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with delight to what an extent the living picture wealth of the earliest ages of the Hebrew mionwhich Jr. Meshullam has reproduced in that archy. While the respect and confidence with scene, in its singing-birds, and sparkling streams, which he has inspired the surrounding Bedouin its apricots, and peaches, and figs, and vines, tribes, causing them not only to leave his procorresponds with the descriptions of Solomon in perty unmolested, but to treat him as a friend his Canticles. The labours of this singularly and often to choose him as an umpire, has shown talented Christian Jew in his farm at Urtas have that even they are capable of being conciliated placed beyond doubt two things,—that the old and tamed by good treatment, by persevering abundance is yet sleeping in the soil of Palestine, firmness, justice, and kindness. Ishmael and and that it needs no miracle, but skilled industry Isaac once wept and embraced each other over with its enchanter's wand, and with God's bless- their father's grave; shall not their descendants ing, to bring back the beauty and the teeming one day embrace over Israel's resurrection ?



EW questions in Church history have given , terest, which seem to deserve a better fate than the The connection formed between them was so close, that all the outward pomp of princes ; and when luxury and when Abelard in after-days was compelled to defend dissipation, idleness and ignorance, characterized the himself in a great Council of the Church against the great majority of the ordinary clergy. accusations of St. Bernard, he singled out Arnold from This degeneracy, common everywhere at that time, the crowd of his former pupils as the most competent had reached its climax in Brescia. There the dissolute advocate he could find to plead his cause. After having habits of the priesthood had not only passed the usual completed his studies in France he returned to his limits, but had given rise to other evils, which, if not native town, and, inspired with a lofty religious fervour speedily checked, must have inevitably ruined the somewhat rare in that degenerate age, he took the bishopric. The married clergy, or, as their monkish monastic vows, and entered one of the cloisters of opponents described them, those who lived in a state of Brescia. There he seems to have remained for some concubinage, had been tempted by the unsettled state few years, engaged in his studies and religious duties, of public affairs to make provision for their families by occasionally exercising his talents as a preacher, and appropriating the church funds set apart for the relief though stealily advancing in repute as a man of piety of the poor, and by alienating the church lands. Graduand learning, exercising no positive influence on public ally bringing themselves to regard the ecclesiastical affairs. But a man of his strong practical turn of mind foundations as their personal property, they did not and decided political convictions could hardly fail to be scruple, by sale, gift, or enfeoffment, to make away with a deeply interested spectator of the civil and religious the rich endowments. commotions which at that period engrossed the thoughts In this state of affairs the people loudly called upon of his fellow-citizens. Brescia had been the scene of a poli- the bishop to fulfil his promise, and put an end to the tical convulsion, which, occurring in his boyhood, would scandal. To this demand he willingly acceded; but appear to have made an indelible impression on his mind. having imprudently called in the civil power to aid him

occasion to so much bitter and prolonged comparative oblivion into which they have fallen. dispute as that involved in the mainten- The birth of Arnold is placed with considerable pro

ance or suppression of the temporal power bability about the beginning of the twelfth century. Of of the Bishops of Rome. The large amount of attention his family connections and early life almost nothing is which has been devoted to its discussion in modern days, known. While still a youth, he embraced the ecclesiand the wonderfully peaceful solution it has received astical profession, and was ordained clerk and reader in from the men of our own time, might at first sight one of the churches of Brescia. Either before or shortly almost warrant the supposition that it was a grievance after receiving these orders, his great abilities and inpeculiar to the nineteenth century-a difficulty with tense devotion to study began to attract attention; and which the intelligent men of former generations did not his superiors, desirous of giving him the best education trouble themselves. But a very moderate acquaintance which the age could furnish, resolved to send him to with the records of ecclesiastical history will suffice to France to complete his studies under Abelard. It is dissipate any such impression. The noblest and purest difficult to determine the exact period in the life of the minds of the Middle Ages were continually reminded great philosopher during which the young Lombard of its importance by the countless evils which manifestly ecclesiastic sat at his feet. Whether he mingled in the sprang from the unholy alliance of the spiritual and vast crowd of scholars who thronged round Abelard's temporal powers ; and while the more thoughtful and chair during the height of his fame at Paris, or shared cautious among them contented themselves with laments with his fellow-students the hardships of his master's ing the impossibility of putting a period to the anomaly, rural retreat at the Oratory of the Paraclete near there were not wanting others of a more practical and Nogent-sur-Seine, does not distinctly appear, though daring temperament, who would gladly have seized any all the probabilities of the case favour the latter supfeasible opportunity for the accomplishment of their position. The received chronology of Aruolt's life, and purpose. Of the former class the most illustrious was the severe form of his character and habits, render it Dante, who in pathetic strains deplored the disastrous far from improbable that his term of study under results of Constantine's policy in taking the Church Abelard occurred during that singular phase of the under his protection :

