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second Street. Near it are the apartments of the janitor, who will take charge of the building. The architect of the building was Mr. J. C. Cady, who is also the superintendent of the mission, and who has for

some time studied the wants and proper character of such buildings, in light both of his profession and office. The cost of the building has been £6000, exclusive of the land. It was dedicated on Sunday last.

THE HEAD-QUARTERS OF THE INQUISITION.*

FROM THE ITALIAN.

V that quarter of Rome adjoining the Piazza, formed of two stories, ornamented with pillars ; but

of the Vatican, between St. Peter's Church about the middle of the seventeenth century, the front and the Castle of St. Angelo, stands a of the lower story was blocked up to provide for the

street bearing the ominous name of the construction of new prisons, probably in consequence of Inquisition. The edifice from which the locality derives some of the secret subterraneous chambers having been its name was partially constructed about the middle of abandoned about that time. The remainder of this the sixteenth century ; the remainder is a fragment of second section, to which no admittance was allowed, a severe and simple order of architecture, characteristic was specially set apart for the use of the familiars of the of the age in which it was built, and still retaining traces Inquisition. In all probability, the third portion of the of the departing greatness of the Roman people. The building, which was never finished, had been intended main building is composed of three parts, the external for a similar purpose. The left wing was entirely wantform of which presents to view two right-angles and a ing; but a thick high wall, running transversely across trapezium, coupled together; the whole structure being the vacant space, effectually precluded the slightest poscut off from communication with the adjacent houses, sibility of observation. doubtless with a view to prevent the curious eyes of the outer world from penetrating the dark secrets of the

REVELATIONS OF 1849. place. The first rectangular portion, abutting on the On the fourth of April 1949, it was decreed (by the street, once belonged to a member of the Sacred College; Roman Republic) that these buildings, formerly used by but Pope Pius V. having acquired possession of the the Holy Office, should be converted into dwellings for property, made some additions to it, and handed it over those families of the poor whose actual house accommoto the Inquisition. It consists of two flats, adorned dation happened to be unhealthy or insufficient. It was with Tuscan columns, the façade being quite plain. The on that occasion that those gates, which had not been second part, constructed after the first, and in the same opened for three centuries, fell back for the first time to style, differs from it merely in the greater simplicity and admit the surging populace of Rome. Nor was this all. smaller size of its proportions. It had been originally One day, the Government of the Republic finding itself

under the necessity of providing stables for the artillery

horses of the National Guard, chose for the purpose one * Louis Desanctis, an eminent Italian preacher, professor, and writer, was born and educated at Rome. He was well qualified, of the buildings of the Inquisition, beneath the closed by his long experience and high position, to speak with authority

colonnade of the second court-yard. The chief inquisiupon the subject of the Roman Inquisition. Besides filling a Chair of Theology and discharging the multifarious duties of a

tor, a Dominican friar, was still in residence ; but notparish priest in his native city, he was for several years Censor withstanding the inveterate hatred cherished by the Emeritus in the Theological Academy of the Roman University, Prosynodal Examiner to Cardinal Micara, Dean of the Sacred

people towards the priests, they gave him no trouble. College, and for ten years Qualificator or Professional Theologian After he had made his protest against the proceedings, to the Inquisition.

the necessary measures were immediately taken to put Having become thoroughly convinced, by a long course of thought and study, of the false and unscriptural character of the

the place in order. When it was found indispensable, Papacy, he resigned his various honours and emoluments, sacri- for stabling the horses, to dig through an inner wall, it ficed his brilliant prospects to his matured convictions of truth

was not long before the masons engaged in the work and duty, and withdrew from Rome into exile at Malta in 1847. The subsequent years of his life at Geneva, Turin, Genoa, and struck upon something hollow in the thickness of the latterly at Florence, were devoted to the work of training young wall. A trap-door was at once discovered. Pushing men for the ministry of the Protestant Church, to preaching the gospel, and to literary effort in the cause of Italian evangeliza

forward, and quickly removing the impediments in their tion. He died at Florence on the 31st of December 1869, at the way, they dropped down into a subterraneous chamber age of sixty-one. His series of smaller treatises on the “Mass," Confession," Purgatory," &c., are highly popular in Italy, and

of no great size, damp and dark, without an outlet, and have proved most useful as pioneers to the right study of the with no other floor than the bare soil, which was as Bible. His largest and most valuable work, called “Roma black and clammy as that of any cemetery.

