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the present day parables and apologues drawn some modern discussions. No one has given the from trees are among the favourite methods of con- history of the fierce and long-waged controversy veying moral lessons, or of insinuating unpleasant on this subject with more candour and clearness truths in the least offensive manner, over many than our learned fellow-traveller, Mr. Deutsche. parts of the East. We select two from a con- Fuller has written about it with his characteristic siderable number that are mentioned by Mr. quaintness and wit: "For three things, saith Roberts. Does a man in low station wish to Solomon, the earth is disquieted, and the fourth unite his son in marriage to the daughter of one it cannot bear, namely, a handmaid that is heir who is of higher parentage, an Oriental gossip will to her mistress. How much more intolerable say, reporting the fact, “Have you heard that the then is it when a translation which is, or ought to pumpkin wants to be married to the plantain-be, the dutiful servant of the original, shall pretree ?” Or has a man given his daughter in sume (her mistress being extant and in presence) marriage to one who treats her unkindly, he will to take the place and precedency of her, as here say, “I have planted the sugar-cane by the side apographum doth of the autographum, when the of the margossa (bitter) tree.”
Samaritan transcript is by some advanced abore We paid a short visit to the Samaritan syna- the canonical copy in the Hebrew !" gogue. It is a plain oblong building, with three The chief points in the faith of the Samaritans, recesses, and is roofed by two domes supported as stated by themselves, are easily enumeratei on pillars. Our chief wish was to see the famous They believe that there is one God, but deny the MS. of the Samaritan Pentateuch, which is more plurality of persons in the one Godhead, and they precious than the fabled apples of gold to its cus- have even been accused by some of tampering todiers. A copy of a rather juvenile appearance with passages in the Pentateuch which appear to was first shown to us, which did not correspond give pre-intimations of a Trinity. They accept with the descriptions we had read of the original ; the five books of Moses as their only canonical but a seasonable use of the money argument pre- books. They hold every part of the Levitical vailed in drawing forth the genuine article with its law to be still in force, and profess to conform crimson scarf and its other beautiful and costly themselves in all things to its ceremonial requireadornments. We were not allowed to lay our ments. They therefore practise circumcision, and profane fingers on an object so venerable. But keep the Sabbath on the seventh day of the week the portions we saw appeared dim, blotted, and with most rigid literality. They observe the weather-stained—the explanation probably being Passover, the Pentecost, the Feast of Tabernacles that it is that part which is usually shown to and the Great Day of Atonement, on which das visitors, and which is exposed on one of the days they offer a sacrifice of six lambs on tbat part of of their great annual festivals. We were willing Mount Gerizim where they suppose the altar of to believe that it was very old ; but its claim to their temple to have stood. They expect the an antiquity of between three and four thousand advent of the Messiah ; but they conceive of him years, and to have been written by Abishua, the as a mere man, a lawgiver and a prophet inferior grandson of Aaron the high-priest, has no one to Moses, and somehow they have come to mingle to credit it except the Samaritans. Every scholar with this the notion that he will appear when knows how unduly this version was estimated their numbers have been reduced to seventy. They and extolled by learned men for a long period also believe in the resurrection of the dead, and even above the Hebrew original of the books of in a future state of rewards and punishments Moses. But the arguments of Walton did much They have been accused by some of certain to reduce the estimate to its proper level; and the idolatrous practices, such as the worship of Venu laborious investigations of Gesenius have placed under the form of a dove; but this is a chargi the opinion beyond doubt, that with few excep- which has never been proved, and probably those tions it is much less pure than the Masoretic who have made it bave mistaken some mystie text. There are exceptions, however, of a chrono- emblem for an idol. logical kind, which have an important bearing on We confess to our having been curious to ob tain a glimpse into the domestic life of those the old high-priest, our physician's wife was quietly Samaritans, and though their customs and tradi- occupied in a corner in transferring his features tions were against our admission into their house to her drawing-book. When her work was far hold, we succeeded in receiving a welcome, after a advanced, one of the elder children, stealing begood deal of diplomacy. Our physician with his hind her, at once recognized her grandfather's wife found in his profession a charm that threw features. This struck an unexpected chord. The open all doors to him. Three generations were second commandment had been broken! “Woe, living under the same roof, and were even gathered woe be unto thee!” she exclaimed; "for behold into the same apartment, so that it was quite a thine image.” The drawing-book was abruptly sample of patriarchal life. The high-priest him closed. We suspect that in some transactions into self