philosopher's romantic life, when master and pupils, "Ahi, Constantin, di quanto mal fu matre,

some of them scions of the noblest families in Europe, Non la tua conversion, ma quella dote,

retired to the rude wilderness at Nogent-sur-Seine, Che da te prese il primo ricco patre !"

built their own huts, lived on such herbs as they could Ah, Constantine, to how much ill gave birth,

gather in the fields, lay at night on pallets of straw, and Not thy conversion, but that plenteous dower,

denying themselves every luxury, led a life of study, Which the first wealthy Father gained from thee!

solitude, and privation. But whatever be the truth on To the latter class belonged that bold and gifted monk, this point, we certainly know that Arnold's student-life, who in a dark and superstitious age not only realized if not altogether ascetic in its severity, was one of much the full significance of the problem, but actually suc- simplicity. It is equally certain that his circumstances ceeded in achieving its solution. An enterprise at once were such as to give him ample opportunities of winning so daring and unique possesses features of general in- the confidence and esteem of his distinguished teacher.

The city, which prior to the commencement of the in carrying out his measures of reform, the attempt was twelfth century was, like most other towns in Lom- greeted by the nobles and clergy with such a violent bardy, a fief of the German Empire, had, at the storm of opposition, that it resulted in his being forcibly instigation of its bishop, thrown off the imperial yoke, ejected from the town. This brusque treatment of his and constituted itself an independent republic. As well-meant plans of iniprovement produced a complete a reward for his services in heading this insurrection, revolution in the bishop's mind. Afraid of losing his see Bishop Arimann claimed, in addition to his existing by his adherence to the reforming party, he immediately spiritual privileges, the supreme jurisdiction in tem- veered round, espoused the cause of the clerical faction, poral affairs. The populace, perceiving that they had and having completely ignored his former policy, suconly exchanged a distant for a nearer and haughtier ceeded in getting himself peaceably reinstalled in his master, resisted the arrogant pretensions of Arimann, diocese. and maintained their new-found liberties so stoutly, It was at this crisis that Arnold emerged from his that after torrents of blood had been shed in the streets retirement and began to take an active part in public the episcopal party was routed, and the prelate himself affairs. His appearance in the cathedral pulpit produced tanished from Brescian territory. Brescia had for a profound sensation in the minds of the citizens, and many years been singularly unfortunate in her bishops, gave an extraordinary impulse to the cause of ecclesiand Arimann's successor proved no exception to the astical reform. Few men could have been better fitted general rule. At length, however, in the year 1132, to confer strength and dignity upon a popular cause. there was chosen to fill the vacant see a priest named Well read in ancient and modern history, skilled in the Manfred, who, with the faults of his predecessors before canon law, and intelligently acquainted with Scripture, his eyes, seemed at first desirous of pursuing a line of he was able to point the artillery of his eloquence with conduct somewhat more in harmony with his spiritual destructive effect against the corruption then rampant in functions. But something of a more positive kind was the Church. The glaring inconsistency of the lives of the expected at his hands than the mere renunciation of clergy with apostolic precept, ancient usage, and ecclesithe episcopal claims on the feudal superiority of the astical law, and the urgent need of a return to a purer and town. On the occasion of his appointment to the dio- less worldly life, were themes which, pointed and enforced cese of Brescia, he had come under a solemn engage- at once by the devout austerity of the orator's private ment to Pope Innocent II. to introduce a reform of his life, and by the existing political situation, could hardly clergy without delay; and this pledge it was incumbent fail to win the