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mentioned it as a trait in their character, that they mur God's presence in their assemblies; and, being conscious mured against God, and complained of the unequal dis- of their loving God, they would on good ground expect tribution of the good things of this life, as if their share of the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ exercised towards them was not proportioned to their merits; for they them in the pardon of their sins, accompanied with eterwished to indulge all their own lusts without restraint. nal life, ver. 21.–And as their love to God would lead And to persuade their disciples to supply them with them to attempt the reformation of those who erred, money for that end, they spake in the most pompous whether they were teachers or private Christians, the inanner in their own praise ; and pretended to have the apostle desired them to make a distinction in their manutmost respect for the rich, and flattered them with the ner of treating them. They were to exercise compashope of salvation, without any regard to their character sion towards those who erred through ignorance and and actions, ver. 16.–Now, that the success of these im- weakness; that is, they were to instruct and reclaim such postors might not occasion too much grief to the faith. by the gentle method of persuasion, ver. 22.—But the ful, Jude, by observing that their rise and progress had false teachers, who erred wilfully through corruption of been foretold, insinuated that they were permitted in heart, they were to save from destruction by the power the church for wise purposes. But, beloved,' said he, of terror, reproving them sharply, and censuring them remember the words which were before spoken by the severely, that they might snatch them out of the fire of apostles,' ver. 17.—How they foretold that, after the de- the wrath of God, which was ready to devour them. But struction of the Jewish commonwealth, scoffers were in doing them this friendly office, they were to shun to arise in the church, who, ridiculing the holy precepts all familiarity with them, as carefully as they would shun of the gospel, would follow the direction of their own touching a garment spotted by the flesh of

person who ungodly lusts, ver. 18.—and at the same time would had a plague-sore, lest they should be infected by their separate themselves from the real disciples of Christ, on vicious conversation, ver. 23. pretence that they were ignorant of the true doctrine of Having thus finished what he judged necessary for their the gospel, and void of the Spirit. Whereas they thein- instruction and direction, the apostle encouraged the faithselves were mere animal men, utterly deserted of the ful to persevere in the true doctrine and practice of the Spirit of God, ver. 19.—But the faithful, shunning to gospel, by a solemn ascription of praise to him who was associate with these impostors, were to build one another both able and willing to keep them from falling into error, firmly on their most holy faith, by pious conference, and to present them faultless in conduct at the day of judg. And by praying in their public assemblies with the Holy ment, with exceeding joy to themselves, ver. 24.-even to Spirit, which neither the false teachers nor their disciples the only wise God our Saviour, whose glory as God and could do, ver. 20.--they were to eep one another ef- Saviour will last through all ages. Then, to shew his fectually in the love of God; because such prayers, dic- firm persuasion of all the things which he had written, lated by the Spirit, would be an evidence to them of the apostle concluded his epistle, with an Amen, ver. 25.


COMMENTARY. Ver. 1. Jude, a servant of Jesus Christ, and Ver. 1. Jude, a servant of Jesus Christ, and brother of James, brother of James,' to them who are sanctified to them who are separated from the idolatrous world by their faith in by God the Father, and to the preserved br the true God, the Father all, and to them who are preserved by Jesus Christ, a to the called ;3

Jesus Christ from the corrupt practices of idolaters, and from the errors disseminated by false teachers, even to all the called seed of

Abraham ; 2 May mercy, and peace, and love, bo mul 2 May pardon of sin, and happiness, temporal and eternal (see tiplied to you.'

Rom. i. 7. note 4.), and love to God and man, abound to you. 3 Beloved, making all hastel to write to you 3 Beloved, making all haste to write to you concerning the comconcerning the common salvation, I thought it mon salvation, instead of spending time in explaining the nature of necessary to write to you, exhorting you stre that salvation, and shewing that it is common to Jews and Gentiles, nuously to contend for the faith (iTrE) for. or in proving any of the doctrines of the gospel, I thought it more merlys delivered to the saints.6

necessary to write to you, exhorting you strenuously to contend for the faith formerly delivered to the holy prophets and apostles of Christ, and by them published to the world.

Ver. 1.-1. Jude, a servant of Jesus Christ, and brother of James.) perhaps the success, with which the false teachers were spread. -For the history of Jude, see Pref. sect. 1. and sect 2. where it is ing their pernicious errors, found it necessary to write this letter shewed, that by this designation Jude declared himself an apostle. to the faithful without delay. Jude inight have called hiinsell the brother of Jesus Christ, rather 2. To write to you concerning the common salvation.)-The salthan the hrolher of James. But he avoided that designation in the vation preached in the gospel is called common, because it belongs inscription of a letter which he wrote in the character of an apos. equally to all who believe--to the Gentiles as well as to the Jews; tle, to show that whatever respect as a man he might deserve on to men of all nations and conditions. For the saine reason Paul account of his relation to Christ, he derived no authority from it as terined the belief of the gospel the common faith, Tit. i. 4. because an apostle, nor indeed claimsed any.

an opportunity of believing it was afforded io all. 2. The preserved by Jesus Christ. )- The preposition sy, by which 3. I though it necessary to write to you, cxhorting you strenu. the Greek datives are governed, is often wanting, especially when ously to contend. )-- In the circumstances in which the faithful were it is expressed in a preceding clause, as in the present verse, where when Jude wrote this letter, an exhortation to hold fast and mainwe hase is Otwater zozo u4V3.5. But in translating these da tain the true doctrine of the gospel, against the false teachers, was tives into English, it is generally necessary to supply the preposi more necessary and profitable for the disciples than explications of tion, as I have done in translating *2. locou Xeismo tormenur045, the particular doctrines of the gospel.-By strenuously contending and to the preserved by Jesus Christ.'