, with his long snowy beard, had a venerable, which those ecclesiastics sought to drag our learned melancholy look, not without intelligence. His friend from the British Museum, there was not son, the heir-apparent to the high-priesthood, was the same fastidious scrupulosity about some other tal, sharp-featured, and watchful. He wanted parts of the decalogue. Those men have often the native dignity of his father, and his bare legs been accused of greed. But we should be tender ai unsandalled feet certainly did not contribute in judging them. Three generations are dependto his venerableness. The high-priest's eldestent on fifty pounds a year, and on such occagrandson, a youth of twelve years of age, was sional “ bucksheesh” as may be given to them by the most beautiful lad we ever looked upon. travellers like ourselves. Theirs is the avarice of What a noble expanse of brow ! How those want, and not of morbid acquisitiveness. When features had been chiselled with a more than the wolf is often at the door we are in some Grecian gracefulness ! How the ruddy glow of danger of becoming ourselves wolfish. youth beamed and blushed through that bronzed In the afternoon we climbed to the top of skin! Such a youth we can imagine David to Gerizim, eager to look on the site of the old have been when he first came down from his Samaritan temple. We wound our way up a Bethlehem mountains and stood before Saul. We rich valley gorgeous with a splendidly-varied folido not wonder that Holman Hunt has transferred age, and musical with the voice of bright streams, hat boy's features to one of his grandest pictures and with the songs of innumerable birds. Patches of the East. Beside this lad of twelve, there of corn-fields succeeded as the road grew steeper, tood a young Samaritaness of the same age, who and in less than an hour we were on the broad ad already been betrothed to him for years. plateau on the summit. The foundations of the Let not our reader be offended when we mention old schismatic structure which was destroyed a bat the two young creatures were to be married century and a half before Christ, can still be so 1 a few months, for twelve is the statutory age distinctly traced as to give us the ground-plan of or marrying all over Palestine and Syria. the whole building. Indeed, there are parts of It was striking to find the old Levitical law in the walls which at this day are a good many feet al force in this apartment. In one corner the above the surface. We were shown the place ife of the high-priest's eldest son was separated where the six lambs are slain on the great day of ý a regular fence of stones from all around her. the Passover, and the oven of stone in which their he had become a mother three weeks before, and carcasses are roasted whole ; indeed, the calcined required another week to exhaust the prescribed bones and ashes of last year's sacrifice lay in a riod of her separation. Her infant lay in a little little heap before us. To those travellers who it outside the fence. It was lifted out and placed have been so fortunate as to be present at the lour arms-a very tiny Samaritan. Its little nails Samaritan Passover, the spectacle must have graere already reddened with henna, and its bright tified a sentiment much deeper than that of mere es were made to look brighter by artificial ap- curiosity. It must have given a clear and accuiances which had been begun almost from the rate impression of the sacrifices of the old Jewish y of its birth. While we were endeavouring ritual. The slaying of the lambs at sunset, the rough El Karey to keep up a conversation with touching of the worshippers on the forehead with
their warm blood, the roasting of the entire bodies, century will probably see this ecclesiastical Dodo the subsequent feast, until everything was con- in its sepulchre. sumed; and all this in haste, with their loins girt, By five o'clock on the following morning we and with staves in their hands,—were a vivid re- were roused by one of our Arab servants. The enacting of the far and rem past. What a con- poor lad had a very scanty stock of English tospicuous object the Samaritan temple must have cables, and having put himself under the training been when it shone from the lofty summit of this of other servants who knew better, they somemountain! To the travellers coming north from times played upon his simplicity by giving him Bethel, to the dwellers on the far-stretching plain wrong words. His regular morning salutation to of Muckhna, to watchers looking down from the us was, “Good afternoon, my dears," an achievehills of Ephraim, and from the more northerly ment in our language of which he was evidently mountains of Samaria, it must have been an ob- proud ; and we did not disturb his self-comject of mighty fascination. The view from this placency. It is necessary to obey the morning commanding summit was glorious. We could summons promptly, and to avoid all folding of see across the Jordan to the mountain walls of the arms to rest; for those unceremonious felGilead in the far east; we could look down into lows very soon begin to take down your tent, many a valley, and upon many a village em- and if you do not rise at once, you will have të bosomed in its gardens of olive; we could see make your toilet in the open air. An exciting shepherds tending their flocks as they may have hour follows: the rapidly-snatched breakfast; the done in Jacob's days; and now and then, far-off packing of portmanteaus and boxes; the loading Hermon would look through his veil of clouds of mules with monstrous unwieldy bags, tent and show us his sparkling diadem of snow. How poles, cooking utensils, and provisions ; loud cries soon will this Samaritan Church, on whose fading for lost things ; the scolding of servants ; glories we were now treading, be a mere thing of howls of stricken Arabs, and the mounting of history! It will not be absorbed into another restive steeds. But a little after six we were in and purer faith, but it will dry up and die out. motion northward. We had a long ride before With a wondrous tenacity of life, it clings to its us; for that night we were to sleep in Nazaancient birth-place as its last refuge; but another reth.