Here and Papale,” was first published in this country in the shape of letters to a London newspaper. The Italian edition has been greatly

there fragments of old clothes were scattered about, improved by the addition of extended notes, which throw a clear evidently all that was left of the unfortunate wretches and striking light on the inner life of modern Rome.

who had been hurled in through the trap, and left to extracts which follow are taken from these notes.--Translator's

die, some of their wounds, some of terror, others of

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anguish, others still of hunger. No long time elapsed | top cover of a tomb. On removing it, the yawning before the men who handled this heavy damp mould aperture of a vault was at once disclosed to view, redetected in it human bones and bits of scalp, covered vealing what inquisitors sometimes called a “ Go in with long hair like that of women. There can be no peace.” There, when the stone was firmly sealed down manner of doubt whaterer that, when it was for the upon the condemned man's head, with neither light nor interests of the Holy Office to obliterate all traces of sound ever penetrating again from the world, the vicobnoxious individuals, the Inquisitorial authorities made tim, buried alive within four dumb, cold walls, and left use of this identical trap-door to destroy their victims. to die of hunger, was said to have a “ Go in peace.The conduit or passage through which the unfortunates One portion of this subterraneous quarter has been were precipitated into this living sepulchre corresponds stopped up during last century, as an examination of with the first floor of the second portion of the building the walls will show. Old wainscotting, church ornain general, and in particular with the entrance to the ments, canvas painted for the displays of high festivals, second father-companion's room, which again leads by had been piled up in a confused heap in one corner ; a secret passage into the hall of the tribunal.

and after clearing away the rubbish, the workmen disEvery dungeon, whether on the first or second floor, covered traces of a stone staircase wrought in the thickconsists of a small cell, capable of containing little more ness of the wall. At the top of about thirty steps this than one person. These cells are separated from each stair gave admission to a small room, which served as other by a long, narrow, cloister-like passage, the walls ante-chamber to other apartments of a similar descripof which are covered with pictures and inscriptions, tion, but of a larger size — the very prisons erected by most of them bearing the impress of the terrors of the Pius V. The earth there was still mixed with lime; place. Over the entrance of the doors opening into this and the ingenious cruelty of the man had constructed silent corridor, there is hung a large portrait of the in the thick masonry such niches as recalled to mind Saviour - painted, not according to the common evan- the holes in the ancient catacombs. In some of these gelical traditions, with an expression of benignity or horrid dungeons the inmates had been buried alive, SOTTON, but threatening and stern, after the manner of after being immersed to the shoulders in earth mixed the Inquisition. It was in those cells --- in which with lime. This follows clearly from the posture of Napoleon had placed the correctional police — that the the corpses found in that dismal abode. In their attiHoly Office specially guarded the monks and nuns. tude and appearance one could still read the convulsive Several, indeed, were still furnished with beds ; but filth movements made in the last moments of existence to and disorder were the prevailing features - cushions, extricate themselves from the grip of the lime, ere it torn counterpanes, broken chairs, tables turned upside finally and for ever pinioned their limbs in its iron grasp. down, lay mixed up here and there with the clothing of Other bodies had been placed in a horizontal position, the prisoners. In other cells appeared significant tokens and were found lying alongside of each other; whilst the of mysteries still more revolting; such as a woman's skulls, which had been detached from them, were seen tippet, the bonnet apparently of a young girl of ten or heaped up in a corner. twelve years, wooden shoes, thick cords commonly worn The rest of the building contained nothing remarkby nuns, a distaff, tiny baskets filled with medals and able. The hall, in which the sittings of the tribunal rosaries, an unfinished stocking with the knitting- were held, stands in the interior of the first building. needles still left in it, a child's toy, and an infant's It is simple in the extreme, and possesses no ornaments sleeping-dress. The walls are covered on all sides with except a colossal statue of Pius V. Above the fatherinscriptions traced by the hands of the prisoners : some inquisitor's seat a crucifix surmounts a picture repreof them have evidently been dictated by feelings of grief | senting the Church in the act of trampling out heresy; and despair, but the larger number express sentiments whilst close at hand is the terrible Dominic Guzman, of resignation. The subterraneous vaults which lie with his dog carrying a torch between his teeth. A below the two first court-yards have communications door opens on either side of the president's seat; the with each other. The most of those which are entirely one on the right leading to the first father-corapanion's isolated have trap-doors similar to those above-men- room, that on the left to the room of the second fathertioned, through which the victims were swallowed up companion. These two officers were appointed to assist alive. Some of these subterraneous vaults have been the supreme procurator in the discovery of offences, but transformed into cellars for the use of the monks on especially in the conversion of the condemned from the duty as inquisitors; and-cruel mockery !-still hanging errors they had espoused. This latter function they from the vaulted roof might be seen the enormous iron discharged in a characteristic manner. When, at the rings which, after doing service in putting innocent close of the trial, the tribunal judged it expedient to get victims to the torture, were used to hang up in the cool rid of the condemned as quietly as possible, the prisoner air of the cellar the bloodthirsty Dominican’s stock of was conducted to the first father, who exhorted him to provisions. In one dungeon, upon the ground-floor of repent and throw himself on the divine compassion. the second division of the building, there was found set He was then plied with a series of insidious questions, into the pavement a square, flat stone, resembling the partly to furnish further evidence against himself, partly

