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with for that time. Although repeated confessions are the time of Benedict XIV. down till now, having united allowed to stand good for scandalous offences, they are not in condemning all sorts of secret societies, and partolerated in a case of heresy. The first confession is admit- ticularly those of free-masons, as heretical. The Pope ted for the secret heretic, never for the dogmatizing here- binds over all the faithful to denounce those belonging tic; and even if a secret heretic should make a second con- to secret societies, and a priest in the confessional canfession, he is treated in the same way as if he had relapsed. not give his penitent absolution, unless the latter gives
The author of these notes possessed a copy of a rare information on this head, even should his nearest relaand valuable work which was used as the text-book of tions be involved in the charge. Of course it is difficult the theory and practice of the Inquisition. It was to procure such charges; but there are few who, at the called “ Directorium Inquisitorum,” the Inquisitors' point of death, will refuse to make them, when perhaps Directory, by Nicholas Eymeric; a folio volume of their hope of heaven is staked upon their confessing. eight hundred pages, containing, besides the common After a liberal has been informed against hy a confessor, text, the notes of Monsignor Pegna, auditor of the the Holy Office proceeds against him in its capacity of Rota, dedicated to the Pope, and printed by authority accuser, and gives notice of the charge to the secretary of of the Senate. According to this book, dogmatizing state, who in turn hands over the case to the police, to heretics, or heresiarchs, as they are also called, are be proceeded with by them as they may think proper. those who not merely hold opinions condemned as Heretics, on the other hand, may be proceeded against heretical by the Church of Rome, but also teach them either by accusation or hy inquisition. In the former either in public or in private (part 2, quest. 39, comm. case, when a person is accused of heresy or suspicion of 64). Such heretics deserve to be informed against with heresy, the tribunal demands witnesses or evidence in out seruple, and those who fail to denounce them fall proof of the accusation at the hands of the accuser. at once under suspicion of heresy by the countenance The witnesses may be relatives of the accused- they they thereby give it. We learn from the sanie source may even be persons of disreputable character; it that favour may be shown to heretics in three ways: matters not who or what they are, when any kind of first, by negligence or omission ; second, by fact or co- testimony constitutes proof. After one or two witnesses operation ; third, by counsel. In the case of magi- have been examined, the accused is apprehended. The strates, all negligence in prosecuting heretics exposes arrest is made early in the evening. Two of the police them to the charge of favouring them ; whilst, as re- connected with the Inquisition drive up in a hired cargards private individuals, the simple fact of their not riage to the house of the accused, seize him, seal up his inforcing is sufficient to criminate them as aiders and papers, and hurry him off in the vehicle. This is proabettors. The offence of being suspected of heresy is cedure by accusation. Procedure by inquisition is somecommitted in three ways, or to speak more correctly in what different. An inquisitor, who has suspicions of a the language of inquisitorial jurisprudence, there are person's orthodoxy, sets spies abont him, to watch everythree various grades of suspect. The first is the lightly thing he says or does. At the same time they serve as witsuspected (levis suspicio), so called because the suspicion nesses, uintil the inquisitor has gathered snfficient informis founded on slight conjecture, as in the case of a ation to complete the case, when the individual is imperson who attends secret meetings, the business trans- prisoned. As soon as he enters the dungeon, a formal acted at which remains a mystery. The second is the minute of his conduct is drawn up, describing minutely strongly suspected (vehemens suspicio), a case in which the demeanour of the prisoner at the moment of his suspicion is based on much stronger conjecture, as when arrest, stating whether or not he looked surprised, a person associates with heretics, conceals them, gives whether he tried to escape, whether he was alone or in I receives presents from them, or adopts any similar company with any one, what he did, and what he said. line of conduct toward them. The third grade consists If he declines to sign this document, it is immediately of those who are violently suspected (violenta suspicio), taken as proof presumptive of his guilt. He is next as occurs in the case of those who willingly receive stripped by the police, and his clothing subjected to the spiritual consolation from heretics, frequent their meet- closest scrutiny. The object of this is to remove out of ings, and so forth. Suspects of the first grade are sum- reach of the accused anything by which the prisoner moned to the Holy Office, and compelled to make abjur- might commit suicide, as well as to discover any cabalation; those of the second are dealt with by imprison-istic sign or amulet about the person. The archives of ment and torture; those of the third grade must be the Holy Office contain many things of this sort, once treated as regular heretics.
