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John's Gospel, and, again, in the first verse of his first consideration that in both of the two following ufteristle, there seems to be an inferential warrant in re- quoted vital texts-vital alike theologically and to this Caring the tiro “ Words” as substantially equivalent. analogy-the receiring stands as the correlate of the gift, In the two latter places “the Word” obviously names which, though different in name in each text, must be

the Son of God; and in the former, if not critically | identically the same, since in both cases, though differ[ nlentical, it will be conceded to mean, substantially, the ently expressed, the result of the reception is identically

Truth, the life, the grace, of God in man-which is, in the same—Receive with meekness the ingrafteil Word effect, what the Scriptures elsewhere assert, “ Christ in which is able to save your souls.” “ As many as rey, the hope of glory.” Himself has said, “I am the ceived him, to them gave he power to become the sons of Trieth.” A very little reflection will show that a mes- God." sage from heaven-a set of doctrines, a code of truths, In ordinary generation, usually, the offspring partakes, if construed to be the meaning of the ingrafted Word” by inheritance, of the constitutional peculiarities of both

" -must be, as such and alone, both physiologically and parents, and exhibits them in a greater or less degree. scripturally inadequate to so marvellous a result as the But, from the operation of tree-grafting, and of human change proposed, and must necessarily be inert, wanting regeneration, the results are characterized, alone, by the essential quality, not only of potency, but of adap- the peculiarities of the scion and of “the ingrafted mation Operating by and through the medium, it Word.” “ That which is born of the flesh is flesh, and surely means the second Adam, the quickening Spirit that which is born of the Spirit is spirit.” Jan is re* whose name is called THE WORD OF GOD”-generated and made a new man: the tree is regenerated the incorruptible Seed.

and made a new tree. Both are radically renewed: both This view of the Word,” as employed by St. James are ultimately conformed to the given standard of the in tlie text quoted, is corroborated by reference to the renovating germ. In both cases human instrumentality ect counterpart of grafting to which he alludes- is concerned in the outward and visible sign, the divine tunely, a kind of generation by an abnormal method, agency alone in the inward and spiritual grace-the vital ani in Scripture called re-generation; the result of each power of true human conversion in one case, and the being a new-begotten or renovated one, whether vege- successful grafting of a tree in the other. tai le or human. If, then, as the Scriptures affirm, a sider becomes a child of God by regeneration, he does ako, as the Scripture affirms, by receiving the ingrafted Word; for “ of his own will begat he us by the Word of

III.-APPARENT FAILURES, AND A CURIOUS truth," the result in each case being “one born again,"

COINCIDENCE. "a new creature in Christ Jesus.” Being born again,

I.-APPAREXT FAILURES. not of corruptible seed, but of incorruptible, by the Word of God, who liveth and abideth for ever.” Do A CORRESPONDENCE of disappointed hopes, in each of o the terms “the Truth” “the Word,” as ordinarily these parallel cases, is occasionally the common experience anderstood, express simply the vehicle or instrument of both florist and divine. The usual painstaking konveying the sum and substance, the very essence, of methods are employed, and corresponding expectations he gospel-Christ?

are in both cases excited, and even encouraged for a In the propagation of the human species there is no time, by symptoms of apparent progress. But, alas ! in xample of anything answering to grafting, but of ordi- some instances, after awhile altered symptoms set in, tary generation only; nor, in the propagation of the and too truly tell the tale that the root of the matter thuldren of God, as such, have we any example of ordi- was lacking---no vital union had taken place; and as to mary generation, but only of regeneration, or, as we may the expected, and apparently new creatures, they wither say, of grafting, with the single and peculiar exception away. Happily, the disappointment affects only the of the human birth of “ Jesus, the Son of God." There- florist and the divine-not the divine Spirit, by whose fore, by fair induction, it may be affirmed that the will and power alone it is and must be that all vegescriptural ternis—“regeneration,” “ born again,” “ born table, animal, and spiritual existences can have the of God "--convey strictly, and only, the idea of renova- opportunity to subsist, grow, or change. In either case tion by a spiritual operation answering to the same we, the instruments, cannot tell “which shall prosper, thing in horticulture, called grafting; as it is written: this or that, or whether both shall be alike good,” be it "A new heart will I put within you,” which undeniably man or tree that is the object of solicitude. In both indicates the free gift of the spiritual graft, germ, or cases it may be said, It is not by human skill—“ Not * incorruptible seed.” The heart, the mainspring of by might, nor by power, but by my Spirit, saith the action, is made new by its reception of the incorruptible Lord of hosts.” And as truly as it is written, “IIe is sel; faith being the receptive faculty of the soul—the not a Jew who is one outwardly: neither is that circumhand that accepts, the heart that embraces, “the un- cision which is outward in the flesh," so he alone is a speakable gift."

