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In like manner, Jacob before his death required his son which thou cursedst is withered away.' Peter called his Joseph to put his hand under his thigh, and swear, that Master's declaration, in consequence of which the fig tree he would not bury him in Egypt, but in Canaan with his was destroyed, a curse, agreeably to the phraseology of fathers, Gen. xlvii. 29.
the Hebrews, who considered land absolutely sterile as To express extreme affliction and grief, they rent their cursed ; Heb. vi. 8.-By the typical action of destroyclothes, and covered themselves with sackcloth. Thus ing the barren fig tree, our Lord intimated to his disciples it is said of Jacob when he saw Joseph's coat, He rent the destruction which was coming on the Jewish nation his clothes, and put sackcloth upon his loins, and mourned on account of their wickedness.-John xiii. 4. *Jesus for his son many days.'-1 Kings xxi. 27. when Ahab riseth from supper, and laid aside his garments, and took heard Elijah's words, he rent his clothes, and put sack- a towel and girded himself. 5. After that he poureth cloth on his flesh, and fasted, and lay on sackcloth and water in a bason, and began to wash the disciples' feet, went softly.'
and to wipe them with the towel wherewith he was girded. Moses having constrained his wife Zipporah to cir. -12. So after he had washed their feet, and had taken cumcise her son, she, to express her detestation of the his garments and was set down again, he said to them, action, and her displeasure with her husband for having Know ye what I have done to you? 14. If I your Lord commanded it, cast the foreskin of the child at his feet, and Master have washed your feet, ye also ought to wash and said, “Surely a bloody husband art thou to me.' one another's feet.' Ye ought to do the meanest offices Exod. iv, 25.
to each other, when they are necessary for promoting each Anciently the significant actions with which any kind other's happiness.—Luke ix. 5. • Whosoever will not of information was accompanied, were commonly of the receive you, when ye go out of that city, shake off the typical kind; that is, they were so contrived as to express very dust from your feet for a testimony against them.'the information conveyed by the words. Thus, when Matt. xix. 13. Then there were brought unto him little Moses saw an Egyptian smiting an Israelite, he slew the children, that he should put his hands on them and pray. Egyptian, to shew, by action, that God would by him 15. And he laid his hands on them.'- 1 Tim. iv. 14. deliver the Israelites from the bondage of the Egyptians. •Neglect not the spiritual gift which is in thee, which So Stephen assures us, Acts vii. 25.-Thus also, i Kings was given thee according to prophecy, together with xi. 30. The prophet Ahijah caught the new garment the imposition of the hands of the eldership.'—Matt. that was on Jeroboam, and rent it in twelve pieces. 31. XX. 34. Jesus had compassion on them, and touched And he said to Jeroboam, take thee ten pieces; for thus their eyes; and immediately their eyes received sight.'saith the Lord the God of Israel, Behold I will rend the John ix. 6. · He spat on the ground and made clay of the kingdom out of the hand of Solomon, and will give ten spittle, and he anointed the eyes of the blind man with tribes to thee.'-1 Kings xxii. 11. •Zedekiah the son the clay ; 7. And said to him, go wash in the pool of of Chenaanah made him horns of iron; and he said, Thus Siloam.' saith the Lord, With these shalt thou push the Syrians These examples shew, that our Lord's taking Peter's until thou have consumed them.'-2 Kings xiii. 18. wife's mother, who was sick of a fever, and Jairus's • Elisha said unto the king of Israel, Smite upon the daughter, who was dead, by the hand; and his toucbing ground : and he smote thrice, and staid. 19. And the the eyes of the two blind men mentioned Matt. ix. 2. with man of God was wroth with him, and said, Thou shouldst other things of the like nature, were merely significant have smitten five or six times, then badst thou smitten actions, by which he intimated to the persons themselves, Syria till thou haust consumed it; Whereas now thou and to those who were present, that he was going to work shalt smite Syria but thrice.' 'The king's fault was, that a miracle in their behalf. So also, before he said to his knowing his smiting upon the ground was typical of his apostles, John xx. 22. • Receive ye the Holy Ghost, ho 8miting Syria, he ought to have smitten it oftener than breathed on them,' to intimate, that by the invisible opethrice.-Neh. v. 13. “Also I shook my lap and said, So ration of his power he would confer on them the gifts of God shake out every man from his house, and from his inspiration and miracles. labour, that performeth not this promise, even thus be he Another remarkable instance of enforcing information shaken.'—Ezek. xxi. 6. .Sigh, therefore, thou son of man, by a significant action, we have Acts xxi. 11. Agabus with the breaking (beating) of thy loins; and with bitter took Paul's girdle, and bound his own hands and feet, ness sigh before their eyes. 7. And it shall be when they and said, Thus saith the Holy Ghost, So shall the Jews at say unto thee, Wherefore sighest thou ? that thou shalt Jerusalem bind the man that owneth this girdle, and shall answer, For the tidings, because it cometh ; and every deliver him into the hands of the Gentiles.' heart shall melt, and all hands shall be feeble,' &c. Ver. Lastly, it is well known that baptism and the Lord's 14. Thou, therefore, son of man, prophesy, and smite supper were instituted by Christ, and appointed to be conthine hands together.'