favour of the men of Brescia. on him to redeen. Under a series of bishops devoted The stinging effect of his censures was enhanced by to the acquisition of secular authority, the most deplor- | a rich voice of surpassing sweetness, the gentle fascinaable scandals and abuses had crept into the Church and tion of which must have contrasted strangely with the tourished without rebuke. Those were the days when vehemence of his denunciation and the revolutionary benefices and holy orders were bought and sold without ardour of his sentimients. He immediately rose in inthe slightest regard to the age, character, or abilities of fluence and popularity, his opinions being eagerly emthe candidate; when the higher ecclesiastics lived in l braced and widely circulated. They spread with almost electric swiftness through the streets of Brescia, and This project of reform aimed a blow in several directions over most of the towns and villages in Lombardy. All, at once. It not only threatened the secular pretensions save the parties more immediately interested in the of the Bishop of Brescia, but struck at the root of the maintenance of abuses, acknowledged the truth of temporal power of the Pope, who would thereby have Arnold's strictures, and rejoiced that a spokesman had been reduced at one stroke to the simple rank of Bishop been found sufficiently bold and eloquent to express of Rome. The suzerainty of the German emperor over what every man felt and thought. The clergy, of course, the cities of Lombardy was also endangered; for though were furious. The undertone of bitterness which per- Arnold conceded to that potentate & certain vague vades the contemporary Catholic accounts of his teach- feudal superiority, yet as according to his theory the real ing, shows how terribly the churchmen of his time must sovereign of the state was the body of citizens reprehave winced under his scathing rebukes and sarcastic sented from year to year by the consuls or chief magiscriticisms. But even Gunther, one of the two writers trates of the republic, this concession amounted to to whom we are indebted for most of what we know of little more than a name. Arnold's words were atArnold, acknowledges that many of his censures were tended with such effect, that at the election of by no means undeserved. About a century before, consuls for the year 1139 the clerical party was Cardinal Damiani had satirized the bishops of his time completely defeated. But though republican ideas in terms almost identical with those made use of by the thus gained an undoubted ascendancy, they were far eloquent Brescian : “What would the bishops of old from being quietly received or cordially acquiesced in have done had they to endure the torments which now by those whose interests they so materially affected. attend the episcopate ? To ride forth constantly at- Bishop, nobles, and clergy, animated by a sense of tended by troops of soldiers, with swords and lances : their common danger, banded together against the to be girt about by armed men like a heathen general ! rising spirit of the people. Not amid the gentle music of hymns, but the din and Frightful scenes of civil discord then ensued. The clash of arms! Every day royal banquets, every day war of tongues, proving utterly powerless to decide the parade! The table loaded with delicacies-not for the grave questions at issue, passed into a war of swords, poor, but for voluptuous guests : while the poor, to in which townsmen and kinsmen arrayed themselves whom the property of right belongs, are shut out, and against each other in mortal strife. The popular party pine away with famine.” Things had not gone on im- would in all probability have soon succeeded in imposproving since these words were uttered : and there ing its will upon its antagonists, had no other weapons were doubtless many even among the clergy themselves than those of force been employed. But when the who acknowledged the necessity of a reform. Arnold's armoury of the clergy was exhausted in one field, they plain statements of facts were indisputable: it was the had recourse to another arsenal from which weapons of remedies he proposed for eradicating the evil which a much more potent kind could be procured. It seem to have given such dire offence.