for the faith, the apostle did not mean contending for it with fire 3. To the called )-This designation may denote those who are and sword; but their endeavouring, in the spirit of meekness and called to believe the gospel by the preaching of the word, and who, love, to establish the true doctrine of the gospel by arguments having obeyed that call, inaké an outward profession of the gospel; drawn, not only from the Jewish scriptures, but especially from the or it inay denote those who, on account of their possessing faith writings of the evangelists and aposties, which were all, or most of and holiness like Abruhain, are called his seed. See Rom. viii. 30. thein, published when Jude wrote this letter.-In the sane manner note I.

they were strongly to oppose and consute the errors of the false Ver. 2. May mercy, and peace, and love, be multiplied to you.)- teachers. The word 29xv°CETIX: properly signifies to strive as Estius saith, this is sancta et vere apostolica salutalio, a holy and in the Olympic games; that is, with their whole force. truly apostolical salutation; and observeth, that from this, and the 4. For the faith.)-Here faith, by an usual inetonymy, is put for benedictions in the two epistles of Peter, we learn, that the bene. the objects of faith ; namely, the doctrines and precepts of the gosdictions in Paul's epistles are to be completed by adding the word pel; both being equally the objects of men's faith, and both being multiplied

in the apostle's view when he wrote this, as is plain from the episVer. 3.-1. Beloved, making all haste. So *0* et oudun solou. tle itseli. pesvos literally signifier. - Judo, being informed of the assiduity, and 5 Forinerly. |--So I translate áraz, because it is used in that

4 For certain men have come in privily," 4 For certain false teachers have come in to the church privily, who long ago have been before-writtento this that is, under the mask of being inspired, who long ago, in what is very punishment ;1 ungodly men, perverting written concerning the lascivious Sodomites, and the rebellious Is. the grace of our God to lasciviousness, and raelites, have been foretolul as to suffer this very punishment which denying the only Lord God, and our Lord I am going to describe; ungodly men, who, pretending that God is so Jesus Christ.6

good that he will not punish sinners, pervert the grace of our God, in pardoning sinners, to an encouragement to lasciviousness; and deny the only Lord God, and our Lord Jesus Christ, in order to

avoid persecution. 5 I will therefore put you in remembrance,' 6 I will therefore, to prevent you from listening to these wicked though ye (az) formerly knew this, that the teachers, put you in remembrance, although ye formerly knew this, Lord having saved the people2 out of the land that the Lord having saved the people of Israel out of the land of of Egypt, afterward destroyed them who did Egypt, afterward destroyed them in the wilderness, because they did not believe.3

not believe his promises, and refused to go into Canaan, Numb. xiv.

xxvi. Heb. iii. 18, 19. 6 (To) Also the angels who kept not their 6 Also the angels who kept not their own office, the office which own office,' but left their proper habitation, he was originally allotted to them, but left their proper station, by insense, ver. 5. and I Pet. iii. 20.- Estius and Beza adopt the common being liable to punishment, if they possesed faith; by which they translation, supposing the meaning of once delivered to the saints' meant, the speculative belief and outward profession of the gospel to be, that the faith spoken of was delivered to the saints once for 6. Denying the only Lord God, and our Lord Jesus Christ. Kui all, and is never to be changed; nothing is to be added to it, and τον μονον δεσποτην Θίον και κυριον ημών Ιησουν Χριςον αρνούμενοι, nothing taken from it.

This sentence may be translated various ways, all equally literal :6. Delivered to the saints.) –By the saints Jude means, the holy 1. 'And denying the only Lord God, even our Lord Jesus Christ.' apostles and prophets of Christ who consigned to writing the faith According to this translation one person only is spoken of here, that is, the things which men are to believe and do, according as namely, our Lord Jesus Christ, who is called the only Lord God. they were revealed to them by the Spirit. In this sense the word 2. “Denying both the only Lord God, and our Lord Jesus Christ.' saints is used, Eph. iii. 5. Col. i. 26.--Hence it is evident, that the According io the translation two persons are distinctly spoken of, faith for which Christians are to contend strenuously, is that alone namely, the only Lord God, or God the Father, and our Lord Je. which is contained in the writings of the evangelists, apostles, and sus Christ, his son. 3. 'And denying the only Lord God, and our ancient Jewish prophets. Now, as they have expressed the things Lord Jesus Christ.' This, which is the translation in our English which were revealed to them in words dictated by the Spirit, (1 Cor. Bible, and which in sense is not different from the second render. ii. 13. note l.), we are to contend, not only for the things contained ing, I have adopted, not only because, according to it, two persons in their writings, but also for that form of words in which they have are spoken of as denied, namely, the only Lord God, and our Lord expressed these things, lest by contending for forms invented and Jesus Christ, but because it represents Jude's sentiment as pre. esiablished by human authority, as better titted to express the truth cisely the same with John's, 1 Epist. ii. 22. He is the antichrist who than the words of inspiration, we fall into error. See 2 Tim. i. 13. denieth the Father and the Son. By declaring that those ungodly note 2.-Jude's exhortation ought in a particular manner to be teachers denied both the Father and the Son, the apostle shewed to attended to by the ministers of the gospel, whose duty more es what a pitch of impiety they had proceeded. Because the article is pecially it is to preserve their people from error, both in opinion prefixed only to hovor 0.9v, and not repeated before xupnou pe ** and practice.