tinued in the church, for the purpose of setting before the In later times, likewise, the Jews accompanied their people by significant action some of the greatest articles discourses with significant actions, to give their instruc- of their faith. tions the greater force. Matt. xviii. 2. •Jesus called a Since then it was common in the eastern countries to little child, and set him in the midst of them. 3. And give instruction by symbolical actions, as well as by said, Verily, I say unto you, except ye be converted and words, the many extraordinary things done by the Jewbecome as little children, ye shall not enter into the king- ish prophets, for discovering to the Israelites God's purdom of heaven. 4. Whosoever, therefore, shall humble poses concerning themselves, and concerning the neighhimself as this little child,' &c.—Mark xi. 12. On the bouring nations, cannot be matter either of astonishment morrow when they were come from Bethany, Jesus was or of offence to us. They were all of them done at the hungry. 13. And seeing a fig tree afar off having leaves, commandment of God, and agreeably to the manners of hc carne, if haply he might find any thing thereon; and the times; and were admirably adapted to convey, in the when he came to it he found nothing but leaves. Now strongest and most forcible manner, the information in. the time of (gathering) figs was not yet. 14. And Jesus tended. answered and said to it, No man eat fruit of thee here Thus, Isaiah was commanded by God to walk three after for ever. And his disciples heard it.—20. And on years, not only barefoot but naked, that is, without his the (next) morning, as they passed by, they saw the fig upper garment; namely, the hairy mantle commonly tree dried up from the roots. 21. And Peter, calling to worn by the prophets, Zech. xiii. 4. And this he was remembrance, saith unto him, Master, behold the fig tree to do as a sign and a wonder upon Egypt and Ethiopia,
Isa. xx. 2, 3. ; that is, as it is explained ver. 4. to shew with all thine abominations; therefore will I also diminish by action, that the king of Assyria would lead away the thee ; neither shall mine eyes spare, neither will I have Egyptians prisoners, and the Ethiopians captive, young any pity. 12. A third part of thee shall die with the and old, naked and barefoot, even with their buttocks un- pestilence, and with famine shall they be consumed in the covered, to the shame of Egypt.-B. Lowth, in his note midst of thee; and a third part shall fall by the sword on Isa. xx. 3. thinks it probable that Isaiah was ordered round about thee; and I will scatter a third part into all to walk naked and barefoot three days, to shew that within the winds: and I will draw out a sword after them. three years after the defeat of the Cushites and Egyp- 13. Thus shall mine anger be accomplished, and I will tians by the king of Assyria, the town should be taken. cause my fury to rest upon them, and I will be comforted. For he thinks the time was foretold, -as well as the event; 15. So it shall be a reproach and a taunt, an instrucand that the words three days may have been lost out tion and an astonishment, unto the nations that are round of the text at the end of ver. 2. after the word barefoot, about thee, when I shall execute judgments in thee, in a day being put for a year, according to the prophetic anger, and in fury, and in furious rebukes. I the Lord rule.