Christ-born Christian who is one inwardly; and regeneIt is a confirmatory circumstance on the point under ration is that of the heart, in the spirit, and not in the

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II.-A CURIOUS COINCIDENCE.

letter: whose praise is not of men, but of God. “Every plant that my heavenly Father lath not planted shall tudinal, the other across, thus förming a diagraha be rooted up.”

ecclesiastically termed a "Cro83." These incisions

enable the operator to loosen and open the bark int Withont magnifying into importance the following enough to allow him to slip the renovating bud within curious fact, we venture to give it as a singular coinci- the loosened bark, which, then, with other aid, secrre; cience of this analogy. In describing the process of embraces the bud so inserted, thus forming literall5, as budding it was stated that a twig is taken from an well as ecclesiastically, Crucifix." Each of tie* approved tree, and that a small portion of the bark, popular symbols—the cross and the crucifix-notwithcontaining the germ or bud, is cut longitudinally from standing their absurd abuse by a venal superstitii, it, to be inserted within, and covered up by, the bark of possesses, as every true Christian heart must feel, a deer! the “stock” prepared to receive it; which preparation devout and soul-affecting aspect; and, in relati:n is consists, in part, of two incisions in the bark, one longi- Nature's System of Divinity,” very suggestive.

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France and its Rcformation.

XIX. - THE SECOND AND THIRD HUGUENOT WARS-CATHERINE DE MEDICI

AND THE DUKE OF ALVA AT BAYONNE.

BY THE REV. J. A. WYLIE, LL.D.

W

The pacification of Imboise satisfactory to neither Protestunts nor Catholics-Disregarded by both-Catherine de Vedi

comes to the front -- The dance of Death in the Lourre-Catherine's qualities - What shall her policy be?- The Econo the olive-branch?The deadly nightshade hell outCharles IX.-His training and character-A royal progress object Iconoclast outrages-Charles I.X. decply moreu- Catherine gires audience to the enroys of the Duke of Sena and the Pope~ The royal party arrire at Bayonne-Interriers between Catherine and the Duke of Alva-A forculatin ing of St. Bartholomer— The second Iluguenot warIts one battle-A peace which is not peace-Outbreak of the tart luguenot war-An incident- The Protestant chiefs assemble at Rochelle They are joined by the Queen of Vatirt and the Prince of Bearn- Battle of Jarnac-Defeat and despondency of the Protestants-Heroism of Jeanne 11"

The disaster of Montcontour--d dark night closes in orer Protestantism-\isfortunes of Coligny-His zulof soul. HE pacification of Amboise closed the strictions placed upon it seemed to imply, wig

first Huguenot war. That arrange- concede it at all? But if it was right - why ment was satisfactory to neither clearly, it ought to have been given, not to