Ixo Ouv Xpusov, Beza is of opinion that these epithets, 81520TH-, trov, Ver. 4. -For certain men have come in.)-The ungodly teachers and xugrow, belong all to Jesus Christ. But the want of the article here described seem to have been the Nicolaitans, mentioned Rev. is too slight a foundation to build so important a doctrine on. For ii. 6. whose doctrine Christ himself declared to be hateful to him. in the following passages, John xvi. 3. Eph. v.5. 1 Tim. v. 21. vi. 13. Perhaps the Gnostics and Carpocratians, the successors of the Ni. 2 Pet. I. 1, 2. God and Jesus Christ are mentioned jointly, with the colaitans, were also meant. Sec Preface to Colossians, sect. 2. par. article prefixed to one of them only. Yet every reader must be 3. from the end, and Preface to 1 John, sect. 3. at the end.–We are sensible that they are not one, but two distinct persons. Besides, told that the Nicolaitans maintained that inarriage was a human in. 85540TMS is a title not commonly given to Jesus Christ, whose proper vention not binding on Christians, on which account they had wo title is é xupios. See, however, 2 Pet. ii. 1. note 3.-Jude's meaning inen in common, and practised unnatural lusts, as is plain from in this passage is, that the ungodly teachers of whom he wrote, in Jude's account of them. See ver. 7. note 2. ver. 10. note. Farther, order to avoid persecution, denied the only Lord and God of the they hardened themselves against the fear of punishment in a fu. universe, by acknowledging and worshipping the heathen deities. lure state for these crimes, by extolling the goodness and mercy of Also they denied the Lord Jesus Christ, by denying that they were God, which thus they perverted to lasciviousness.

his disciples. 2. Come in privily I-IIxquiridurev. Though the false teachers In the Complutensian edition of the Greek Testament, by omitting went about openly making disciples, they are said to have come in, the first **., and placing Osce before the second xas, and & 50*07* or established themselves privily, hecause, under the pretence of after it, and by inserting the article before xugrow, the whole clause teaching by inspiration, they rendered the faithful inattentive to the stands in this manner, Τον μονον Θεον και δεσποτην, τον κυριον ήμων consequences of their pernicious doctrine.

Intour Xpasow, apvou povos, Denying the only God and Lord, Jesus 3. Who long ago have been before-wriuen.)-Moogly ens povos sus Christ our Lord.' But the MSS. and versions on which the Spanish TOUTO TO Xe the . Jude means, that these wicked teachers had their divines formed this reading, are not of sufficient authority to es. punishment before-written, that is, foretold, in what is written con. tablish it, especially as it excludes the Father from being God and cerning the wicked Sodomites and rebellious Israelites, whose Lord. crimnes were the same with theirs; and whose punishment was not Ver. 5.-1. I will therefore put you in remembrance, &c.)-On only a proof of God's resolution to punish sinners, but an example this and what follows Oecumenius observes, that by proposing of the punishment which he will inflict on them.-Others think the these examples of the destruction of sinners from the Old Testaapostle alludes here to the prophecy of Enoch, ver. 14. in which ment history, the apostle designed to shew, that the God of the Old the utter destruction of the ungodly is foretold. -Others, that in the Testament is the same with the God of the New, in opposition to word tegiye husros there is an allusion to the ancient custom of those heretics who denied this, namely, the Manicheans: also to writing laws on tables, which were hung up in public places, that prove, that the goodness of God will not hinder him from punishing the people might know the punishment annexed to the breaking of the wicked under the new dispensation, any more than it hindered the laws. If this is the allusion, the apostle's meaning will be, that bim from punishing them under the old. In this passage Jude hath the wicked teachers of whom he is speaking were, by the divine mentioned two of the instances of the divine vengeance against law, condemned to severe punishment from the beginning. atrocious sinners which Peter took notice of, 2 Epist. ii. 4, 5. ; and

4. To this very punishment. )-So popese signifies, Rom. xiii. 2. in place of the third insiance, the destruction of the old world, he Jude not having mentioned any punishment hitherto, his ineaning hath introduced the destruction of the rebellious Israelites in the must be the very punishment he was going to describe ; namely, wilderness. the punishment inflicted on the wicked sodomites. The apostle, 2. That the Lord having saved the people.)-Some MSS. and ver. on this occasion, inentioned the punishment of the rebellious Is. sions read here lntous, Jesus having sared. Two of Stephen's raelites, and of the angels who sinned, and of the wicked Sodomnites, MSS. read 0:05, God; which expresses the true meaning of the not only to terrify the false teachers by shewing them the great. passage. But the common reading is best supported. ness and certainty of the punishment which awaited them, but to 3. Afterwards destroyed them who did not believe.}-Jude doth make the faithful sensible ihat, although wicked teachers are allow. not mention the various sins committed by the Israelites in the ed to enter and remain awhile in the church, for purposes known wilderness; such as their rebellion in refusing to go into Canaan, to God, they are to be destroyed both here and hereafter.

their idolatry in worshipping the golden call, their fornication with 6. Ungodly men, perverting the grace of our God to lascivious. the Midianitish women, their frequent murmurings; but he sums ness. )-The grace of God,' which these wicked teachers perverted up the whole in their unbelief, because it was the source of all tu lasciviousness, may be either the goodness of God, which they ar their sins. firined to be so great that he will not punish man for any sin what Ver. 6.-1. Also the angels who kept not (TMV IZUTæv xexmv) their ever; or it inay be the gospel itself, called 'the grace of God,' Tit. own office.)-So the word *exm signifies, Luke xx. 20. "Deliver hin ii. 11. For these ungodly men interpreted the gospel doctrine of (TW *%***ITY BOUTI.) to the power and authority of the governor.' justification by faith without the works of the law, in such a manner The apostle's meaning is, that these superior beings did not keep as to free believers from all obligation to obey the law of God; and their original office, but forfeited it by some misbehavinur. Hence laught then, that they might commit the worst actions without they are called, 2 Pet. ii. 4. "The angels who sinned.'- The common