THE ARCHIVES.

to reveal traces of others who might share in his guilt. gathered with that fine regard for justice which animates Finally, if he confessed and repented, he was dismissed the Papacy. When an author submits a work to the with the benediction to the care of the second father-inspection of the public censor, it is a common practice companion. The attendant in waiting at the door then for the Sacred Congregation of the Index, should it led him to the room on the other side. Opening the think fit to refuse its authorization, to retain possession door, this officer pushed the victim in, and the fatal of the manuscript, in order to prevent its being printed threshold once crossed, he disappeared for ever. Over elsewhere. The writer remembers having seen, anong the door were still legible the words, “ Second father other works, one entitled, “ A Geographical Study of companion's room ;" suggesting by their terrible signifi- the Roman States,” by Chevalier Fontana, a work cance Dante's well-known line

which certainly gave no offence to religion ; but as it All hope abandon, ye who enter here!" *

brought to light certain statistics not very agreeable to the Papal government, the Congregation preferred gir

ing it a permanent place on its shelves. The second The archives of the Inquisition constitute the mar- section of these archives contains summaries of all the tyrology of a large portion of the human race, and at prosecutions conducted within the precincts of the Inthe same time demonstrate its barbarous system of quisition, decisions of the tribunal upon cases of conjurisprudence to be at bottom a vast systematic con- science, and objects taken from prisoners and other spiracy against the moral and intellectual progress of offenders, such as letters, books, manuscripts, pictures, mankind. This becomes more apparent, when we con- ornaments, ainulets, &c.—an unheard of collection, at sider that the Inquisition of Ronie bears supreme sway once the most curious and the strangest to be found over all special branches of it in other lands; and as anywhere. Lastly, we have the third section, consisting the Inquisitors of the various provinces of Catholicism of what is called the Lower Chancery; the most imare mutually independent, the Holy Roman Office pro- portant for us, because revealing the vast organization nounces, as the highest court of appeal, upon all differ- of the Inquisition, and the vitality which it still preences which may arise, regulates the proceedings, and serves. It is there, in particular, that politics and represcribes the forms of sentence. It is with the Ronian ligion go hand in hand, mutually weakening and disInquisition that the gravest political and religious turbing each other. It is there also that the direct affairs, affecting the Papacy and the court of Rome, utility of the confessional is seen in active operation, as are inseparably bound up.