have spoken it.' In like manner Jeremiah was ordered, chap. xix. 1. to For the illustration of the foregoing allegorical action, get a potter's earthen bottle, and with the ancients of the I will here transcribe B. Lowth's note on Isa. vii. 20. people and of the priests, ver. 2. to go to the valley of In the same day shall the Lord shave with a razor that Hinnom, and prophesy in their hearing that Jerusalem is hired, namely, by them beyond the river, by the king was to be destroyed. And that his prophecy might have of Assyria, the head and the hair of the feet: and it shall a strong impression on the imagination of the men who also consume the beard.'—“To shave with the hired were with him, he was ordered, ver. 10. "to break the razor the head, the feet, and the beard, is an expression bottle in the sight of these men; 11. And to say unto highly parabolical ; to denote the utter devastation of them, Thus saith the Lord of Hosts, Even so will I break the country from one end to the other, and the plunderthis people and this city, as one breaketh a potter's vesseling of the people from the highest to the lowest, by the that cannot be made whole again.'
Assyrians, whom God employed as his instrument to puThe same prophet was ordered, Jer. xxvii, 2. to make nish the Jews. Ahaz himself, in the first place, hired the bonds and yokes, and put them on his own neck, and to king of Assyria to come to help him against the Syrians, send them to all the neighbouring kings, by the messen- by a present made to him of all the treasures of the temgers whom they had sent to Jerusalem to persuade Ze- ple as well as his own: and God himself considered the dekiah to enter into the confederacy which they had great nations whom he thus employed as his mercenaries, formed against the king of Babylon; and by that symbo- and paid them their wages. Thus he paid Nebuchadlical action the prophet was to signify to them, that the nezzar, for his services against Tyre, by the conquest of issue of the confederacy would be certain captivity to Egypt, Ezek. xxix. 18-20. The hairs of the head are them all. But we are told, chap. xxviii. 10. that the those of highest order in the state ; those of the feet or false prophet Hananiah took the yoke from off the pro- the lower parts are the common people; the beard is the phet Jeremiah's neck, and broke it, and spake in the pre- king, the high-priest, the very supreme in dignity and sence of all the people, saying, “Thus saith the Lord, majesty. The eastern people have always held the beard Even so will I break the yoke of Nebuchadnezzar king in the highest veneration, and have been extremely jeaof Babylon, from the neck of all nations, within the space lous of its honour. To pluck a man's beard is an inof two full years.'
stance of the greatest indignity that can be offered, Isa. Once more, Jeremiah having written in a book his pro- 1. 6. The king of the Ammonites, to shew the utmost phecy concerning the destruction of Babylon, recorded contempt of David, 'cut off half of the beards of his serJer. li. he gave it to Serajah, ver. 60. and ordered him vants; and the men were greatly ashamed ; and David when he came to Babylon with Zedekiah to read it, and bade them tarry at Jericho till their beards were grown,' having read it, to bind a stone to it, and cast it into the 2 Sam. X. 4, 5. &c." midst of Euphrates. Ver. 64. “And thou shalt say, Thus Once more, God ordered Ezekiel, chap. xii. 3. to preshall Babylon sink, and shall not rise from the evil that I pare stuff for removing, and to go forth with it at even in will bring upon her.'