considered magical ; as, for instance, ciphers, rings of
singular make, tresses of hair, which, being regarded as THE FORM OF CRIMINAL PROCESS,
amulets, form part of the process, and are adduced in When the Sacred Office has recourse to imprisonment, evidence as proof of the prisoner's heresy. its anthority is directed against three classes: the literals, the heretical, and the scandalous. The liberals,
TREATMENT OF PRISOXERS--TORTURE. properly so-called, would not naturally fall under the Once immured within the gloomy precincts, the treatobservation of the Inquisition but for the popes, from ment of the prisoners varies very much according to the quality of their offences. Generally speaking, those who A word or two upon the forms of torture actually are in prisoned for moral or political offences are treated practised at the present day in the Inquisition still with tenderness and liberality. They have a large supply remains to be said.' Since the year 1815, when the of wholesome food, and every reasonable indulgence is torture was abolished in the Papal States, physical torallowed them. This, of course, is done for a purpose. ture-that is, torture by fire, water, and the rope--has Those who experience this gentle regimen belong to likewise been put an end to by the Inquisition. For the class who are sure to return to the world at no these another species has been substituted, called moral distant date, and are thus able to contradict the re- torture, consisting either of hunger, or darkness, or ports in common circulation regarding the horrors of excess of light, or suffocation by impure air. The torture the Inquisition. The poor heretics, however, who of darkness is thus inflicted: the chanuber is hung round are not expected to mingle again in society, could with black cloth, and the windows hermetically closed, tell a somewhat different tale as to the usage they so that not the faintest ray of light can glimmer through. receive. Their diet is regulated on a totally different This is usually administered to women and persons of a principle from that of their more fortunate neigh- nervous temperament. The individual shut np there bours : their daily rations consisting of a small quan- sees nothing and hears nothing, except perhaps when he tity of wretched soup, a morsel of beef, and a pound is now and then startled by terrible noises mysteriously of black bread. Liberties and indulgences they have sounded into his cell. These tortures last seven or eight none, being never allowed to see any visitor. In this days in succession, and when the poor emaciated sufferer, respect also--the amount of liberty extended to the pri- almost beside himself with terror, is conducted before soners-another essential difference appears between the his tormentors for examination, he almost necessarily privileged and the unprivileged classes. The former are says everything they want him to say. There is another not only allowed to walk up and down, and converse species of torture still in use, less cruel indeed, but with each other in the spacious corridors, but the father-much more immoral. The authorities profess to be companions and inquisitorial notaries frequently come touched with pity for the prisoner, and have him reto pay them visits. Other indulgences are granted moved to a larger and better cell, where he finds the them,-such as permission to write, and receive visits; companionship of a fellow-prisoner, an improvement in indeed, they want for nothing that can be reasonably his living, and attention paid him. His companion, wished for in a prison. It is understood that they will however, is nct really a prisoner, but a turnkey put soon be released, and they are treated accordingly. In there to induce him to talk. After he has opened his fact, the rigours of the place vary in exact proportion heart freely and unsuspiciously to his apparently symto the depth of the heretical taint. Thus, those im- pathetic friend, he is conveyed back to his old quarters, prisoned on a charge of disseminating heretical tenets and the knave who has deceived him commits the conare treated with the utmost possible harshness. The fessions of his victim to writing, makes some observations prisons assigned to them are the very worst in the of his own, and confirms the whole with his oath. We establishment, as it is certain that no heresiarch, ex- must say that the Inquisition has made progress : cept by a special intervention of Providence, will ever appliances like this are better suited than the rack to come out alive.
Mye @burch in the house.
BY THE EDITOR,
Aots xiii. 13-43.
These missionaries told the governor that God is love, THE ISLES OF GREECE AND THE COAST OF ASIA.
and that he so loved the world that he gave his only Son to save the lost. They told him that God, in our
nature, had given himself a sacrifice, the just for the HE judgments of the Lord's hand opened a unjust. As this doctrine fell on the governor's ears, his
way into the heart of Sergius for the Lord's heart melted. Felix trembled, and returned to his sin: word. That word, when it entered, filled Sergius trembled, and cleaved to Christ. One is taken,
him with wonder. “He was astonished at and another left. the doctrine of the Lord.” After the storm and the Poor Sergius had lived up to this time in a dark, thunder, the “still, small voice" asserted its power. sunless world. He was uneasy, and knew not what The story of the cross was a new thing to the Roman. ailed him. He craved for light, and yet knew not where It was not like the doctrine of the Greek philosophers : to find it. We know that he longed for something to it was not like the doctrine of the Jewish soothsayer
. I satisfy his soul, for he kept the Jewish magician hang
ing about his court. He clutched a shadow ; and this This is the beginning of his course ; and what a course ! showed at least that he had an appetite for the sub- No mere man has left his mark so deep and broad stance. In his darkness he had heard of this man's
upon this world.