well as that mysterious unity which has made the These archives are divided into three great compart- Church at once what it has been and what it is. There ments. The first of these consists of a library of rare heresy is made a department of political activity, and value and unique character. It includes all those works the indefatigable exertions of the priest to retain his which, in the Catholic sense of the term, may be said temporal authority shine through every page of the conto concern the Inquisition, comprehending the juris- tents of these archives. There, in a word, are to be prudence and apologies published in defence of the found all the disclosures, all the organization, all the institution in various part of Europe. But the point underground machinery of these last years. Though which makes the most singular impression on the mind several shelves in this section have been cleared out, of the intelligent observer is the complete collection of enough still remains to furnish us with a fair specimen all the works which have been condemned and placed of the organization of the Holy Office in modern times in the Index Expurgatorius. In particular, there was —the names of the familiars being still all there classified a collection of the best editions of all that the Italians according to their provinces, and preserved in a separate ever wrote. Several of these works are unknown even register. to the most industrious book-hunters, and constitute Generally speaking, the correspondents or active memsome of the rarest and richest curiosities of literature, bers of the Holy Office embrace all prelates on missions ; particularly in those cases in which the Holy Office all provincials or generals of the regular clergy; all possesses the only copy now extant. In fact, one has archbishops, bishops, and cardinals, not only in the only to open the annals of the sixteenth and seventeenth Papal States, but throughout Christendom ; all excenturies to see with what indefatigable bitterness the treme Catholics conspicuous for their rank, ambition, Inquisition tracked out and tortured such writers, and wealth, talents, or influence. Hence it follows that the strove by every conceivable device to destroy their repositories which contain the correspondence of the works; sometimes buying up whole editions in order to Inquisition are at once extremely numerous and well consign them to the flames, and in all cases addressing filled. There is one set apart for the bishops, cardinals

, the most solemn admonitions to those who were pos- and prelates of the Roman States; and from this the sessed of copies to surrender them without delay. This inquisitors draw both their political and religious inlibrary abounds, above all, in manuscripts and codices, formation. Another contains the correspondence of all

the prelates, priests, and monks in Christendom con* Quoted from the Roman correspondent of the Presse, April

nected with the Holy Office. A special register is reserved for the apostolic nuncios. From the general

1819.

impressions conveyed by this vast mass of papers, a form his devotions in the convent of the Capuchins. carefully selected body of notes is drawn up, called the The Holy Office in Pope Gregory's time had become a " Catalogus Indicationum," and containing a list of all mere auxiliary of the police for ferreting out liberals. the political and religious heretics, from the year 1815 At the death of that Pope there was no one in the down to the times of the Republic. This catalogue con- prisons of the Inquisition but Archbishop Caschiur. As tains a sketch of their characters, registers their actions soon, however, as the present Pontiff ascended the and writings, and indicates the ramifications, friends, throne, the dungeons were filled anew. and supporters of the party to which they belong. Thus Caschiur, the solitary occupant of the prisons of the the vast family of the Inquisition, extending itself on Inquisition on the accession of Pius IX., had a history all sides, and keeping its eyes fixed on everything, from so remarkable as to deserve from us something more the confessional of the devotee to the palace of the than a casual reference. He was an Egyptian by birth, sovereign, examines, studies, and takes note of every- and had been placed in his youth as a student at the thing. In the estimation of the Holy Office, liberty college of the Propaganda in Rome. He was a young is not only a beresy in itself; it is also the proof of man of some ability, but crafty, ambitious, and hypoevery heresy. Now, the whole world having in our critical. Whilst he was engaged with his studies, he time become beretical in this sense, the authorities of gave out that, in a correspondence he had had with the Inquisition find it necessary to embrace within its Mehemet Ali, the Viceroy of Egypt, the latter held out secret jurisdiction the actions and thoughts of all men, hopes that he would come over to the Roman Catholic so far as this is possible, whilst they secretly launch Church, and bring all Egypt with him, provided Caschiur their anathemas against governments which but lately returned to his country in an official capacity. So lent Rome the support of their arms. Respecting no- cleverly did he sustain the fiction, that he managed to thing, whether it be the sacredness of the domestic delude the whole college of cardinals into accepting his hearth, or the obligations imposed by the niost solemn story; and the Pope himself, disregarding all the canons, caths, or the secrets of the confessional, the Chancery of consecrated Caschiur with his own hands sub-deacon, the Inquisition is the receiver- general and moving- deacon, priest, and Archbishop of Thebes, all in one spring of a world-wide police; insomuch so, that when- day. This happened in 1824, in the papacy of Leo XIV. ever the Pope's Secretary of State wants any informa- The youthful archbishop, who was then only twenty-one, tion apon prohibited books or suspected persons, he has became the favourite of the hour, and was invited day only to send to the Holy Office, where the whole present after day to participate in the solemnities of the Church, as well as past complexion of foreign politics is clearly whilst the nuns of Rome vied with each other in their reflected. The government of the Republic, too much eagerness to get him to their convents to say mass. He occupied from the outset in defending the national received presents from every one, and was laying aside honour and upholding the banner of democracy, was a little fortune. When the hour of departure arrived, unable to give much attention to the work of selecting an old cardinal proposed to the Pope to send a man of these documents; and the examination of them was mature experience along with Caschiur to act as his adaccordingly entrusted to a very small number of per- viser; and, in accordance with the suggestion, Padre sons. T'he Inquisition of course recovered its papers, Canestrari, of the order of St. Franceso di Paolo, parish but, profanation of profanations, they had been exposed priest of St. Andrea delle Fratte, was chosen for the to view!