party. The Protestants it did not class only, but to the whole body of the natica content; nor ought it, seeing, so far as the im- and Protestant worship ought to have been made portant matter of their rights was concerned, it lawful, not in a few cities only, but in all the was not an advance, but a retrogression. To towns of France. Further, the Amboise arrange fight and gain successes in the field, and yet lose ment was obviously impracticable : it was rait ground in diplomacy, was no agreeable thought. to think that it could or would be obserred Yet so stood the matter; for the pacification of Were the vast majority of the Protestants Amboise actually took away some of the privi- France to abstain from social worship? The leges which the Edict of January had accorded. must do so under the present law, or encounte The latter edict permitted to the Protestants the the immense inconvenience and toil of travelling celebration of their worship in all parts of France; some fifty or a hundred miles to a privileged city but the arrangement come to at Amboise limited True, the law accorded them the privilege-whid the freedom of Protestant worship to a certain it could not well take from them-of cherishing class of the nobles and a few of the privileged their sentiments in their own hearts, and of opette cities. The body of the Huguenots felt it hard ing their lips at their own firesides ; but the to understand the principle of this arrangement; moment they crossed the threshold of their dreiland we cannot help sympathizing with them. If ings, and entered the street or the market-pla e the principle was a wrong one, as the large re- they dared not, by word or sign, let it be knox

some

one.

that they were Protestants. A law that makes | annihilate. DEATH had ever been the steady and itself ridiculous courts contempt and stimulates faithful ally of this extraordinary woman. Often to disobedience. Nor was the pacification of had he visited the Louvre since the daughter of Amboise more to the taste of the Romanists. the house of Medici came to live under its roof; The concessions it made to the Huguenots, miser- and each visit had advanced the Florentine a able though they were, and accompanied by stage on her way to power. First, the death of limitations which made them a mockery, were the Dauphin-who left no child-opened her way yet, in the opinion of zealous Papists, too large to to the throne. Then the death of her father-inbe made to men to whom it was sinful to make law, Francis I., placed her on that throne by the any concessions at all. The measure was simply side of Henry II. She had the crown, but not un Forkable. Perhaps it never was intended to yet the kingdom ; for the mistress - Diana of be anything else. In those parts where they Poitiers more than divided the influence which Tere numerous, the Protestants disregarded it, ought to have been Catherine's as the wife. The kolding their worshipping assemblies in public ; death of her husband took that humiliating inand the Catholics did what they could

pediment out of her way; but Mary Stuart, the times by underhand means, and sometimes by niece of the Guises, and the wife of the now open violence-to render its provisions nugatory. reigning monarch, profited by the imbecility Neither party accepted the arrangement as a final through which Catherine had hoped to govern.

Both felt that they must yet look each The death of Francis II., only seventeen short other in the face on the battle-field ; but the months after he had ascended the throne, reRomanists were not ready to unsheathe the sword, moved this obstacle, as it had done every previous and so for a brief space there was quiet. If not one; but once more there stood up another, and peace, there was a suspension of hostilities. Catherine had still to wait. Now it was that the

It was now that the star of Catherine de Triumvirate rose and grasped with powerful hand Jedici fairly rose into the ascendant. The the direction of France. Was the patience of the clouds which had hitherto obscured its lustre Italian woman to be always baulked ? No : were now all dispelled, and it blazed balefully Death came again to her help. The fortune of forth in the firmament of France. That woman battle and the pistol of the assassin rid her of the had waited thirty years; for so long was it since, Triumvirate. The Duke of Guise was dead : borne over the waters of the Mediterranean in the rival to her power there no longer existed. The gaily-decked galleys of Pisa, she had entered the way so long barred was open now, and Catherine port of Marseilles, amid the roar of cannon and boldly placed herself at the head of affairs ; and the shouts of assembled thousands, to give her this position she continued to hold, with increashand in marriage to the second son of the King ing calamity to France and deepening infamy to of France. She was then a girl of sixteen, radiant herself, till almost her last hour. as the country from which she came—her eyes all This long delay, although it appeared to be adfire, her face all smiles, a strange witchery in her verse, was in reality in favour of the queen-mother. every look and movement; but in contrast with If it gave her power late, it gave it her very sethese fascinations of person was her soul, which was curely. When her hour at last came, it found her encompassed with a gloomy superstition, which in the full maturity of her powers. She had had might more fittingly be styled a necromancy than time to study, not only individual men, but all the a faith. She came with a determined purpose of parties into which France was divided. She had making the proud realm on which she had just a perfect comprehension of the genius and temper stepped bow to her will and minister to her of the nation. Consummate mistress of an art pleasures, although it should be by sinking it not difficult of attainment to any Italian—the art into the depth of pollution or drowning it in an of dissembling - with an admirable intellect for ocean of blood. For thirty years had she waited, intrigue, with sense enough not to scheme too foreseeing the goal afar off, and patiently bending finely, and with a patience long trained in the to obstacles she had not the power summarily to school of waiting, and so not likely to hurry on