SCRIPTURE AND NATURE.*
HIS is a remarkable, instructive, and sugges-, Word. The discussion throws new and interesting
tive book. As a whole, the logical arrange- light on several texts of Scripture. The author refere ment is defective; this defect, as a matter approvingly to two papers in this journal in the yeu
of course, involves frequent repetitions. 1866 on “Make the Tree Good,” which he had not seeil But from the nature of the subject, and the manner in till his own work was completed, and which bring out which it is treated, the reader does not lose much by very articulately the same analogies. being led a second time over the same ground. The The last extract-about the form of the cross in badauthor combines a devout belief and love of the Scrip- ding—we give as an example of the author's simple and tures, with an enthusiastic admiration of Nature. He naïve originality. He is careful to make nothing more finds God both in his Word and in his work, and luxuri- of it than a “singular coincidence ;” and if we eschen ates in tracing the same truths on both these parallel superstitious views, the observation of the fact is made lines.
interesting. To those who, by experience of hortiThe specific analogies on which he seizes are the hor- culture, are capable of appreciating the circumstances ticultural processes of engrafting and budding: and the they are arresting and even startling. This present spiritual lessons are given with ingenuity and boldness, writer has often performed the operation: if it should accompanied by a never-failing reverence of the inspired be his fortune to perform it again, the dying of the Lord
Jesus will certainly, in point of fact, be vividly presente * From “Scripture and Nature (Two Immutable Things, Tes- to his mind in the act. As he binds the bud of a bette tifying to Christ; or, The Analogy between Horticulture and Divine Human-Culture, Interpreting the Highest Spiritual
tree, the new creature, on the miniature cross, and wait Truths." London: Hodder & Stoughton.
for a consequent regeneration, he will, through helped the suggestion in this book, hear a still, small voice When grafts or buds are taken from such trecs as bear issuing from the secret chambers of Nature and whis- good fruit, no alteration or failure need be apprehendeil. pering, “ Christ in you, the hope of glory." - ED. (See Rom. iv. 16.)
Another method of grafting, technically called “ bud
ding” (or inoculation), more minute and delicate than I.-ANALOGY BETWEEN ENGRAFTING AND
the former, is the inserting of a “bud” of one tree REGENERATION.
within the bark of another. The result of both methods That particular anomaly of Nature in the practice of is the same in trees, fruits, roses, and others. horticulture, to which attention is now invited-namely, Few persons are ignorant of the difference in taste, tke grafting of trees, is an operation or process very quality, and size, between the acrid, sour crab-apple ammon to the gardener, and well known to all who and some of the choice kinds of apples so universally take an interest in the culture fruits and flowers. | enjoyed ; though many persons may not be aware of And the Scriptures make use of the term and its action the fact that the crab-tree is made, by the process of to illustrate the action of the grace of God—divine grafting, to discontinue bearing crabs, and ever after to grace—by some one, briefly but accurately defined in produce only one or other of the many kinds of this its twofold action as "the good will of God towards us, | favourite fruit. Exactly the same remarks are true in and (equally necessary) the good work of God within relation to our most beautiful specimens of the justly48;" its objective and subjective action.