service. They set off, intending to take ship at Genoa. The young archbishop was received with enthusiasm by

the devout Genoese ; but, in consequence of some indisWhen these letters were published for the first time, cretion having roused the suspicion of Canestrari, the some good Englishmen observed that when the Holy padre took the precaution of writing to Alexandria and Office was thrown open (in 1849) no prisoners were Rome. Meanwhile, he was obliged to sail ; but he found in it; because Pio Nono, in accordance with his arranged to have his letters sent to Malta. At Malta liberalism, had set them all at liberty. As regards the he found answers waiting him from Alexandria and pretended liberalism of Pio Nono toward the Holy Rome. The former stated that the viceroy had gone Office, here is what I can say. Pope Gregory XVI. was into a passion when he first heard how his name had trost violent against the liberals ; but in religion he been used, and had pledged himself to execnte Caschiur took very little interest. He was annoyed if people the moment he set foot in Egypt. The other instructed spoke to him of condemnations on religious grounds. him to bring back the archbishop to Rome, a closer exEvery case of that kind ended in his prescribing a few amination of the pretended correspondence having proved devotional exercises as a penalty. Dr. Mucchielli, for it to be a forgery. In these circumstances, Canestrari instance, scandalized the zealots for many years by his dissembled, and pretending it was impossible to pursue irreligious discourses. He was imprisoned by the Holy their voyage in the ship which had brought them, proOffice, and according to the inquisitorial code, he ought cured another which was about to start for Civita to have been severely condemned ; but Pope Gregory Vecchia. By arrangement with the captain, they steered quashed the proceedings by sending the culprit to per- into the open sea, as if bound for Alexandria. In this

THE PRISONERS--CASCHIUR.

a

THE OFFICIAL STAFF.