happened that in the spring of this very year, 1139, & Having shown by an appeal to the canon law that the great council of the Church was being held at Rome; clergy had no personal or hereditary claims on the funds and the clergy, driven to despair by the daily increasing of the Church, which by the nature of the case were in- strength of their enemies, conceived the design of laying alienable, he proposed that the management of all ecclesi- the whole case before the assembled bishops of Christenastical property should be taken out of the hands of the dom, and by obtaining Arnold's condemnation as a clergy and intrusted to laymen specially appointed by the heretic, deprive the reforming party of its principal sovereign. An advocate of the separate and mutually support. The reformer was accordingly charged by his exclusive jurisdictions of Church and State, he maintained bishop with having promulgated schismatic doctrine, that while the Pope was entitled to wield the highest in so far as he had denied the supreme control authority in things spiritual, to the State alone belonged of the Church over all things temporal, and attrithe supreme control in all things secular; and that, con- buted to the State the right of administering ecclesequently, the clergy were guilty of unwarrantable pre- siastical property. Here, it is somewhat important sumption in aspiring to discharge the functions of earthly to observe, that serious as the accusation was, it conprinces. He recommended as the only true remedy for tained no whisper of heretical pravity. Schism it the innumerable evils which flowed from this unhallowed certainly was; but it reached no further. Eagerly as blending of politics with religion, that the clergy should his enemies desired to fix upon him the stigma of abstain from all interference in the affairs of civil heresy, they failed in their attempt to persuade the government, and devote their attention exclusively to Pope to pronounce him heterodox. All that they were the discharge of their spiritual functions. As regarded able to obtain from the supreme Pontiff in condemnatheir maintenance, he considered that the income de- tion of Arnold, and in furtherance of their own views, rived from tithes and the voluntary offerings of the was a decree imposing silence upon him, and this at a Christian people would prove amply sufficient for men moment when Rome was crowded with bishops, exwho were bound, by their very profession, to set an ex- pressly collected from all parts of Europe for the example in their own persons of simplicity of life. tirpation of a prominent heresy. It is true that he was condemned during the sitting of that council of by the council, doubtless with the view of preventing the Lateran which anathematized the Cathari and the them spreading further. St. Bernard immediately Petrobrusians, and it is notorious that his enemies wrote to the Pope, urging him to bestow his approval made full use of this circumstance to involve him in on the verdict of the council, to impose silence on their condemnation; but that he had any sympathy Abelard, and to throw both him and Arnold into prison. with their doctrines is nowhere supported by the faintest The obsequious Pontiff complied with all these requests, shadow of proof. Had he really shared their sentiments, and, in the middle of July 1140, a papal decree was something more stringent than a mere decree of silence received by the heads of the Church in France, comwould have been considered necessary to meet the manding them to imprison the accused in separate demands of the case. Like them, he would have been cloisters, and burn Abelard's books. It would seem, treated as having fallen under the ban of the Church ; however, that the zeal of the saint in his fanatical and the greater excommunication once launched against pursuit of heresy was but feebly seconded by the great him, a separate papal rescript, dealing with his individual ecclesiastics of France. Whilst Abelard found a retreat case, would have been superfluous. This view of his with the Abbot of Clugny, Arnold was permitted quietly position is confirmed by the account given of his offence to retire to Switzerland, where he received a hospitable by St. Bernard, who distinctly assures us that it was welcome from those who took more charitable views of merely schisma pessimum of which the Brescian monk his character. At this period of his exile he owed was guilty. It is evident, therefore, that his faults were much to the powerful friendship of Cardinal Guido da regarded by the court of Rome as political rather than Castello, then Papal Legate of Germany, who, having religious; and all attempts, whether of Catholics to blacken himself studied under Abelard, had probably in former him with vague charges of heresy, or of Protestants to days made the acquaintance of the brilliant Brescian on claim him as a “morning star of the Reformation,” are the banks of the Seine, and now showed him kindness alike unwarranted by the facts of the case.