admired rose as the result of budding on the wild tion of grafting, its action and results, made use of by The operation of grafting in general is assumed to the divine writers in express terms; yet in other pass- be a close representation of the principle or doctrine izes they are strongly implied, and many also are of spiritual regeneration. And the grafted crab-tree kund to be in exact harmony therewith. If, however, and the budded brier are introduced as graphic types these two direct instances had been absent, the illustra- illustrating the potent action of this great doctrine, with tion and the argument they suggest would remain of its attendant circumstances and results. undiminished value. The genius of the gospel sustains That the value of this natural representative of spiritthe idea.
ual things may be the more obvious and its truthfulness The Apostle James, in that laconic and almost only the more apparent, the question may be premised-Has allusion in express terms to this abnormal fact, speaks God, in any other of his creatures, animal or vegetable, of the communication of divine grace as “the ingrafted given any other similar sign or equal emblem of this Word, which is able to save our souls.” And the Apostle fundamental spiritual truth? We venture to think Panl
, in his argument on the Jewish and Gentile Church that he has not. And what adds to its assumed value (Rom. ii. 24), found the then novel process of grafting is this, that it not only harmonizes thoroughly with the to suit his purpose as an illustration, but it so happens inspired teaching in general, in regard to man's recovery that he employed it in a sense “contrary to nature,” as by grace, the specific design being, as in the tree so in he admits—the reverse of the natural grafting, in which the man, to renew the individual nature, and permathe good scion communicates its efficacy to the wild nently elevate the character-it is also so essentially stock. In his argument the good stock imparts its one in kind with that only one other physiological exvirtue to the wild branches, which by the divine power ample recorded in the Scriptures of a somewhat kindred were “ graffed” into it. This only direct mention of change, selected by our Lord and also by St. Paul—that this
process by St. Paul will, in one instance only, be of the seed-corn before alluded to. These are “two again referred to; but his very suggestive indirect state- immutable things,” two witnessing emblems in Nature, ments and allusions in several of his epistles, especially of twin doctrines in grace, upon which depend the in that to the Romans, will be abundantly quoted as glorious hopes of the universal Church. exhibiting by implication the following version of the In pursuing this analogy of the action of natural emblematic gospel of Nature, and as thereby endors- grafting, the God of grace will be seen receiving, as it ing it.
were, witness from himself, the God of Nature. Because In horticulture, grafting is the non-natural, but be- he could appeal to no other, he appeals to himself-to fond estimation, productive and beautiful method of his own instance of a superinduced anomalous work in inserting a small branch or scion of one tree into the another province of his domain ; selecting trees, at the Town-up stock of another, so that the scion may receive head of the vegetable kingdom, to instruct his far nobler tourishment from the stock; and being so nourished, creature Man, at the head of the animal kingdom; and it produces an entirely new tree, like the superior one by his renovating treatment of degenerate trees under from which the scion was taken, and the joint union of human instrumentality, showing his own corresponding the non-natural branch so inserted becomes by growth method of regenerating and recovering to himself fallen as firm and compact as a natural branch.
degenerate men. The use of grafting is to propagate any curious or And assuredly we are not presumptuous in saying, excellent sorts of fruits, so as to be sure of their kinds. How like God it is, that when he would enlighten his people on any of the mysteries of his kingdom by his -the fragrant, brilliant rose ; and in the other, the works in Nature, the emblem employed is never some mystery of “the life of God in the soul of man," making far-fetched prodigy discovered in scme remote cavern, him “ a new creature in Christ Jesus.” nor some curious exotic found growing only in the torrid or frigid zone, where few persons comparatively could
II.—THE ANALOGY AS PRESENTED IN SCRIPTURE. profit by the illustration, its process and results ; but like the freeness of the gospel dispensation and the It is proposed to carry out this inquiry by the aid of plentifulness of our Bible supply, we enjoy the sight of particulars to be ascertained by induction from the the symbols continually around us. We may therefore analogies of Nature-human and vegetable—and from well and wisely feel cautioned by the rebuke akin to the tenor and statements of the written Word; these that of our Lord's to the Jews, “ Ye can discern the are assumed to elucidate, corroborate, and fortify each face of the sky and of the earth ; how is it that you other. The following texts, and many others, assert or do not discern" this significant symbol ? “The Holy imply the relationships under consideration :Ghost this signifying, that the way” into the kingdom John iii. 3.—“Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except of God is by regeneration.