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measures till they were fully ripe, it was hardly | convenient moment, which future years might possible but that the daughter of the Medici bring, she would be able to fall upon them and would show herself equal to any emergency, and cut them off, either by sudden war or by sudden would leave behind her a monument which should and secret massacre. Doubtless what slie now tell the France of after-times that she had once sketched was a olicy of a general kind : content governed it.

to fix its great outlines, the details she could til Standing as she now did on the summit, it in afterwards, as circumstances arose and opporwas natural that Catherine should look around tunity offered. Accordingly, the Huguenots had her, and warily choose the part she was to play. gracious looks, soft words, but no substantial She had outlived all her rivals at court, and the benefits, from the queen-mother. Her policy was Huguenots were now the only party she had to as intangible but as destructive to the Protestants fear. What policy should she adopt towards “ the pestilence that walketh in darkness." them? Should she, after the example of the There was a truce to open hostilities; but blood

? Guises, continue to pursue them with the sword, was flowing all the while. Private murder stalked or should she hold out to them the olive-branch | through France; and short as the period was since of peace? This was a question at that hour not the pacification had been signed, not fewer than easily answered. Catherine felt that she never three thousand Huguenots had fallen by the could be one with the Huguenots. That would poniard of the assassin. In truth, there was ru imply a breach with all the traditions of her longer in France only one nation. There were house and a change in the whole habits of her now two nations on its soil. The perfidy ard life which was not to be thought of. Nor could wrong which had marked the whole policy of the she permit France to embrace the Protestant court had so deeply parted between Huguenot creed; for the country would thus descend in the and Romanist, that not the hope only but the scale of nations, and would embroil itself in a wish for conciliation had passed away. The part war with Italy and Spain. But, indeed, France Catherine de Medici had imposed upon herself showed no great desire to complicate the path of of standing well with both, and bolding the poise Catherine by becoming Protestant. But, on the between the two, yet ever making the preponderother side, there were several serious consider- ance of encouragement and favour to fall on the ations which had to be looked at. The Hugue-Catholic side :-- was an extremely difficult one ; ; nots were a powerful party : their faith was but her Italian nature and her discipline of thirty i spreading in France; their counsels were guided years made the task, which to another would have and their armies were led by the men of the been impossible, to her comparatively easy. greatest character and intellect in the nation. Her first care was to mould her son, Charles IX., Moreover, they had friends in Germany and Eng- into her own likeness, and fit him for being an land who were not likely to look quietly on and instrument, pliant and expert, for her purpose. see them driven to the wall. To continue the Intellectually he was superior to his brother, war seemed very inadvisable. Catherine had Francis II., who during his short reigu had been now no general able to cope with Coligny since treated by both wife and mother as an imbecile, a.d the duke's death, and it was uncertain on which when dead was buried like a pauper. Charles II side victory might ultimately declare itself. The is said to have discovered something of that liteHuguenot army was inferior in numbers to that rary taste and ästhetic appreciation which were of the Catholics, but it surpassed it in bravery, the redeeming features in the character of his in devotion, and discipline; and the longer the grandfather, Francis I. In happier circumstances, conflict lasted, the greater were the numbers that he might have become a patron of the arts, and flocked to the Huguenot standard. It was toler- have found scope for his fitful energy in the ably clear that Catherine must conciliate the harnıless pursuits of the hunting-field; but what Protestants; yet all the while she must labour manly grace or noble quality could flourish in an to diminish their numbers, weaken their influence, air so fetid as that of the Louvre ? The atmoscurtail their privileges, in the hope that at some phere in which he grew up was foul with cor