way Caschiur was put on shore at Civita Vecchia, ar- in congregation for that purpose, which they do at headrested by the pontifical carabineers, and thrown into quarters every Monday. The qualificators are theothe dungeons of the Inquisition. Canestrari was made logians, to whom doctrinal cases are referred for the a bishop ; and Caschiur, in a general congregation of qualification or definition of the propositions involved. the Holy Office, presided over by the Pope who had For example, a person is imprisoned on a religious consecrated him, was condemned to be degraded and charge. If he has written or printed anything, the imprisoned for life. Moreover, the Pope, in the same papers or books are given to the qualificators, who, after congregation, absolved all the employés of the Inqui- studying them, make extracts of the leading positions sition from their oath of secrecy in reference to this maintained in then, and formally pronounce them particular case ; and so the whole story came out. From heretical, schismatic, or scandalous, as the case may be. that moment the degraded prelate was shut up in the If the accused has written nothing, the statements he dungeons. But in the time of Gregory XVI., being is alleged to have uttered are communicated to the reduced to the last extremity for want of air and exer- qualificators, with a view to their exact definition. In cise, the Pope ordered him a good room, with permission like manner, when a charge is lodged against a book, it to walk up and down in the inner court, and even to is sent to them for examination. Their judgment is go out twice a week to the country, accompanied by a first handed to the consultors, and then passed on to the friar. In this way Caschiur recovered his health. But cardinals. The congregations of the consultors are held all these privileges were withdrawn at the accession of every Monday at eight o'clock, when the Papal carriages Pius IX., and the unfortunate man was locked up anew. are sent to their houses to convey them to the palace of When the Republicans burst open his prison doors, he the Inquisition. There, presided over by the commiswas found more dead than alive.

sary, and seated round a table in the form of an ellipse, they discuss cases and give their decisions. Their vote

is purely deliberative. The cardinals, again, meet in a The staff of functionaries attached to the Inquisition hall of the Convent of Minerva every Wednesday, the is of the most elaborate description. The Pope himself assessor having a day or two before distributed among is head of the whole establishment: he is the Grand them the business to be transacted.

At this congregaInquisitor, and is styled “Prefect of the sacred and tion the commissary reports upon the result arrived at universal Inquisition of Rome.” Twelve cardinals, per- by the body of consultors. On Thursday, there ought to haps in parody of the twelve apostles, act as subordinate be a general congregation held in presence of the Pope; inquisitors, the Dean of the Sacred College being secre- but this scarcely ever takes place. The assessor goes tary. There is next a prelate called the assessor, who instead to the Pope and refers the matter to him for distributes to the cardinals the cases which have to be decision. The case is then closed, and looked upon as decided. A Dominican, invested with all the privileges finally settled. When for any grave reason a congreraof a prelate, and called the commissary, takes the initial tion is held before the Pope, a particular order is obsteps in every case, and distributes work to the con- served. His Holiness takes his seat upon the throne, sultors, at whose meetings he presides. The commis- with the cardinal- dean at his writing-table close by. sary is assisted in his duties by the two officials already The assessor and commissary are both on foot, one on referred to, the first and second father - companions. the Pope's right, the other on his left. The cardinalThey too are Dominicans. The Dominicans of the inquisitors are ranged on bare wooden benches with the Inquisition must be natives of Lombardy-a privilege consultors all on foot behind, whilst the chief notary and reserved, curiously enough, for that province. Besides his substitute stand on one side with the necessary docuvarious advocates, too numerous to mention, there is a ments in readiness. The assessor reads the official statehead notary, who must be a priest, and whose chief ment, after which the Pope puts the question to the duties are to attend examinations of prisoners, draw up cardinals, hears their opinions, and pronounces judgnient. cases, and arrange the necessary papers. He is assisted It is to be observed that neither at this nor at any other by an indefinite number of substitutes, all likewise congregation is the accused ever heard. At the desks, priests. Every one connected with the establishment, placed in the first hall of the archives, sit the notaries, from the most dignified prelate to the lowest turnkey, writing under the directions of their chief. They receive has to take oath that he will reveal nothing, either charges and spontaneous confessions, draw up questicus directly or indirectly relating to the affairs of the sacred and replies of accused persons, and take depositions of tribunal; whilst the lay officials require to be unmarried, witnesses. Spontaneous confessions are made by indisimply to prevent them being exposed to the temptation viduals who, taking guilt to themselves, voluntarily of making dangerous disclosures in order to gratify charge themselves with some offence falling under the female curiosity.

jurisdiction of the Inquisition. If this confession is This staff of officials is all paid. The consultors and made before an information is lodged with the inquisiqualificators receive no pay. The former belong for the tors against the guilty party, absolution is given him on most part to the religious orders, and are nominated by performance of a slight penance. When the information the Pope. Their business is to study cases, and assemble arrives, it is put in the archives, and is not proceeded

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