a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom ď The budded standard rose-tree, having a complex God." nature and other typical peculiarities, is selected for 1 Peter i. 23.-"Being born again; not of corruptthe illustration proposed, with occasional allusions to ible seed, but of incorruptible, by the Word of God, who the apple-tree, and to grafting in general. “Who hath liveth and abideth for ever." despised the day of small things ?”
1 Peter ii. 2, 3.—“As newborn babes, desire the sin Numerous are the scriptural similitudes to indicate cere milk of the Word, that ye may grow thereby. If the radical change necessary to salvation, such as the so be ye have tasted that the Lord is gracious.” gift of a new heart and right spirit, the law written in 1 Peter i. 3.-“ Blessed be the God and Father of our the heart, passing from death unto life, from darkness Lord Jesus Christ, who hath begotten us again unto a into marvellous light; but none would appear so thor- lively hope.” oughly to take up the purpose and consecutive appli- James i. 18.—“Of his own will begat he us with the ances of divine grace in the sinner's conversion and Word of truth, that we should be a kind of first-fruiz complete redemption as that of our blessed Lord, of his creatures.” “ Make the tree good," and corroborated by that of the James i. 21.—“Receive with meekness the ingrafted inspired James, already quoted, The Word of God en- Word, which is able to save your souls." grafted, the Word of omnipotent, life-giving, quickening John i. 12, 13.—“As many as received him, to the grace,
“ able to save our souls." And this remark is gave he power to become the sons of God, even to them sustained by the fact that this figure in botany includes which believe on his name. Who were born, not of the the impregnation of the essential qualities of the en- will of man, but of God.” grafted bud or scion, and the argument rests on the Rom. viii. 14, 16, 17, 19.-"As many as are led by principle that like causes produce like effects.
the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God. The Spirit The proposition we are aiming to demonstrate is, that itself beareth witness with our spirit, that we are the in the Christian experience, true scriptural faith, em- children of God: and if children, then heirs; heirs of bracing Christ, the sinner's friend (the result of, or God, and joint-heirs with Christ. The earnest especsimultaneous with, the new birth), is pre-eminently tation of the creature waiteth for the manifestation exemplified by the efficacious action of the transforming the sons of God.” graft in horticulture ; its true analogue, the origin, the 1 John iii. 1, 2.—“Behold, what manner of love the process, the result obviously corresponding, as may be Father hath bestowed upon us, that we should be called seen and tested by references to Scripture in general, the sons of God. Beloved, now are we the sons of God" but especially to the latter portions of revealed truth in Gal. iii. 26, 29.—“Ye are all the children of God by the epistles of Paul, James, Peter, John, and to the faith in Christ Jesus. And if ye be Christ's, then are Hebrews, with our Lord's own profound sayings to the ye Abraham's seed, and heirs according to the promise. same effect.
Gal iv. 6, 7.-"Because ye are sons, God hath sent The painstaking care bestowed on the badded rose- forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, tree by the florist, and the gracious work of the Holy Abba, Father. Wherefore thou art no more a servant, Spirit upon or within regenerated man, present through- but a son; and if a son, then an heir of God through out the whole process in each case a parallel quite Christ." remarkable, and to the attentive observer a profitable “ Make the tree good.” The germinating text from study richly suggestive. Let both subjects be looked the Apostle James has been repeatedly quoted—." Re at, first, in their natural and low estate, and afterwards ceive with meekness the ingrafted Word which is alle in their changed condition, renewed and beautified; to save your souls.” Without going into critical inquiry, they will show, in the one case, the wild, unsightly, whether the Word” here used is of precisely the sanje mischievous brier transformed into the queen of flowers | inport as “the Word” found in the first verse of S6