the sight of the people, as they who go forth into captiWith the same design of speaking by significant ac- vity, and, having digged through the wall in their sight, tions, Ezekiel was ordered to delineate Jerusalem upon a to carry his stuff out thereby upon his shoulders in the tile, and to besiege it by building a fort against it, rais- twilight, with his face covered that he might not see the ing a mount, and setting a camp with battering rams ground. The prophet having performed these actions in against it round about. This siege the prophet was to the sight of the people, when they said to him, What dost continue four hundred and thirty days, and during the thou? God ordered him to reply, ver. 11. 'I am your continuance thereof he was to eat and drink by measure : sign: like as I have done, so shall it be done unto them: and his bread was to be baked, that is, prepared, ver. 15. they shall remove and go into ptivity. 12. And the with dung ;—the fuel with which he was to prepare his prince that is among them shall bear upon his shoulder bread was to be dung. By these symbolical actions the in the twilight, and shall go forth : they shall dig through prophet shewed that Jerusalem was to be besieged, and the wall to carry out thereby : he shall cover his face that that during the siege the inhabitants were to be punished he see not the ground with his eyes. 13. My net also with a grievous famine, Ezek. iv.-In the following chap will I spread upon him, and he shall be taken in the ter the prophet was ordered, ver. 1. to shave his head and snare : and I will bring him to Babylon, to the land of the beard, and with a balance to divide the hairs thereof into Chaldeans; yet shall he not see it, though he shall die three parts, and, ver. 2. when the days of the siege were there. 14. And I will scatter towards every wind, all that fulfilled, he was to burn with fire a third part of the hairs are about him to help him,' &c. in the midst of the city : next, he was to take a third part From these examples of significant actions, concerning and smite about it with a knife; and the remaining third which God declared that they were commanded to be part he was to scatter in the wind, except a few hairs done for the purpose of prefiguring future events, we which he was to bind in the skirts of his garment. The may conclude, that those uncommon actions which he meaning of these symbolical actions God explained to the commanded without declaring the purpose for which they Israelites as follows:-Ver. 11. • Because thou hast de were commanded, had, like the others, a typical meaning. filed my sanctuary with all thy detestable things, and This conclusion is warranted by the inspired writers, who
in after times have pointed out the things signified by to their contemporaries in the light in which we moderns these actions. For example, when God ordered Abra- view them: that they excited the curiosity of the people ham to sacrifice his only son, although he did not tell among whom they were transacted, and led them to inhim the purpose for which that difficult command was quire of the prophets what they meant by them, as in the given to him, yet, from the apostle's terming the suspen. instances mentioned, Ezek. xii. 9. xxi. 7.: that, being sion of that command a receiving of Isaac from the dead addressed to the senses of mankind, they must have confor a parable, Heb. xi. 19. we learn, that by the com- veyed the instruction with which they were accompanied mand to sacrifice Isaac, and by the suspension of that in the inost forcible manner: and that instruction thus command, the death and resurrection of God's only Son forcibly conveyed, making a strong impression on the was prefigured. In like manner, when the sacrifice of mind of the spectators, must have been long remembered, the passover was instituted, although no intimation was and could be communicated to others with great accuragiven of its having a typical meaning, we know that it cy. Thus it appears, that in the early ages, when the art prefigured the sacrifice of Christ, together with the influ of writing was little known, the most effectual method of ence of that sacrifice in procuring the salvation of believe communicating and diffusing knowledge was to instruct
For we are told expressly, John xix. 36. that when the people by significant or symbolical actions, and that our Lord hung on the cross his legs were not broken, in fact this method was commonly practised, especially that the command concerning the paschal lamb, Exod. among the eastern nations ;-wherefore, the Jewish proxii. 46. • Neither shall ye break a bone thereof,' might be phets are not to be ridiculed for the symbolical actions fulfilled. Besides, in allusion to the typical meaning of with wbich they accompanied their predictions. The imthe passover, Christ is called, 1 Cor. v. 7. our Passover ; portance of the end for which they performed these acand is said to be sacrificed for 148. Farther, when God tions, and the success with which they accomplished that ordered Moses to lift up the image of a serpent on a end, are a sufficient vindication both of the wisdom of pole, that the Israelites in the wilderness who were stung God in commanding them, and of the good sense and with serpents, might be healed by looking at it, although piety of the prophets in performing them. For which nothing was said concerning its having a typical mean reason, I think, we cannot be mistaken in believing they ing, yet that it had such a meaning we learn from our were all performed exactly as related in the scriptures, Lord himself, who thus explained it, John ii. 14. “As Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even 60
Sect. V.-Of Instruction conveyed by some Actions and must the Son of man be lifted up, that whosoever believ.