hath reserved in everlasting chains, under dark truding into the offices and stations of the angels who were greater ness, 3 unto the judgment of the great day. than they, God hath driven out of heaven, notwithstanding their

numbers and power; and hath kept them, ever since, in everlasting chains of confinement under darkness, unto the judgment of the great

day, to be punished. 7 ('ns, Parkh.) A8 Sodom and Gomorrha, 7 Further, seeing Sodom and Gomorrha, and the cities arouna and the cities around them, which in a man them, which in a manner like to these wicked teachers had hubituner like to these? had habitually committed ally committed whoredom and bestiality, are publicly set forth as an whoredom, and gone after other Alesh, are set example of that terrible punishment which is to be inflicted on the forth an example, having undergone the pun ungodly after the general judgment; having from the immediate ishment of an eternal fire,

hand of God undergone the punishment of an elernal fire-a fire

whose effects will remain while the world remains ; 8 ('Ouers pery To, 294.) In like manner, in 8 In like manner, indeed, those ungodly men shall be punished deed, these also SHALL BE PUNISHED.' with eternal fire. Being cast into a deep spiritual sleep through the Being cast into a deep sleep, 2 they defile the intoxication of sin, they, under the pretence of Christian liberty and flesh, and despise (rugictata) government, and a superior illumination, defile their body, like the Sodomites, with revile (decres) dignities.3

libidinous practices, and despise every kind of government, and revile magistrales when they punish them for their lewd prac

tices. 9 (Ar) But Michael the archangel,' when, 9 But how different was the conduct of Michael the archangel, contending with the devil, he disputed about when, contending with the devil, he disputed about the restoration of the body of Moses, 2 did not attempts to bring the Jewish church and state by Joshua the high-priest, Zech. ii. 1. translation of this clause, viz. 'who kept not their first estate,' ex. -I put a full point after the words **. bytos; and to finish the senpresseth its meaning very well; but it is a paraphrase, and not a tence, I supply the words shall be punished, from the end of the iranslation.-Hunt, in his Dissertation on the fall of man, saith, the foregoing serse, with which this clause is connected in the sense, office of the angels who sinned was to attend the visible manifesta. being the reddition to the clause in the beginning of ver. 7.--'025 tion of the divine presence in paradise, and to minister to mankind. Lodowe z **• Despotopex, 'Since, or as Sodom and Gomorrha are set But this is to be wise above what is written. See note 4.

forth as an example, &c. ver. 8. 6. GOWNS MENTO, ‘in like manner cer. 2. But left their proper habitation.}-Oiratmerov denotes the tainly these also shall be punished.'- In the next clause of this 8th place in which God appointed the angels who sinned to execute the verse a new sentiment is introduced, which therefore should have othices and functions which he had assigned to them. According been made the beginning of the verse. to Hunt, their habitation was this earth. It is of more importance 2. Being cast into a deep sleep.)- This is the proper literal trans. lo observe, that by saying, The angels kept not their own office, lation of the word svu via ourvos, as Beza hath shewed. Besides, but left their proper habitation, the apostle insinuates that they at in other passages of scripture, the wicked arc represented as fast tempted to raise themselves to a higher station than that which God asleep. See Rom. xiii. 11. 1 Thess. v. 6. had allotted to thein; consequently, that the sin for which they are 3. And despise government, (see 2 Pet. ii. 10. note 2.), and revile to be punished was pride and rebellion.

dignities.)-50*5 &: BARTOUT, literally they rerile glories, that 3. He hath reserved in everlasting chains, under darkness.) is, those who possess the glory of the magistrate's office. This must Everlasting chains is a metaphorical expression, which denotes a be the meaning of $65*, as distinguished from xupOOTHT", govern. perpetual confinement, which it is no more in their power to escape ment. The Jews, fancying it sinful to obey the heathen magistrates, from, than a man who is strongly bound with iron chains can break despised both them and their office. The ungodly teachers of whom them. See the explication of the phrase under darkness, given 2 Jude speaks carried the matter still farther; they reviled all magis. Pet. ii. 4. note 3.

trates whatever, as enemies to the natural liberty of mankind. 4. Unto the judgment of the great day.}-This great day is else. Ver. 9. - 1. But Michael the archangel. )-Michael is mentioned where called the day of the Lord, and that day, emphatically. In Dan. x. 13. 21. xii. 1. as standing up in defence of the children of our Lord's description of the general judgment, Matt. xxv. 41. he Daniel's people. Because it is said, Rev. xii. 7. that Michael and tells us, that the wicked are to depari into everlasting fire, pre his angels fought against the dragon and his angels,'Estius conjec. pared for the devil and his angels. This implies that these wicked tures that Michael is the chief or prince of all the angels. But this spirits are to be punished with the wicked of mankind. Hunt, in argument is not conclusive. Because the book of Daniel is the first his Dissertation referred to in note l. on this verse, saith, Upon the sacred writing in which proper names are given to particular an. supposition that the fallen angels belong to our system, their pun. gels, some have fancied, ihai during the Babylonish captivity the ishment with the wicked of our species will appear the more con. Jews invented these names, or learned them from the Chaldeans. gruous. If the angels who sinned were originally appointed to But this seems an unfounded conjecture. For the angel who apminister to mankind, as Hunt imagines, and were discontented with peared to Zacharias, Luke i. 19. called himself Gabriel, which this earth in its paradisaical state as an habitation, the atmosphere shews that that name was not of Chaldean invention, which surrounds the earth in its present altered state, is very pro. 2. When, contending with the devil, he disputed about the body perly made the prison-house in which they are confined till the of Moses. - In the passages of Daniel's prophecy quoted in the pregeneral judgment.