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ruption, impiety, and blood. To fawn on those mementoes of Huguenot iconoclast zeal. In he mortally disliked, to cover bitter thoughts some parts monasteries demolished, crosses overwith sweet smiles, and to caress till ready to turned, images mutilated, offered a spectacle exstrike, were the unmanly and unkingly virtues in ceedingly depressing to pious souls, and over trliich Charles was trained. His mother sent all which the devout and tender-hearted daughter of the way to her own native city of Florence for a the Medici could scarcely refrain from shedding man to superintend the education of the prince- tears. How detestable the nature of that religion

. Albert Gondi, afterwards created Duke of Retz. -so was the king taught to view the matterOf this man, the historian Brantome has drawn which could prompt to acts so atrocious and imthe following character: “Cunning, corrupt, a liar, pious! He was filled with horror as he gazed on a great dissembler, swearing and denying God the rueful spectacle. He felt that his kingdom like a sergeant.” Under such a teacher, it is not had been polluted, and he trembled—not with a dificult to conceive what the pupil would be well-feigned terror like his mother, but a real come : by no chance could he contract the slight-dread-lest God, who had been affronted by est taint of virtue or honour. What a spectacle

What a spectacle these daring acts of sacrilege, should smite France is this which we are contemplating! At the with judgment; for in that age stone statues and head of a great nation is a woman without moral crossės were religion, and not divine precepts or principle, without human pity, without shame : moral virtues. The impression made upon the a very tigress, and she is rearing her son as the mind of the young king, especially in the southern tigress rears her cub. Unhappy France !—what provinces, where it seemed as if this impiety had 2 dark future begins to project across thee its reached its climax in a general sack of holy buildshadow!

ings and furniture, was never, it is said, forgotten In the summer of 1565 Catherine and her son by him.

It is believed to have inspired his made a royal progress through France. A bril- policy in after-years. liant retinue, composed of the princes of the The queen-mother had another object in view blood, the great officers of state, the lords and in the progress she was now making. It enabled ladies of the court—the dimness of their virtues her, without attracting observation, to gather the concealed beneath the splendour of their robes, sentiments of the neighbouring sovereigns on the

followed in the train of the queen-mother and great question of the age, even Protestantism, and 3. the royal scion. The wondering provinces sent to come to a common understanding with them -- put their inhabitants in thousands to gaze on respecting the measures to be adopted for its - the splendid cavalcade, as it swept, comet-like, suppression. The kings of the earth were "plotpast them.

This progress enabled Catherine ting against the Lord and his anointed ;” and to judge for herself of the relative strength although willingly submitting to the cords with of the two parties in her dominions, and to which the King of the Seven Hills had bound shape her measures accordingly. Onward she them, they were seeking how they might break rent from province to province, and from city the bands of that King whom God hath set upon to city, scattering around her, prodigally, yet the holy hill of Zion. The great ones of the judiciously, smiles, promises, and frowns; and earth did not understand the Reformation, and who knew so well as she when to be gracious, trembled before it. A power which the sword and when to affect a just and stern displeasure ? could slay would have caused them little unIn those places where the Protestants had easiness; but a power which had been smitten arenged upon the stone images the outrages with the sword, which had been trodden down which the Catholics had committed upon living by armies, which had been burned at the stake, men, Catherine took care to intimate emphatically but which refused to die,-a power which, the her disapproval. Her piety was hurt at the sight oftener it was defeated the mightier it became, of the demolition of objects devoted to sacred which started up anew to the confusion of its Uses. She took especial care that her son's enemies from what appeared to be its grave, was attention should be drawn to these affecting a new thing in the earth.

There was a mystery

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