in the hour of his misfortune. The papal decree having been published at Brescia, Even in this distant retirement, however, he was not the fickle populace, wrought upon by their superstitious safe from the relentless animosity of St. Bernard, who fears, fere persuaded by the clergy to break with pursued him over the Alps with letters of the harshest Arnold, and renounce connection with his schemes of tenor. One of these violent epistles, in which he points independent civil government and ecclesiastical reform. out the importance of securing the person of the fugitive, The consuls of the republic being driven from the or expelling him from the diocese, was addressed to the city, he also was compelled to flee. In this sudden Bishop of Constance. “If the good man of the house,” revulsion of popular feeling he seems to have first at- he writes, “had known at what hour the thief would tempted to find shelter in other parts of Lombardy; come, he would have watched, and would not have albut, being bunted from place to place with remorseless lowed his house to be broken through.”......." He (Arnold, assiduity by the machinations of the priests, he was at to wit) is one of those who have the forin of godliness length driven across the Alps into Switzerland. He but completely deny its power. He is a man who neither found a congenial home in the canton of Zurich, where eats nor drinks, but along with the devil hungers and he rested in peace till the following year. His repose thirsts for the blood of souls; and of whom the Lord was disturbed by a summons from his old master himself says,' They will come to you in sheep's clothing, Abelard to attend the Council of Sens in France. The but inwardly they are ravening wolves.' And now we philosopher had been accused of heresy by William, have heard that he works iniquity with you, and eats Abhot of St. Thierry, and the charge baving been taken up your people as one eats bread.” Then follows a fierce up and reiterated by St. Bernard, he boldly challenged tirade, in which the most dreadful maledictions of the his antagonists to the proof. In order to secure the imprecatory psalms are heaped upon the devoted head best advocacy for his cause, he called to his side the of the Italian monk—“Whose mouth is full of cursing most distinguished of his former scholars to aid him in and bitterness, and their feet are swift to shed blood ; his defence. Of these the most conspicuous was destruction and misery are in their ways, and the way Arnold, who in this capacity is described by St. Bernard of peace have they not known." Yet in the midst of as “ the armour-bearer of the new Goliath.” The this strange farrago of abuse it is curious to observe how Abbot of Clairvaux apparently looked forward with the high estimate formed of Arnold's character by the some trepidation to the prospect of being pitted against severest and most consistent of his contemporaries occasuch a formidable pair of antagonists, the master as sionally crops out in spite of himself, as when he says, renowned for his subtlety, as the scholar for his elo- "Would that he were as sound in doctrine as he is quence. But to the relief and astonishment of his strict in life ;” and again, “ Whose conversation is principal accusers, Abelard, perbaps deeming it a hope-honey, his doctrine poison ; with the head of a dove, he less task to convince men who had come with their has the tail of a scorpion.” An epistle of similar purminds made up to condemn him, waived all attempt at port was sent by the indefatigable abbot to Cardinal defence, and appealed to the Holy See direct. Not- Guido, warning him against maintaining too familiar an withstanding his appeal, bis doctrines were condemned intimacy with Arnold. who he believed. would be only too ready to abuse the cardinal's friendship for the pro- ting. But the infuriated multitude, undaunted by this pagation of his peculiar views. Arnold having, after a display of temporal and spiritual force, greeted the Holy time, made a full recantation of the opinions maintained Father and his followers on their appearance with a by Abelard, and endorsed by himself at Sens, these an- shower of missiles, and routed them ere they could noyances altogether ceased; and in this secure asylum strike a blow. The Pope himself was so severely hurt he remained unmolested for the next five years of his in the skirmish, that he died a few days afterwards. life. To this period must probably be referred those It was shortly after this occurrence that Arnold, atlabours of his in Zurich, which were attended with such success that the town and adjoining district became either as an escort, or as a military contingent devoted thoroughly impregnated with his opinions, and retained to the interests of the republic, left his Transalpine refor more than a generation profound impressions of his treat and entered, in 1145, on the last and longest phase teaching