No conqueror, ancient or modern, pretensions, and sent for him. “ Can you strike some can be compared with this wandering Jew, either as to light for us, stranger ? for we are in darkness unen- the magnitude or the beneficence of his influence on durable here. Give us some light for our souls, if you the character and history of the Iruman race. can, by your magical arts.” To such a man, in such a There is a tendency in our day to escape from some mood, the doctrine of the Lord, when it was unfolded, of the doctrines which Paul has clearly expressed and was like the sunlight bursting through the primeval fully expounded in his epistles. These doctrines are by mist upon a hitherto benighted world. It was sight to some persons disliked, and therefore disbelieved. In the blind, and life to the dead.
connection with this subject some indisputable facts Paul had already taken the lead in the interview with should be carefully noted and remembered. These deep Sergius; and he keeps it, now when the missionary abstract doctrines which Paul taught—the doctrines of conpany take leave of Cyprus, and make for the main- justification by faith and pardon through a sacrificeland of Asia Minor.
communicated the impulse to the greatest practical life The immediate reason why Cyprus was chosen as the known to history. These were the impelling motives of field of operation when the mission first started for the largest and most fruitful of human lives. It was Antioch, was probably the connection of Barnabas with by the proclamation and inculcation of these doctrines that island as the place of his birth. Perhaps the that the old things of human civilization were swept journey north ward to the province of Pamphylia now away and all things were made new. In them lay the was in like manner due to the predominance which power that turned the world upside down. Those who Paul had attained in the councils of the company. nibble at the Pauline dogmas should take along with They sailed from Paphos, on the western shore of their criticisms the fact that these dogmas have in very Cyprus, to the nearest point of the neighbouring con- deed put forth more power to inould the character and tinent
. The landing-place was not, indeed, in Cilicia, destinies of humanity than any or all other doctrines Pauls native province, but it was in the bordering put together. territory, and must have been familiar to him in his As soon as the missionary group reached the mainyouth.
land, Mark left them and returned to Jerusalem. We "* Paul and his company loosed from Paphos and came do not exactly know his reasons; but we know that Paul to Perga in Pamphylia.” The great work is begun; thought them insufficient, and publicly blained the act. the messengers run to and fro ; knowledge of the Lord So much did he disapprove of Mark's conduct at this is increased. Forth from Jerusalem the word has gone ; time, that at a subsequent stage he refused to accept and it will never be shut up within one nation again. him as a companion, although that refusal implied The word has come to the world ; the people who sat separation from his beloved Barnabas. Possibly Mark in darkness saw a great light.
may have been offended by the change that had silently These isles of Greece !-green spots that stud the been effected in the leadership of the expedition. When bosom of the sea, and stud our memories too from child- he left Antioch as the junior colleague, his uncle Barnahood with romantic associations-we think of them as bas was at its head; but when he left Paphos the whole the early home of the arts, at a time when our country group passed under the designation of "Paul and his was the hunting-ground of barbarians. These isles of company.” Barnabas hiniself was superior to such Greece ! —we remember, with youth's enthusiasm, that jealousy ; but it does not follow that the younger on the waters which surround them the battle of liberty evangelist altogether escaped the tinge. was fought and won, when the small Greek communities Leaving Perga, on the coast, the two elder missionbroke the power of the Persian inonarchy, as the aries penetrated to Antioch in Pisidia-a much less coantry's rocky shores broke the waves of the Medi- | important city than the Antioch from which the expeterranean.
dition sailed—and there opened their commission as But on the page of Scripture a more entrancing scene preachers of Christ's gospel. They modestly entered is displayed. The feet of the men who publish salvation the synagogue on the Sabbath, and sat down among the tread the isles of Greece, and touch the waters that ordinary worshippers. The elders in charge conducted lave its shores. These heralds proclaim to the nations the usual service in the usual way, and then sent a peace with God throngh the one Mediator. The barqne message inviting the strangers to address the assembly. that bore the missionaries of the cross was buoyed up Paul is the spokesman abroad, as Peter had been at on the same waters that carried those classic navies home. Having been led to the proper place, he waved which bore back the tide of invasion from their shores: his hand as a token for silent attention, and proceeded lat a greater than classic fleet is here ; here greater with his address. victory is won, and a more precious liberty achieved. If Following the method of Stephen, which he doubtless the Son make you free, you shall be free indeed. remembered well, he sought an entrance to the sanctuary
The apostle of the Gentiles is now fully under way. of the gospel through the vestibule of venerated Hebrew
history. When he had carried his sketch down to the in the establishment of his kingdom. But false teachers time of David, he turned aside from the narrative and have in all times availed themselves of the combined plunged into his main theme-presented David's Son weakness and strength of the feminine nature for their to the faith of David's subjects.