ceding note, Michael is spoken of as one of the chief angels who Ver. 7. -1. And the cities around them.)-These cities were Ad. took care of the Israelites as a nation. He may therefore have been mah and Zeboim The four are mentioned Deut. xxix. 23.-Zoar, the angel of the Lord, before whom Joshua the high priest is said, the fifth city in the plain of Sodom, was spared at the request of Lot, Zech. iii. 1. to have stood, 'Satan being at his right hand to resist for a place of refuge to him and his family.

him,' namely, in his design of restoring the Jewish church and 2. Which in a manner like to these.)– Tov &uorov TOUTON; TRITON, state, called by Jude the body of Moses, just as the Christian church I have followed our translators in completing the construction of is called by Paul the body of Christ. "Zechariah adds, 'And the this clause, by supplying the preposition **T*, which the sense Lord,' that is, the angel of the Lord, as is plain from ver. 1. said likewise requires-like to these. The relative TOUT 005, being mas unto Satan, The Lord rebuke thee, O Satan, even the Lord that hath culine, may refer to the ungodly teachers mentioned ver. 1. ; or, chosen Jerusalem, rebuke thee.' Le Clerc gives a different inter: though wais be a feminine word, yet, as it signifies the inhabitants pretation of this passage. By Satan in Zechariah's vision, and of a city as well as the city itself, the relative TOUTON may very A..€1.05 in Jude's epistle, he understands Talnai and Shetherbozproperly be in the masculine gender, to denote the inhabitants of nai, the king of Persia's lieutenants, who opposed the restoration ihe other cities of the plain. See Ess. iv. 64.-I make these obser. of Jerusalem, and who on that account might be called Satan, or vations, because some commentators suppose TOUTO & stands for the adversary of the Jews, in the same manner that Peter was called the angels who left their proper habitation, as if their sin had been Satan by his Master for opposing his suffering at Jerusalem. Ac. lewdness; which is a very false idea.

cording to this interpretation, Jude's meaning is, that the angel in 3. Had habitually committed whoredom.)- This is the literal sig. Zechariah's vision brought no reviling accusation against the adnification of the compound word *Toprurer*!; because ex increas. versaries of the Jews, but reproved them with modesty on account es the signification of the word with which it is compounded. In of their being magistrates. This Jude mentioned to shew the un. the language of scripture, opvousty signifies to commit any sort of godly teachers who reviled the Roman magistrates, that they were whoredom or uncleanness, and among the rest sodomy. See 1 Cor. culpable in doing what the angels, who, as Peter, observeth 2 Ep. v. 1. note I. and Parkhurst in voc. !*760vEvej 25. Estius saith the ii. 11. are greater in power than they, did not attempt to do. preposition ex in this compounded word denotes the Sodomites Beza, Estius, Tillotson, and others, by the body of Moses, about committing whoredom out of the order of nature. They committed which the devil contended with Michael, understand his dead body, the unnatural crime which hath taken its name from them.

which they suppose the devil contended should be buried publicly, 4. Are set forth (froyu ) an example.)-See 2 Pet. iii. 6. The on pretence of doing honour to Moses; but that his intention was burning of the cities plain being represented here as an ex: to give the Israelites an opportunity of raising his body and wor. ample or type of that punishment by fire which at the general shipping it: That Michael, knowing this, rebuked the devil in the juigment God will inflict on the wicked, the consideration thereof words mentioned by Jude; and to prevent the Israelites from conshould terrify the ungodly of every description, and bring them to mitting idolatry, buried Moses's body so privately, that none of the repentance. For when God is about to punish them in that dread Israelites ever knew where his sepulchre was. Vitringa, instead of ful manner, will they be able to flee from him, or resist him? the body of Moses, proposes to read the body of Joshua ; but with.

Ver. 8.–1 In like manner. indeed, these also shall be punished.) out any authority whatever. The first mentioned account of this

against him a reviling accusation, but said, Though that malicious spirit was clothed with no authority of office, The Lord rebuke thee.

he did not attempt to bring against him a reviling accusation, but

mildly said, The Lord rebuke thee, Satan. 10 (44, 100.) Yet these men revile those 10 Yet these ungodly teachers, notwithstanding their pretensions things which indeed they do not know. But to superior illumination and knowledge, revile laws and magistrates, what things they know naturally as animals whose origin and usefulness, indeed, they do not know. But the void of reason, by these they destroy them use of the members of their body, which they know only by instinct, selves.

as animals void of reason, by perverting these to gluttony, drunken

ness, and lust, they destroy both their soul and their body. 11 Wo is' to them; for they have gone in 11 Wo is their portion ; for, in destroying the souls of their brethe way of Cain, and have run far? in the thren by their false doctrine, they have followed Cain in the murder error of Balaam's hire, and have perished3 in of his brother; and, by misrepresenting the oracles of God for the sake the rebellion of Korah.4

of gain, they have run far in the error which Balaam followed for hire ; and, on pretence of superior illumination, opposing the apostles of Christ, they shall perish, as the men who perished in the rebellion

of Korah. 12 These MEN are spots! in your love 12 These ungodly teachers are a disgrace to your love-feasts; when feast: ;? when they feast with you, feeding they feast with you, eating and drinking to exce88, without any dread themselves without fear.4 They are clouds of the banesul consequences of their intemperance, or of the punishwithout water, carried about of winds ;6 ment which God will inflict upon gluttons and drunkards. They

transaction, which was given long ago by Ephraim the Syrian, (see And the ungodly teachers are there said to have

followed in it. See Lardner, Canon, iii. c. 21. p. 345, 346.) is now adopted by many. notes 1, 2. on that passage of Peter.