of his public life. Though we have no positive knowledge For the next five years another blank occurs in the of the causes which induced him to mix himself up with records of his life. From the year 1140 nothing is a movement which eventually proved his ruin, yet there heard of him, until with dramatic suddenness he re- is much in the known circumstances of the case which appears in 1145 on the stage of history, engaged in co- enables us to form a reasonable conjecture regarding operating with the Romans in their attempt to remould them. Many of his former fellow-students, disciples of their political constitution on the basis of the ancient Abelard, were Romans by birth, and nothing is more republic. During the closing years of his sojourn in natural than that, having imbibed republican sentiSwitzerland, a train of events had occurred in Rome so ments, they should invite to their aid the illustrious closely resembling in character and tendency those which friend of their early days, to propagate by the charm of his had happened in Brescia, that they could not but possess eloquence the views they held in common. Without doubt for Arnold a peculiarly strong fascination. A quarrel the favourable nature of the opportunity which presented had broken out between Pope Innocent II. and the itself in the actual condition of affairs at Rome, must citizens of Rome upon the propriety of dismantling the also have exercised no slight influence upon his mind in fortifications of Tivoli, a town which they had succeeded determining him to take so grave a step. For regardin capturing not without considerable difficulty. The ing the fondness of the higher clergy for secular power Romans, exasperated by the length of the siege, had as the capital source of all the corruption which diswished to demolish its defences; while Innocent was graced the Church, it was natural for a mind like his, anxious to maintain them intact as a useful instrument trained under Abelard to strike straight down to the for keeping his unruly subjects in check. The latter, roots of things, and bold enough to face the full conwho had for a long time been infected with the republican sequences of his logic, to conclude that no higher service theories then prevalent in Lombardy and other parts of could be rendered to Christianity at large, than the Italy, at once divined the intention of the Pontiff, and healing of this deadly plague at the fountain-head. resolved to counteract it. Surrounded by the ruins of It was a thing to be expected that the appearance of former greatness, and animated by the splendid traditions Arnold in the capital of Christendom, would give a of the past, they assembled in the Capitol, and declar- mighty impetus to the cause of republicanism and church ing their independence of the Pope in all save what con- reform. His captivating eloquence, and past connection cerned his spiritual authority, they proclaimed the re- with similar movements in Lombardy, procured him an public, re-established the senate, 'and abolished the acknowledged position of influence and authority, of dignity of Prefect. The prefect was the chief magistrate which he availed himself to the utmost for the promulof the city, and besides being nominated by the Pope, gation of his politico-religious views. In the absence of was the representative of the Emperor, to whom he paid Pope Eugene III., and with the whole power of the honage, and from whom, in token of his supreme civil republic at his back, he enjoyed for a brief period an jurisdiction, he received a drawn sword on his appoint- undisturbed opportunity of influencing the public mind. ment. This high office was now, in the revived en- The same doctrines which he had propounded in Brescia thusiasm for ancient institutions, abolished; and a new were again insisted on with all his wonted fire and dignitary, with the title of Patrician of Rome, appointed vigour. Whilst acknowledging to the full the absolute to preside over the senate and represent the republic. supremacy of the Pope in things spiritual, he pointed

Matters did not improve on the election of a new out that the care of all the churches in Christendom pope. Lucius II. committed the imprudence, not long was a task amply sufficient to engross the thoughts and after his election, of risking a personal conflict with the anxieties of the first pastor of the Church, without excited populace. Believing that the application of charging himself with the additional burden of civil vigorous measures would speedily reduce his refractory government; and believing that there would be no lastpeople to obedience, he repaired in full pontifical ing peace, either for Church or State, until a separation costume to the Capitol, at the head of an imposing was effected between then, he held that the only assembly of Church dignitaries and armed men, for the practicable mode of accomplishing this object, was purpose of dispersing the senate, which was then sit- by the establishment of republican institutions. He

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