own ends. They find in many women the religious At the clos of the sermon, wh the bulk of the element strong, and the faculty of judgment comparacongregation dispersed, a band of earnest inquirers, tively weak. By the weak side they enter in and take partly Jews, but for the most part Gentiles, remained possession; when orice in, they wield the strong side with the missionaries—their appetites quickened, not for their own purposes. The Romish hierarchy have satisfied, by what they had heard. Pleasant excitement always made much of female agency, and especially the it must have been to these fishers for men when they agency of women in high social rank. felt many grasping and drawing. Fuller explanation But as Christ himself employed their tenderness, and was given in private to all the inquirers, and a promise patience, and perseverance in his own cause, he has enmade, in answer to their eager request, that the same couraged his disciples in all ages to go and do likewise. doctrines would be taught in the synagogue next Sabbath- Let woman stand on her true foundation, the family; day. I think those men of Antioch who remained after and forth from that citadel let her go to her daily task the sermon to converse with the ministers would have wherever the Lord hath need of her service : but back many thoughts and conversations on the subject during to the family let her ever return, as to her refuge and the week. When they came up to the house of God next rest. Colonies of women, cut off from family relations Sabbath they were sure of the blessing; for the finding and affections and duties, and bound by vows, are misis, in the Lord's promise, made sure to those who seek. chievous to themselves, and, notwithstanding superficial
apparent advantages, in the long-run dangerous to the community. God made the family; man made the
convent. God's work ! behold it is very good; man's THE BEGINNING OF THE GOSPEL IN ASIA MINOR.
is in this case a snare. Acts xiii. 44-52 ; xiv. 1.
The unbelieving Jews, through secret influence and It is remarkable that Paul, though rejected by his public authority combined, succeeded in driving the own countrymen at Jerusalem, and sent out as the missionaries away from Antioch. On their part, the apostle of the Gentiles, yet uniformly addressed himself missionaries, with the symbolic protest of shaking the first to the Jews wherever he found them. He main- dust from their feet, made the best of their way to tained the spirit of the Lord's rule, when compliance Iconium, filled, as they fled, "with joy and with the with the letter was no longer possible,-“ beginning at Holy Ghost.” Jerusalem.” The Jews of the dispersion participated It is not enough to say that they were joyful although in the privilege : the first offer was always made to the they were persecuted ; for they were joyful because they seed of Abraham. In each case the gospel was presented were persecuted. Suffering made them glad, because it to the heathen when it was rejected by the Jews. was a distinct fulfilment of their Master's word. He
When the Greek inhabitants of the city came out in warned them that these troubles would overtake them mass to hear the gospel, the Jews were envious, and for his name's sake. Now that they have experience of violently opposed the apostles. In his defence Paul cruel treatment at Antioch, they are convinced of two quotes a promise (Isa. xl. 6 ; Luke ii. 32), calling it a things,—that the Lord saw the end from the beginning, command. It is eminently instructive to observe that and that they are on the right way. The way was when God promises light to the Gentiles, Christians rough indeed, but its roughness was a mark by which understand the word as an order to themselves to spread they knew it to be right. It was a uniform experience, the light in the dark places of the earth. When God that wherever their word told, enemies rose up against proclaims that the thing shall be done, true disciples of them. Wherever they met with great success, there Christ go forth to do it. They count the promise a they met with great opposition. As soon as the door of command, and render themselves instruments of right- opportunity opened, a crowd of adversaries rushed in. eousness unto God. The result was, “ the word of the This was according to law. Where the heaviest blow is Lord was published through all that region.” They dealt against his kingdom, there the god of this world rightly understood the Scripture, “Work, for it is God gathers all his forces for defence. When the ants' hill that worketh in you.”
is stirred, the busy little angry creatures rush out in Besides appealing to the civic authorities against the crowds to the rescue. missionaries, the Jews, in their eagerness to obstruct In this passage we read of two distinct and opposite the work, secretly enlisted the services of certain women, fillings. The Jews were filled with envy ; the apostles high in social position, and full of superstitious zeal, to with joy. These were tormented before the time by an counteract the effects of the preached word. This is an evil spirit indwelling; those enjoyed a foretaste of agency that has from the beginning been sought and heaven's happiness in the Holy Spirit as a spirit of joy used both for good and for evil. Wonen were employed possessing their hearts. by the Lord himself for certain appropriate ministries Iconium, the place in which the missionaries nest sought refuge and employment, was the nearest town to were instigated to action by the more positive enmity of the east, and lying within the limits of another pro- the Jews. Instead of being intimidated by the convince. Though they had been persecuted at Antioch bined opposition of Greeks and Hebrews, the preachers for preaching Christ there, the first thing they did when of the gospel remained longer and spoke more boldly bethey reached Iconium was to preach Christ. The fire cause the enmity was redoubled. They spoke boldly. burned in their breasts, and they could not restrain it: " in the Lord,” and so they were enabled to speak boldly Woe is unto me if I preach not the gospel !