Events happening in the ordinary course of things. eth on him, should not perish, but have eternal life. Wherefore, the lifting up of the brazen serpent was a type 1. It is now time to proceed to the consideration of of Christ's being lifted up on the cross; and the health a method in which God communicated the knowledge of which the Israelites obtained by looking to it, represent things future, which though different from that described ed the salvation of those who believe on Christ as the in the preceding section, and more removed from comSaviour of the world. Hence, in allusion to the typical mon observation, was nearly allied to it. For, whereas meaning of the brazen serpent, Isaiah introduces Messiah the prophets, by the divine direction, assumed characters saying, chap. xlv. 22. “Look unto me and be ye saved, not naturally belonging to them, and performed actions all the ends of the earth.'
altogether out of the common course, for the purpose of Upon the whole it appears, that the uncommon actions prefiguring future persons and events, the characters and performed by the Jewish prophets, were all of them sig- actions and fortunes of some eminent persons, whose disnificant; both those whose meaning was declared, and tinguished stations placed them in the view of the world, those whose meaning was not declared ; and that they were so ordered by God as to be exact representations of were commanded by God, for the purpose of prefiguring, future persons, who, when they arose, by the likeness of in a symbolical manner, future persons and events. It their characters and actions and fortunes to those of the is true, the long duration of some of these symbolical persons by whom they were represented, would make actions, the labour with which they were performed, and mankind sensible that the inspired teachers spake truly, the pain which they occasioned to the persons who per. when they declared that the one had been prefigured by formed them, have afforded infidels a pretence for speak. the other. In some instances, the persons whose characing of the prophets as fanatics and madmen, who by such ters and actions prefigured future events, were declared doings debased the prophetic office. For which reason, by God himself to be typical, long before the events to vindicate the character of these holy men, some of the which they prefigured came to pass ; but in other inlearned Jewish doctors have given it as their opinions, that stances, many persons really typical were not known to these uncommon actions were transacted only in visions, be such till after the things which they typified hapin which the prophets seemed to themselves to do them. pened. But this supposition is contradicted by the scriptures, 1. Of the first-mentioned sort we have a remarkable which represent the actions under consideration as done example in Abraham, whom God declared to be a typical in the presence of the people, for the purpose of drawing person, by constituting him the father or type of believers their attention to the informations with which these ac of all nations; and by making with him, as their father, tions were accompanied : an effect which the relation of a covenant, in which he promised to be a God to him and a vision could not produce, because the incredulous and to his seed in their generations, and to give to him and profane would naturally consider such a vision either as to his seed the land of Canaan for an everlasting possesa fiction or as an illusion. The character, therefore, of sion; which promises had not only a literal but a typical the Jewish prophets will be more effectually vindicated, or second meaning ; as was shewed at large in Ess. v. if we recollect what they themselves constantly affirmed; sect. 1, 2, &c. consequently the covenant with Abraham namely, that all the uncommon things which they did, was an allegory. they were commanded by God to do; and that, after the 2. A second example of a typical person we have in events prefigured by these actions came to pass, no doubt Melchizedec, who, in his character of a king and priest could be entertained of their being commanded by God united, was declared by God himself to be a type of his lo do them. Next, if we remember, that in the early Son's becoming a king and a priest in the human nature ; ages it was usual to convey instruction by symbolical ac- and who, by blessing Abraham, prefigured the efficacy of tions, we shall be sensible, that the things for which the the priesthood and government of the Son of God, in proprophets have been censured as madmen, did not appear curing for believers the pardon of their sins. Psal. cx.
4. The Lord hath sworn, and will not repent, Thou art consider, that of the man whose name is the Branch it is a priest for ever after the similitude of Melchizedec.' said, ver. 13. not only that he shall build the temple of
3. Jacob likewise, and Esau, were typical persons; for the Lord,-and shall sit and rule upon his throne,' but their struggling together in their mother's womb prefi that he shall be a priest upon his throne;' for this could gured the wars which the nations who were to descend not be said of Zerubbabel, who was not a descendant of from them were to wage with each other : and Jacob's Aaron. We may therefore conclude, that the things said taking hold of Esau's heel in their birth, prefigured that and done to Joshua by the prophet Zechariah, were said the descendants of Jacob would subdue the descendants and done to him as a type of Christ. of Esau. So God told Rebecca, Gen. xxv. 23. • Two 5. Of typical persons who were not declared to be nations are in thy womb; and two kinds of people shall such, till the persons of whom they were types appeared, be separated from thy bowels: and the one people shall Adam deserves to be first mentioned. For, in respect of be stronger than the other people ; and the elder shall his being the author of sin and death to all bis posterity, serve the younger.'