3. Did not attempt to bring against bim.)- In the common Eng. 3. And have perished. ]-Here, as in many passages of scripture, lish translation it is durst not bring, as if Michael had been afraid a thing is said to have bappened, which was only to happen. This of the devil, which certainly is an improper idea. The translation manner of expression was used to shew the absolute certainty of of oux + TOLYO! which I have

given, is supported by Blackwall, the thing spoken of. Have perished, therefore, means, shall cer. Sacr. Classics, vol. ii. p. 155. — Tillotson's remark (Posthum. Serm. tainly perish. See Ess. iv. 10. 2. 31.) on this verse, deserves a place here :-Michael's “duty restrain 4. In the rebellion of Korah.)-Literally, avtologix signifies con. ed him, and probably his discretion too. As he durst not offend God tradiction. But when princes and magistrales are contradicted, it in doing a thing so much beneath the dignity and perfection of his is rebellion. Wherefore autonogin here may very properly be nature, so he could not but think that the devil would have been translated rebellion ; and a *O aYTOX GOVTa, Rom. x. 21. a rebelling 100 hard for him at railing, a thing to which, as the angels have no people. - By declaring that the ungodly teachers were to perish in disposition, so I believe they have no talent, no faculty at it:-the the rebellion of Korah, Jude insinuated that these men, by opposing cool consideration whereor should make all inen, especially those the apostles of Christ, were guilty of a rebellion similar to that of who call themselves divines, and especially controversies about Kora and his companions, who opposed Moses and Aaron, on prereligion, ashamed and afraid of this inanner of disputing."

tence that they were no more commissioned by God, the one to be 4. A reviling accusation. Kivir tevrymoov Bazoe*41as, liter. a prince, and ihe other a priest, than the rest of the congregation, ally, 'to bring against him a sentence of reviling;' a form of expres. who were all holy, Numb. xvi. 3. 13.-By comparing the ungodly sion founded on this, that whoever reviles or speaks evil of another, teachers to Cain, to Balaain, and to Korah, Jude bath represented doth in effect judge and condemn himn. Doddridge thinks the trans them as guilty of murder, covetousness, and ambition. lation might run, did not venture to pass a judgment upon his Ver. 12.-1. These men are (nonu.s) spots. ]- The word caine blasphemy,' but referred him to the judgment of God by saying, dis properly signifies rocks in the sea, which, when they rise above "The Lord rebuke thee. But this translation requires the addition its surface, appear like spots. For this reason, and because in the of two words not in the text, and without any necessity. That parallel passage, 2 Pet. ii. 13. the ungodly teachers are called author, in his note on the passage, saith, "If the angels do not rail 754.0• xco je 195 pe , spots, and causes of reproach, Beza hath trans. even against the devil, how much less ought we against men in lated the word "modcedis, spots, in which he followed the Vulgate, authority, even supposing them in some things to behave amiss ? which hath macula.-Jude's meaning is, that the excesses which Wherefore, to do it when they behave well, must be a wickedness the ungodly teachers were guilty of in their love feasts, brought much more aggravated."

disgrace on the whole body of Christians. Ver. 10. What things they know naturally as animals void of 2. In your love-feasts. )-Ay ***15. Commentators are not agreed reason, by these they destroy themselves.)-Here Jude insinuates, about the meaning of this word. Some think Jude is speaking of that these ungodly teachers, notwithstanding they made high pre the ancient love suppers, which Tertullian hath described, Apolog. tensions to knowledge, bad no knowledge, at least concerning the c. 39. and which do not seem to have been accompanied with the use of their body, but what they derived from natural instinct as eucharist. --Others think they were those suppers which the first brute animals : that they made their lusts the only rule of their ac. Christians ate previous to their cating the Lord's supper, and of tions; that they coupled with women promiscuously like the brute which St. Paul hath spoken, 1 Cor. xi. 21. But being afterwards beasts; and that, instead of using the knowledge they derived from perverted to the purposes of carnal love by the ungodly teachers, 2 instinci rightly, they thereby destroyed both their soul and their Pet. ii. 14. they were in time disused. The love suppers, however, body.--In this passage the apostle strongly condemned the lascivious which Tertullian describes, were continued in the church to the practices of the Nicolaitans, and of all the ungodly teachers who middle of the fourth century, when they were prohibited to be kept defended the promiscuous use of women; and confuted the argu in the churches.-As Benson observes, "they were called love. ment taken from natural appetite, by which they vindicated their feasts or suppers, because the richer Christians brought in a common whoredoms. If these teachers had had any true know variety of provisions to feed the poor, the fatherless, the widows, ledge, they would have known, that reason is given to enable men and strangers, and ate with theun to shew their love to them." to restrain the excesses of their natural appetites, and to lead them 3. When they least with you.)-For the meaning of rursuwyouus to the right use of the members of their body, as well as of the fa voi, see 2 Pet. ii. 13. note 3. - In the common edition of the Greek culties of their mind,

Testament, the word ideov is wanting. But several MSS. have it, for Ver. 11.-1. Wo is to them.)- The substantive verb wanting in which reason our translators have adopted it. this sentence may be taken either from the present of the indica. 4. Feeding themselves without fear. 1-ewxivovТos. This word tive, or from the present of the optative mood. In the second way, is emphatical, containing an allusion to the name given to the min. ouzi zutors must be translated as in our Bible, Wo be to them, isters of religion, both under the old and the new dispensation. and is a curse. But in the first way it should be translated as I have These were called caves, shepherds or seeders, because their of. done, Wo is to them, and is only a declaration of the misery fice was to feed the people with the spiritual food of true doctrine. which was to come on them. Accordingly the phrase is thus used The false teachers, instead of feeding the people in that manner, fed by our Lord, Mait. xxiv. 19. 'Wo unto them who are with child, themselves with meat and drink to excess, without any fear of pun. and to them who give suck in those days.' For certainly this is no ishment from God, or of disgrace from the world. I suppose Jude bad wish of punishment, since to be with child, and to give suck in in his eye here, Ezek. xxxiv. 2. 'Wobe to the shepherds of Israel those days, was no crime. But it was a declaration of the misery thal do feed themselves : Should not the shepherds feed the flocks ?' which was coming on persons in tliat helpless condition. See Luke 5. They are clouds without water. 1-The propriety of the compa. vi. 24. for another example of this use of oum.

