dipping a few inches into the ditch. As ful curves, that it might be exactly like the work the distended sails of the wind-mill gyrate in the of their teachers, and leaving, like them, a small air, the dripping water-wheel goes round proportion on the lip of the river till the last. When saically on its axis, lapping up the water to a all was ready, they opened this portion with a height from which it will consent to flow towards good deal of pomp, and watched eagerly to see

Along with a certain measure of similithe water running along their well-prepared canal. tude, the two processes present a double contrast. But, alas! the water would not run.

Here there is too much water on the land, and fellows had made their ditch run up-hill, and the the industrious machine labours to draw it off: water refused to go.

there the land has not enough of water, and the I think I have seen some people, not Caffres, industrious machine labours to spread it on. In digging with great labour a channel for their trade, Holland, the wind is employed to raise the water ; without regard to the law of gravity, and then and in the Tyrol, the water is employed to raise wondering at their own bad luck when the stream the wind. of prosperity refused to flow.

The long-continued and severe drought of some In the valley of the Adige, among the Tyrolese, late seasons, has suggested to some agriculturists I have seen a system of irrigation well adapted to the propriety of a general system of irrigation for the nature of the country, combining efficiency this country under the control of Government. with simplicity, and contributing, moreover, to With our plentiful supply of the raw material the picturesqueness of the landscape. The valley and our great skill in all kinds of construction, is narrow; but wherever a level field intervenes 7

the work might be undertaken with a good prosbetween the root of the mountains and the stream, pect of success. It may, indeed, be urged, in it is all pressed into service as a vineyard. A disparagement of the scheme, that in our moist little higher up than the cultivated spot, a water- climate the risk of a scorching season is not wheel, of slender construction but large circum- | great. But this consideration is, in part at least, ference, is poised over the torrent, with a few balanced by another, that with our limited terinches of its rim beneath the water. Driven by ritory and dense population, the value of land the force of the stream, it lifts a bucket filled with is greater here than anywhere else in the world ; water attached to each arm, and, in its revolution, and consequently the gain is greater if, even at pours the contents into a trough. Thence the intervals, a season's crop, which would have been

the sea.

The poor

partially lost, can, by irrigation, be completely and the immense facilities for rapid transportation

On the whole, considering the compara presented in modern times by railways and ocean tive rarity of lengthened drought in these islands, steamships, it is not probable that the expense of the vast fields, both in the East and the West, from irrigation will ever, on a great scale, be incurred which in years of scarcity we may draw supplies, I in our happy and sappy land.

PETER, THE GARDENER'S LAD,

A LEAF FROM A PASTOR'S NOTE-BOOK.

HE winter of 1871-72 will be long remen- action. I went about praying now and then, but could not

bered, marked as it is in the book of pray to please myself, and often forgot to pray altogememory by the sad lines that record the ther; but I was daily taking less pleasure in sin, and got

passing of a fatal epidemic over our com- afraid of it. I then got into the company of some godly munities and congregations. The number of promising men, showed them my difficulty, but was little better. young men who were suddenly cut off by it was a fact I got a little book from one of them and read it, and much remarked. Solemn and touching incidents of came to the conclusion that there was nothing there this kind came under my own notice, but the one I re- that applied to my case, and resolved to attend the cord on this page was not directly connected with my church and pray that I might get a deeper conviction own flock. The subject of it had grown up in our of sin to make me feel my burden heavier, that I mighs neighbourhood, and had engaged the Christian interest pray more earnestly to get a sight of myself as God of a dear friend of mine, who called my attention to the saw me; but all to no purpose. As I got on my boots story, when grace and an early death had finished it. on Sabbath for the first time after my feet being sore, Peter, the gardener's lad, as we called him, was the and went to church, I prayed that God would bless the eldest boy in the family of an honest labouring couple preaching of the Word to me. I went ont at night to who rejoice, through their tears, over his meniory. a prayer-meeting, and met one of the men I spoke of, From a child he bad something about him unusually and he spoke to a missionary who was there about me. attractive. When grown up to his early manhood, he So he conversed with me, and a minister who was was strikingly graceful both in his face and figure; his preaching came and took me aside, and questioned nje mind and character were naturally pleasing, and when for some time. I told him that if God should require grace had taken possession of his heart, his look was of me my soul that night, I would be launched intolike a bright glean of sunshine. More than a year where--ah! into that place where God has forgotten to and a half ago he went out from his rural home beside be gracious. But I thought it did not give me enough us to one of the larger manufacturing towns. There of concern yet. So after he had questioned me, he said the Lord's mercy arrested him, and there, like a cluster that I must ask God to give me to realize my position. soon ripe, he was gathered by the Husbandman into his So I went home and listened to the man who lodges own bosom.

with me reading a book, and as I was going to bed he The great change came to Peter's soul not long after read a passage which runs thus:-- If ye regard inihe left our district for the town alluded to. It was quity in your hearts, the Lord will not hear you.' So I during a series of evangelistic meetings there that he prayed that if I was regarding it in my heart that le was first thoroughly awakened, and as he told the minis- | would show it to me. And this he in his unspeakable ter who waited on him in his last hours, the question of mercy condescended to do. I then prayed with all my John xxi. 15 was particularly used from the mouth of heart to take it away out of my sight. I do sooner that minister to drive the arrow into his heart—"Lov- | asked than it was done-but I could not believe. I est thou me?" But the story of his conversion will be could not trust Jesus with my soul, and I tossed myself best told by his own letter to his parents on the occa- hither and thither on my bed, and prayed and wrestled sion. We give its simple and graphic sentences unal- with God to give me faith to trust in him and to cast tered :

my burden on him, and in my mind's eye I saw Jesus " 48 SOUTH TSTREET,

standing beside me urging me to take a pardon he held

Saturday night. out to me. I could not believe it was to me, but the “Dear Parents, I have news for you such as you Holy Spirit said to me, “You make God a liar then.' never before received from my pen, and I request of The thought terrified me, and the passage canie hone you, one and all, to praise the Lord for these news. to me-- Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and thoa The Lord has been dealing graciously with me for some shalt be saved.' I thought I saw Jesus on the Cross time past, so that there was no rest for my mind, espe- as if he was slain again for me, so I looked up to him cially when I committed sin either by word or thought or and cried for mercy; and he came again with a sheet of