he is said by the apostle, Rom. v. 14. to be by contrast 4. Joshua, who was the high-priest of the Jews dur TUTOS, the type or figure of him (Christ) who was to ing the rebuilding of the temple, was an eminently typi come,' for the purpose of being the author of righteouscal person : For he prefigured our great high-priestness and life to mankind. See Rom. v. 14. notes. Christ, as we learn from the vision in which the prophet Hence Christ is called, 1 Cor. xv. 45. the last Ailam.Zechariah, chap. iii. 3. saw him standing before the an Adam was likewise a type of Christ in this respect, that gel of the Lord in filthy garments, to represent the ini Eve, who was an image of the church, was formed of a quity of the many which was to be laid on Christ. These rib taken from Adam's side while he was in a deep sleep; filthy garments the angel commanded to be taken away for this transaction prehgured the formation of the from him; and said, ver. 4. · Behold I have caused thine church, the Lamb's wife, by the breaking of Christ's side iniquity to pass from thee, and I will clothe thee with on the cross, while he slept the sleep of death, as the change of raiment. 5. And I said, let them set a fair prophet insinualeth, Eph. v. 32. See the note on that mitre upon his head : So they set a fair mitre upon his head,' such as the high-priests wore when they officiated, 6. Of persons who in their natural characters, and and clothed him with garments.' Then, to show the fortunes were types of future persons and events, Abraemblematical meaning of the vision, the angel of the ham's wives and sons are remarkable examples. His Lord said, ver. 8. •Hear now, O Joshua, the high wives, Hagar and Sarah, were types of the two covepriest, thou and thy fellows that sit before thee, for they nants, by which men become the people of God; and his are men of wonder,' typical men. So the phrase signi- sons Ishmael and Isaac were, in their characters and fies, Isa. viii. 18. •For behold, I will bring forth my ser state, types of the people of God under these covenants. vant the Branch. Wherefore, Joshua in his character So the apostle Paul assures us, Gal. iv. 22. · It is written as high-priest, and his fellows the high-priests who pre that Abraham had two sons; one by the bond-maid, and ceded him, were all of them types, or prefigurations, of one by the free woman. 23. But lie, verily, who was God's servant the Branch, in his character as high-priest ; born of the bond-maid, was begotten according to the which also the author of the epistle to the Hebrews hath flesh; but he who was born of the free woman was proved at great length.-Farther, to shew still more through the promise. 24. Which things are
an alloclearly that Joshua was a type of Christ, the prophet was gory; for these women are the two covenants : The one, ordered by God to take silver and gold and make crowns, verily, from Mount Sinai, bringing forth children unto and to set them on the head of Joshua in the house of bondage, which is Hagar. 25. For the name Agar de. Josiah, and to say to him, chap. vi. 12. • Thus speaketh notes Mount Sinai in Arabia ; and she answereth to the the Lord of hosts, saying, Behold the man whose name present Jerusalem, and is in bondage with her children. is the Branch: He shall grow up out of his place, and 26. But the Jerusalem above is the free woman, who is he shall build the temple of the Lord ;—and he shall bear the mother of us all.' See Gal. iv, 24. notes 1, 2. and the glory, and shall sit and rule upon his throne; and ver. 25. notes, where, and in the commentary, this allethe counsel of peace shall be between them both. But gory is explained. the man whose name is the Branch, and who is here 7. The third typical person I shall mention is David, foretold to grow up out of his place, was, according to who was raised by God to the government of the natural Isaiah, to be a descendant of Jesse. Chap xi. 1. .And seed of Abraham, that in his office as their king, and in there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, and his wars against their enemies, he might be a type of a branch shall grow out of his roots.' Wherefore, Christ the Ruler and Saviour of Abraham's spiritual seed. Joshua being a descendant of Aaron, was not the person This appears from what the angel who announced our whom Isaiah foretold under the idea of a Branch grow. Lord's birth said to his mother, Luke i. 32. • The Lord ing out of the roots of Jesse ; consequently, when God God shall give unto him the throne of his father David, ordered the prophet to say to Joshua and the witnesses, and he shall rule over the house of Jacob for ever; and after putting the crowns on Joshua's head, Behold the of his kingdom