rison by which Jude in this passage, and Peter, 2 Epist. ii. 17. bave 2. And have run far in the error of Balaam's hire. )-The word shewed the emptiness and unprofitableness of the false teachers of E 220 Snean, which I have translated have run far, literally significs their time, will display itself in vivid colours when it is recollected, effusi sunt, vagantur, in allusion to the rnnning of liquors, which that in scripture good doctrine and sound knowledge are often re. follow no certain course when they are poured out. The apostle's presented by water, because sound doctrine beautifies and invigo. meaning is, They have gone far in the sin which Balaam committed rates the mind, as effcctually as rain, in the bot eastern climes, ren. for hire, when he counselled Balak to tempt the Israelites to coin ders the earth verdant and fruitful. Deut. xxii. 2. 'My doctrine rait fornication and idolatry. The ungodly teachers, in the first shall drop as the rain,' &c. age, strongly actuated by Balaam's passion for riches, drew money 6. Carried about of winds. )--False doctrine is compared to wind, from their disciples, by allowing them to indulge their lusts with Eph. iv. 14. on account of its variableness. Having no foundation out restraint. ilence what is here called the error of Balaam's in truth, it is changed as it suits the passions and interests of men. hire, is called, Rev. ii. 14. his doctrine ; and 2 Pet. ii. 15. his way. The teachers of false doctrine, therefore, may filly be compared to

withered autumnal trees? without fruit ; are clouds without rain, which intercept the genial rays of the sun, twice dead ;8 rooted out;

and being carried about of winds, render men's habitations gloomy : (see 2 Pet. ii. 17.) They are withered autumnal trees without fruit, although they ought to produce the best : They have died twice; once in the Jewish, and a second time in the Christian vineyard ; and

are rooted out on that account. 13 Raging waves of the sea, foaming out 13 They are as unstable in their doctrine, and as turbulent in their their own shame;' wandering stars, for whom manners, as raging waves of the sea, 80 that they make their own the blackness of darkness for ever is reserved.? shume apparent to all. Having renounced the true doctrines of the

gospel, instead of being the lights of the world, they are wandering

meteors, which are quickly to be extinguished in perpetual darkness. 14 Now Enoch, the seventh from Adam, 14 Now Enoch, the seventh in descent from Adam, prophesied prophesied' even (ev, 168.) concerning these even concerning these ungodly teachers, when he forelold the deMEN,” saying, Behold the Lord cometh with struction of the wicked at the general judgment, saying, Behold the his holy myriads OF ANGELS,

Lord cometh, surrounded with his holy myriads of angels, 15 To pa88 sentence (x4Th, 208. 2.) on' all, 15 To pas8 sentence on all, and to make all the impious and proand to convict all the ungodly among them, of fane among mankind sensible of all the impious actions which they all their deeds of ungodliness which they have have impiously committed, and of all the impious atheistical scoffing impiously committed, and of all the hard things speeches which profane sinners have impiously uttered against which ungodly sinners have spoken against Christ, as if he were an impostor who was justly punished with an him.2

ignominious death. 16 These are murmurers, and complain 16 These ungodly teachers are murmurers against God, and comers,' who walk according to their own lusts ;? plainers that their lot is not what they deserve, who gratify their own and their mouth speaketh great swelling words.3 lusts to the utmost; and their mouth speaketh great swelling words (Oxupea3cteT&C5W74) They admire persons for in praise of themselves, as the only teachers who free men from the 'clouds without water, carried about of winds,' because, notwith antediluvians. Though Enoch prophesied imrnediately to the wick. standing they give an expectation of good doctrine, they afford ed men of his own age, what he said concerning or to them, was innone; in which respect they are like clouds which promise rain, but tended for the wicked in every age. being carried aboul of winds, distil none. See 2 Pet. ii. 17. note 1. 3. Saying, Behold the Lord cometh with his holy myriads of

7. Withered autumnaltrees.)-Sol translate SIVOT werve, because angels.)-So! uueowoon sy *.5 KUTOU must be translated, because it comes from 30707wpow, which, according to Scapula, signifies amoxis being in the feminine gender, agrees with peoporcov as an ad“senescens autumnus et in hiemem vergens-The decline of au jective, consequently the word to be supplied is x77xx, not ryge. tumn drawing towards winter." Or, according to Pharorinus, it 20.;:- Muer*5,ien thousund, is a definite number. But it is put here signifies rocos Boyours OTW 45, a disease in trees which withers in the plural, mupo*tov, ten thousands, indefinitely, to signify an intheir fruit. This sense of the word Beza hath adopted in his trans numerable multitude.-HA$t, 2 aor. is come. But in the prophetic lation, Arbores emarcido infrugisere. The Vulgate translation, style the present is often put for the future, to shew the absolute Arbores autumnales infructuose, suggests a beautiful idea. In the certainty of the event foretold: The Lord is come, or, as it is in our eastern countries the finest fruits being produced in autumn, by Bible, the Lord comelh, being the genuine prophetic style, it is no calling the corrupt teachers autumnal irees, Jude intimated the proof, as Benson fancies, that Jude took this prophecy out of some just expectation which was entertained of their being fruitful in book. if it was preserved by tradition, this is the language in which good doctrine ; but by adding without fruits, he marked their use. it inust have been preserved. lessness, and ihe disappointment of their disciples.