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white paper, holding it out to me, and I tried to see of heartfelt thankfulness. When he was out of a situawhat was written on it but could not, so I got it into tion, a lady said to him, 'It is a pity, Peter, you have

I niy hand (the hand of faith) and read

no employment.' To which he replied, 'Oh, it's no pity 'It is finished.'

at all. If the Lord says, Peter, you are not to get a

situation for some time yet, I'm quite willing to wait.'” And oh! it is indescribable, the joy. I then said, Besides this practical faith, so simple and yet matured, Lord, I believe, help thou mine unbelief,' and came he had a great thirst for the Word. His face when he out of my bed and went on my knees, and praised and entered the church and sat down seemed to light up the thanked God for his mercy as vouchsafed to me, and place where he sat. To meet him was refreshing. “No sang in my heart for joy. Dear father, mother, brothers; wonder he was invariably happy, for he had always someand sisters, there is no joy in these worldly pleasures. thing to say about the Master.” The same friend conThey only disgrace the name, and they bring no peace.

tinues :But the peace which a simple trust in Jesus brings truly “On the Saturday evening, two days before he ‘fell passeth all understanding, and I would only spoil the asleep,' a message was left at my house, that he was not beauty of it to attempt to explain it...Now, dear parents, expected to live. I at once set out for the L-- hospital. do not say, I doubt the truth of that statenient of Peter's, Finding my way with difficulty in the darkness to the but the rather thank God and give him all the glory. gate and inquiring for him, I was asked if I wished to see I cease not daily to pray for you all, to the end that him. I replied, “I would like to see him if he is conscious;' you may be saved. I might have wrote sooner ; but if and to ascertain this, sent a message to him by the I had wrote, for instance, on Monday night, I would

Tell Mr. M- -,' he said, “if he likes to come have been afraid that I was laying a stumbling-block in I'll be glad to see him; but if not, tell him I'm going tefore you, because you might have come to the con- on my way rejoicing.' clusion that it had been only a passing idea. But,

“I entered the long ward, and what a spectacle prethanks be to God, it is not. He is giving me to realize sented itself to my gaze! On the right side and on the that I am not my own, but that I am bought with a left lay men who recently were hale and strong, but now price, therefore I must work for him who came to this reduced to extremities by tbis terrible malady. Only world to endure the wrath of God, the cursed death of one face in that long ward was recognizable, the others the cross, and to pour out his life-blood for me, and were truly humiliating and pitiable to look upon. When who has received me after trampling under foot that Peter was pointed out to me, being taken to his bedHood, and uttering blasphemies against his holy name. side, I said I can only cry out with wonder and admiration

“Well, Peter, how are you ?' O matchless love, to bleed and die

6. Oh, I am quite well,' he said, making the words For such a guilty one as I;

quite well' very emphatic. O thou my soul, bless thou the hour

“You mean you are quite well spiritually,' I said, In which I came to know His power.'

‘for you are very ill in your body.' When I write this, I go to a throne of grace to lay

“Yes, but I'm all right as to that; I am in the my wishes before one who both hears and answers

Lord's hands.' prayer,

“"Would you not like to be restored to health ?' So help me God.

"Well, I'm wearying to go home; but if the Lord

pleases to restore me, I'll be glad to live to serve him.' "Good-bye, and may the God of heaven send an Again he added, “I'm just praying that my death may answer speedily to my humble petitions. Amen.- be blessed to my friends.' Your ever loving son,

PETER. “Then, instead of my needing to comfort him with "P.S.- Please send this to M. with the joyful news."

texts assuring him of Christ's presence and unchanging

love toward him, he expressed the gratitude and conAnother letter to his parents, written with reference fidence of his heart in the most glowing manner by to the Sacrament of the Supper, breathes the same quoting several precious portions of God's Word. We spirit of holy ardour in the faith of his Lord, and repeated between us the hymn, “For ever with the anxiety for the salvation of his kindred.

Lord;' then I engaged in prayer, much of it being "Peter's short life in Christ upon earth,” adds the thanksgiving for God's exceeding great goodness to his pastor and friend above alluded to, “seemed to be un- dear servant. How eagerly would most have desired to broken sunshine. There was no groaning and sighing, be restored to health-to be delivered from dying in such no gloom and despondency. He seemed like a little circumstances ! There he lay sick and nearly blind; child withcut hesitation to believe whatever his heavenly scarcely able to swallow even a mouthful of water; Father told him. Particularly he appeared to enter surrounded by men in the same pitiable condition; he, into the full enjoyment of regarding the Lord as good, a youth just entering upon manhood, when life is most and only good ; not only in grace but also in providence. enjoyable ; his a loving heart surrounded by strangers ; Whatever the Lord sent was good and right, and matter a warm, outspoken Christian surrounded, so far as I

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