there shall be no end.' for in what man whose name is the Branch, his meaning certainly sense could our Lord's spiritual dominion be called the was, that Joshua was a type of the man whose name is kingdom of his father David, unless David's kingdom the Branch, in his two offices of a king and a priest, and was a type thereof? In fact, the power and success with as the builder of the true temple of the Lord. Accord which David governed the natural seed, and subdued ingly, that this symbolical transaction might be remem the neighbouring heathen nations, their enemies, was a bered, and that Joshua in after ages might be known to fit prefiguration of the power and success with which have been a type and a pledge of the coming of the Man Christ rules the spiritual seed, and subdues their enewhose name is the Branch, the two crowns which the mies.—That David was a type of Christ appears from prophet had put on Joshua's head, as symbols of the two this also, that the prophets who foretold to the Israelites offices in which he was a type of Christ, were, by the the coming of Christ, named him David, and David command of God, delivered to the witnesses, to be laid up their king: by a common metonomy giving the name of in the temple as a memorial, ver. 14.
the type to the person typified. See Jer. xxx. 9. Ezek. If, because Zerubbabel at this time was the prince of xxxiv. 23. xxxvii. 24. Hosea iii. 4, 5, and Isa. lv. 3. the Jews, any one suspects that he, and not Joshua, was Acts xiii. 34. particularly the last mentioned passage, called the man whose name is the Branch, he ought to where the benefits which the spiritual seed derive from
the government of Christ, and in particular their safety cacies in the east, and as such denote a state of plenty. from their enemies, are termed, The sure mercies of See also Josh. v, 6. They therefore naturally express Davill.-In short, unless David in his government of the the plenty of the country, as a mark of peace restored natural seed was a type of Christ in his government of the to it.” And in confirmation of his opinion he cites spiritual seed, no just interpretation can be given of the Jarchi, “Butyrum et mel comedet infans iste, quoniam divine revelations and promises which were made to him, terra nostra plena erit omnis boni.” He then proceeds and which are recorded by Ethan, Psal. Ixxxix. 19--37. thus, p. 64.: " Agreeably to the observations communi. Whereas, if these things are spoken to David as an image cated by the learned person above mentioned, (Harmer), or lype of Christ, the whole is plain, and hath received a which perfectly well explain the historical sense of this complete accomplishment.
much disputed passage, not excluding a higher second8. The fourth typical person whose history is given in ary sense, the obvious and literal meaning of the proscripture is Solomon, who, in his ruling the natural seed, · phecy is this, That within the time that a young woand in his building the temple, prefigured Christ the ruler man, now a virgin, should conceive and bring forth a of the spiritual Israel, and the builder of the Christian child, and that child should arrive at such an age as to church, the great temple of God which in its perfect form distinguish between good and evil, that is, within a few will subsist in the heavenly country. For as David's years, (compare viii. 4.), the enemies of Judah should be government was so ordered by God as to be a striking destroyed.” And to shew that this prophecy actually representation of the powerful government which Christ hath a higher secondary meaning, that learned expositor now exercises, for protecting his people and subduing reasons as follows: “But the prophecy is introduced in their enemies, so God raised up Solomon a peaceful king, so solemn a manner, the sign is so marked, as a sign and made Israel enjoy peace and prosperity under his selected and given by God himself, after Ahaz had regovernment, and appointed him to build the temple of jected the offer of any sign of his own choosing out of God at Jerusalem, 1 Chron. xxii. 9, 10. to prefigure the the whole compass of nature; the terms of the propeace and happiness which the spiritual Israel shall enjoy phecy are so peculiar, and the name of the child so exafter all their enemies are completely destroyed, and they pressive, containing in them much more than the cir. themselves are introduced into the heavenly country, and cumstances of the birth of a common child required or formed into one great church or temple for the worship even admitted; that we may easily suppose, that, in of God. This appears from Psal. lxxii