for the Lord. Their courage sprang from their faith. They entered the synagogue as before, and preached There was a division among the people, and a commoto the congregation at the close of the usual service. tion in the city. There was peace in the neighbourhood A rumour regarding the extraordinary power of their before Paul and Barnabas arrived. It is probable that preaching had preceded them, and accordingly a great some accused these preachers as the cause of the strife. miscellaneous crowd of Jews and Greeks were assembled They would then remember the words of the Lord Jesus, to hear. Again the immediate result was the conver- how he said, "I came not to send peace ou the earth, sion of many, both Jews and Greeks. The high and but a sword.” When the community is dead in sin, to broad partition that divided these classes was giving throw the word of life into the stagnant mass necesway. That mountain had begun to flow down at the sarily disturbs it. Although the Redeemer is Prince of presence of the Lord.
Peace, he is not satisfied with the serenity of a dead sea. An intimation occurs here, worthy of careful regard He casts in a solvent whose nature it is in the first inby all who undertake any work for Christ's kingdom - stance to arouse and separate. The peace which he ** They so spake that a great multitude believed.” We values is the purity which is reached through conflict. are often warned that the power of the gospel does not People must take sides when the cross of Christ is depend on excellency of speech or man's wisdom-that preached in time, as they must take sides when the the harvest is due to the vitality of the seed on the one throne of Christ is set in eternity. hand, and the sun and rain of heaven on the other, not When the persecution reached such a height that it to the sower's skill. All this is true ; and yet it re- threatened their lives, the missionaries retired from the mains that, by divine appointment, the instrument has city, according to the law of the Lord for that case laid a place, and the result is to some extent affected by down—“When they persecute you in one city,
flee ye the manner in which the ministry is conducted. into another.” They took refuge in Lystra and Derbe,
It is expressly announced that the manner in which cities of Lycaonia, whose site is not now accurately the word was preached had something to do with the known. “There they preached the gospel.” This was numbers who believed in Iconium. All preaching that the work of their life; this was their ruling passion; it is equally orthodox and faithful is not equally successful. was a passion, and it ruled them. They cared indeed The preacher should publish the gospel in "acceptable for life, and fled when death threatened them ; but they words;" and acceptable words should be “sought out" valued life, and sought to preserve it, mainly for the work by careful study, if they do not readily leap to the lips. that life enabled them to perform. They preserved life There must be labour, and skill, and perseverance ; in order that they might preach; but they would not there must be the exhibition of human tenderness, as cease to preach in order that they might continue to well as the possession of secret faith. We should ply live. the work of winning as if all depended on our own ex- A cripple was healed at Lystra, and the act became ertions ; and yet cry to the Lord for power, as if we the occasion of an incident characteristic of the prevailcould do nothing. When it is intimated that the ing idolatry. The imagination of the polytheistic Greeks apostles so preached that a great multitude believed, immediately invested the missionaries with divine attrigreat honour is put on the ministry, and great responsi- butes, and acknowledged them as human impersonations bility on the minister. In particular, it does not be- of two of their deities–Jupiter, the chief; and Mercury, corne any minister of Christ to fling out the challenge his attendant minister. It is worthy of notice, in passing, hard and dry to his audience,- Accept this message or that the primitive idea of making the tallest king still reject it ; and if you reject it you perish, and your blood prevailed in that region. Barnabas, as the more comwill be upon your own heads. It may be necessary to manding presence, was made to represent Jupiter; while give that challenge, but he should give it “weeping :” Paul, whose spiritual supremacy they were unable to if the expression of it do not rend the speaker's heart, understand, was placed in the position of a subordinate. it is not likely to melt the hearts of the hearers.
Promptly following up their wild belief with an equally wild practice, they forthwith led garlanded oxen to the place of sacrifice at the gate, and were about to
slay them as propitiatory offerings to the supposed ONCE WAS I STONED.
celestial visitants, when the apostles, shocked by the
blind and guilty superstition of the people, ran in among The native heathen did not take the initiative in per- them, and summarily suppressed the horrid design. The secuting the apostles; they remained passive, until they address which the missionaries delivered to the idolaters
ACT8 xiv. 2-21.