Ver. 15.-1. To pass sentence on all. )--Lexsas xeron **** --v8. Twice dead; rooted out. )--Here the apostle insinuates, that Twy might have been literally translated to erecute punishment on while these ungodly teachers, who were mostly of the Jewish na. all, if the apostle had not added **• shig x, and to convict; for tion, continued under the Mosaic dispensation, they were dead and punishment cannot justly be inflicted till the offender is convicted. unfruitful: And that under the gospel dispensation, though they Wherefore the translation in our Bible, where judgment is used in seemed to flourish for a little while, and promised to bring forth the sense of punishment, is wrong; namely, to execute judgment fruil, they had proved as barren as before, having died a second upon all.' The proper, and I may add, the literal translation of tiine, and for that reason were justly rooted out. The commenta. 76702• xe giv, is, to pass judgmeni or sentence on all. For all shall tors observe, that there is a striking climax in this description of be judged, but all shall not be condemned. Enoch's prophecy the false teachers. They were trees stripped of their leaves, and seems to have been generally known among the Jews. For the first withering : They had no fruit, being barren that season : They words of it, which in the Hebrew are Maran-atha, were used by were twice dead, having borne no fruit the former year: Lasuy, thein with great propriety in that form of excommunication, or they were rooted out as utterly barren.

cursing, which they pronounced upon irreclaimable offenders, (see Ver. 13.-1. Raging waves of the sea, foaming out their own 1 Cor. xvi. 22. note), as they put all who were present in inind of shame.)-Like the raging sea, these ungodly teachers were turbu. God's coming, at the last day, to punish the obstinately impenitent. lent and furious, having no command of their irascible passions; and This same curse the apostle Paul pronounced on all wicked Chrisby their wicked outrageous bebaviour among their disciples they tians, 1 Cor. xvi. 22. shewed their own filthiness, to their great disgrace. Perhaps the 2. All the hard things which ungodly sinners have spoken against apostle alluded here to Isa. lvii. 20. The wicked are like the trou. hiin. )-As Christ is to judge the world, he is the person against bled sea, when it cannot rest, whose waters cast up mire and whom the ungodly are here said to have spoken hard things; condirt.'

sequently, these bard things consisted in their denying Jesus to be 2. Wandering stars. )- Artiers U4T*. Doddridge, in bis note the Son of God; in their calling him a magician, a sorcerer, and on this verse, observes, That the Jews called their teachers stars ; an impostor; and in their affirming that he was justly punished and that the leachers in the Christian church are represented un with death. der the emblem of stars, Rev. i. 20. ii. 1. Wherefore, as the planets Ver. 16.-1. These are (yoggusz:) murmurers, and ( 48 pe neospor) have irregular motions, being sometimes stationary and sometimes complainers.)- They murmured against God on account of the disretrograde, he thinks they are proper emblems of ieachers who are pensations of his providence, and complained of their condition, unsettled in their principles, and irregular in their behaviour. fancying that they deserved a better lot: pouyoucogoo literally are

3. For whom the blackness of darkness for ever is reserved. - persons who coinplain of their lot, or portion. In this, the ungodly As the ancients knew that the planets are nalurally dark bodies, teachers resembled the ancient Israelites, who murmured against and derive all their light from the sun, it is supposed that Jude com: God on account of the hardships they were exposed to in the wil. pared the salse teachers, not to meteors, or ignes fatui, which have derness. no existence alter they are extinguished, but to planets properly 2. Who walk according to their own lusts.)–From this circumso called.

stance it is probable, thai the corrupt teachers complained not only Ver. 14.-1. Now Enoch, the seventh from Adam, prophesied.) of their lot, but of the restraints which were laid on then by the See Pref. sect. 2. No. 2 paragr. 2.-Though Moses hath said nothing laws of the countries where they lived. To this conjecture what concerning Enoch's prophesying, yet, by telling us that he was a followeth agrees: 'Their mouth speaketh great swelling words.' person of such piely as to be translated to heaven in the body with 3. Great swelling words. )- Is the interpretation of this clause out dying, he hath warranted us to believe Jude's account or him; given in the commentary is not admitted, we may suppose the false namely, that God employed him, as he did Noah, in reforming the teachers spake in an insolent manner against the Roman inagis. wicked of the age in which he lived, and that he inspired him to trates for punishing them, and against the laws for proliibiting the deliver the prophecy of which Jude speaks. That Enoch was en. vices in which they delighted. Por they are said, ver. 8. 'to de. dowed with the spirit of prophecy, Benson saith is apparent from spise government, and to revile diynities.' Perhaps they lhus opthe name which he gave to his son, to wit, Methuselah , which sig. posed the heathen magistrates and laws, on pretence of maintain: nifies he dieth, and the food cometh. Enoch is called the seventh ing the cause of the people of God against the tyranny and oppres. from Adam,' to distinguish lin from Enoch the son of Cain, Gen. sion of the Romans; and spake in a pompous boasting manner of iv. 17. who was only the third from Adam.

their Christian liberty, which they affirmed consisted in a freedoin 2. Prophesied even concerning these men.)—So I translate 7805cm. to gratify their inclinations without control, 2 Pet. ii. 19.-of these τευσε και τουτοις, by supplying αν before τουτοις : or without the teachers, and of the tumid speeches by which they defended their preposition, thus, 'prophesied also to these men,' as well as to the vices, John hath given insinuations, 1 Epist. iii. 4-11.

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