. where Solomon's minds prepared by the general expectation of a great character and actions as a king are delineated, and the deliverer to spring from the house of David, they raised happy effects of his government are described. For in hopes far beyond what the present occasion suggested, that Psalm things are spoken of him which do not be especially when it was found, that in the subsequent long to him, unless as a type of Christ ; particularly ver. 5. prophecy, delivered immediately afterward, this child, • They shall fear thee as long as the sun and moon endure, called Immanuel, is treated as the Lord and Prince of throughout all generations.'--Ver. 11. •All kings shall the land of Judah.” (Chap. viii. 8.) To the things fall down before him, all nations shall serve him. 12. mentioned by Lowth, I add, that the account of the For he shall deliver the needy when he crieth ; the poor character and actions of this child, given Isa. ix. 6. is also, and him who hath no helper. 14. He shall redeem by no means applicable to the son of the prophetess, their soul from deceit and violence; and precious shall unless as a type of the divine person who was to be the their blood be in his sight.- Ver. 17. His name shall en. deliverer of the people of God. • Unto us a child is dure for ever; his name shall be continued as long as the born, unto us a son is given, and the government shall sun: and men shall be blessed in him ; all nations shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called call him blessed.'- This last circumstance indisputably Wonderful, Counsellor, the Mighty God, the Everlasting proves Solomon to have been a type of Christ, for it was Father, the Prince of Peace. 7. Of the increase of his
one of these distinguishing characters of Christ, Abraham's government and peace there shall be no end ; upon the seed, that in him all the nations of the earth were to throne of David and upon his kingdom to order it, and
be blessed.'--Moreover, Psal. xlv. cannot be interpreted to establish it with judgment and with justice, from henceof Solomon, unless on the supposition that he was a type forth, even for ever: The zeal of the Lord of hosts will of Christ : for in his natural character it could not be perform this.' said to Solomon, ver. 6. • Thy throne, O God, is for ever That the prediction of a virgin's conceiving and bear. and ever; the sceptre of thy kingdom is a sceptre of rec- ing a son, who was to be called Immanuel, was at that titude. Thou hast loved righteousness, and hated wicked. time understood to be a promise of the birth of a great ness; therefore, O God, thy God hath anointed thee with and even a divine person, B. Lowth says, “ may be col. the oil of gladness above thy associates.' See Heb. i. 8. lected with great probability from a passage of Micah, a note 1.
prophet contemporary with Isaiah, but who began to 9. The fifth allegorical or typical person spoken of in prophesy after him, and who, as I have already obscripture, is the son of the prophetess, whose birth was served, imitated bim, and sometimes used his expresforetold Isa. vii. 14. The Lord himself shall give you sions. Micah having delivered that remarkable proa sign, Behold a virgin shall conceive and bear a son, phecy which determines the place of the birth of Mesand shall call his name Immanuel. 15. Butter and siah, the ruler of God's people, whose goings forth honey shall he eat, that he may know to refuse the evil have been of old from everlasting,' that it should be and choose the good. 16. For before the child shall know Bethlehem Ephrata, adds immediately, that nevertheless to refuse the evil and choose the good, the land that thou in the mean time God would deliver his people into the abhorrest shall be forsaken of both her kings.'-B. Lowth hands of their enemies : ‘he will give them up, till she says this passage should be translated in the following who is to bear a child shall bring forth, Micah v. 3. manner: Behold this virgin shall conceive, and bear a This obviously and plainly refers to some known proSon, and thou shalt call his name Immanuel : Butter phecy concerning a woman to bring forth a child, and and koney shall he eat when he shall know to refuse seems much more properly applicable to this passage of evil and choose good. For before this child shall know Isaiah, than to any other of the same prophet to which to refuse evil and choose good, the land shall be deso some interpreters have applied it. St. Matthew, therelate, by whose two kings thou art distressed.' On fore, in applying this prophecy to the birth of Christ, Isa jah, p. 63. Lowth adds, “Harmer has clearly shewn, chap. i. 22, 23. does it merely in accommodating the that these articles of food (butter and honey) are delie words of the prophet to a suitable case, not in the pro.