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they do what is more acceptable to him than sacrifice, according to the saying of the heathen poet Menander, translated in Adventurer, No. 185. “He that offers in sacrifice, o Pamphilus, a multitude of bulls and of goats, of golden vestments, or purple garments, or figures of ivory, or precious gems, and imagines by this to conciliate the favour of God, is grossly mistaken, and has no solid understanding. For he that would sacrifice with success, ought to be (xenoijer) beneficent, no corrupter of virgins, no adulterer, no robber or murderer for the sake of lucre. Covet not, o Pamphilus, even the thread of another man's needle; for God, who is near thee, perpetually beholds thy actions."

Temperance, and justice, and purity are here inculcated in the strongest manner, and upon the most powerful motive, the Omniscience of the Deity; at the same time, superstition and the idolatry of the heathen are artfully ridiculed. I know not among the ancients any passage that contains such exalted and spiritualized thoughts of religion.

III. JOHN.

PREFACE.

bishop of Ephesus, another of Thessalonica, and a third of

Pergamos; all about this time. Whiston and Mill have Sect. I.- Of the Authenticity of the Third Epistle

said, that the bishop of Pergamos was the Caius to whom of John.

John wrote his third epistle. But, as Lardner observes, For the proofs of the authenticity of this epistle, see they said this on the testimony of the pretended A postoli Pref. 2 John, sect. 1. To which may be added, that, in the cal Constitutions, which in the present affair are of no third epistle, we find some sentiments and expressions authority at all. Besides, from the epistle itself it is which are used in the second. Compare ver. 4. with 2d evident, that Caius, to whom it was written, was at that epistle, ver. 4., and ver. 13, 14. with 2d epistle, ver. 12. time a person in a private station.

Lardner's account of Caius is, that "he was an eminent Sect. II.- Of the Persons to whom this Epistle was

Christian, who lived in some city of Asia not far from

Ephesus, where St. John chiefly resided after his leaving written.

Judea. For, ver. 14. the apostle speaks of shortly coming This short letter is inscribed to a person named Gaius, to him ; which he could not well have done if Caius lived or, according to the Latin orthography, Caius; a common at Corinth, or any other remote place.” Canon, vol. iii. name, especially among the Romans. In the history of p. 293. the Acts, and in the epistles, we meet with five persons Caius being neither a bishop nor a deacon, but a priof this name.-1. There is a Caius who was with St.

vate member of some church of which the apostle took the Paul in Ephesus during the riot of Demetrius, and who inspection, his hospitality to the brethren, and to the is called a man of Macedonia,' and Paul's companion strangers who came to him, is a proof that he possessed in travel, Acts xix. 29.-2. A Caius is mentioned Acts

some substance, and that he was of a very benevolent disXX. 4. called Caius of Derbe, which was a city of Ly. position. Grotius thought Caius a good Christian, who caonia or Isauria. Probably he was a person different lived in one of the churches or cities mentioned in the Re from the Macedonian Caius, though like him he was velation. However, as John hath not suggested any cirPaul's assistant in preaching the gospel. Caius of Derbe cumstance by which we can distinguish bis Caius

from accompanied Paul to Jerusalem with the collection for others of the same name, it is impossible to say with any the saints. Probably, therefore, he was chosen by the certainty who he was, or where he lived. churches of Lycaonia their messenger for that effect.3. Paul, writing from Corinth to the church of Rome, Sect. III.— Of the Apostle's Design in writing his Third speaks of a Caius with whom he lodged, Rom. xvi. 23. who was a very benevolent person, and in opulent

Epistle, and of the Persons who are mentioned in it circumstances : for the apostle called him his host, and

by name. the host of the whole church of Corinth. Wherefore, It doth not seem to have been John's design in writas the Caius to whom John wrote his 3d epistle, was ing to Caius, either to guard him against the attempts of in like manner a very benevolent person, and in good the heretical teachers who were gone abroad, or to concircumstances, Bede, and after him Lightfoot, conjec- demn the errors which they were at great pains to propatured that he was the Caius who, in Paul's epistle to gate ; but only, in the first place, to praise Caius for the Romans, sent his salutation to the church at Rome. having shewed kindness to some brethren and strangers, -4. The same apostle mentions his having baptized one who, in journeying among the Gentiles, had come to the of the name of Caius at Corinth, 1 Cor. i. 14. Proba place were Caius resided ; and to encourage him to bly he was the person whom in his epistle to the Romans, shew them the like kindness, when they should come to which was written from Corinth, Paul calls his host and him again in the course of their second journey.- In the the host of the church.-5. There was a Caius to whom next place, he wrote this letter for the purpose of rebukJohn wrote this third epistle. Him Estius and Heumaning and restraining one Diotrephes, who had arrogantly thought a different person from all those above mentioned, assumed to himself the chief direction of the affairs of because the apostle, by numbering him among his chil. the church of which Caius was a member; and who dren, ver. 4. hath insinuated that he was his convert, had refused to assist the brethren and strangers above which they suppose he could not say of any of the Caius's mentioned ; and even had hindered those from receiving mentioned above.

and entertaining them who were desirous to do it.-In In the ancient history of the church, we meet with the third place, the apostle wrote this letter to commend three persons of the name of Caius. One of them a an excellent person named Demetrius, who, in disposition

ness

and behaviour, being the reverse of Diotrephes, the apostle when, in imitation of the apostle Paul, they supported proposed him as a pattern whom Caius and the rest were themselves by their own labour, and took nothing from to imitate.

their Gentile converts on the score of maintenance, lest Commentators are not agreed in their accounts of the it might have marred the success of their preaching. In brethren and the strangers, to whom Caius shewed kind- short, if these brethren and strangers had not been

as they passed through his city. Grotius and preachers, the apostle could not with propriety have said, Lampe thought these strangers were believing Jews, who ver. 8. •We therefore ought to receive such, that we had been driven out of Palestine by their unbelieving bre. may be joint labourers in the truth.' For the terins thren, or who had been forced away by the calamities labourers and joint labourers are always, in the apostobrought on that country during the Jewish war, and had lical writings, applied to preachers of the gospel, or lo come into Asia in hopes of obtaining assistance from the those who in some way or other assisted the preachers Christians in that province, or perhaps of obtaining a set of the gospel. These things Lardner did not attend 10 tlement among them. Grotius supposes Diotrephes would when he said, “I see nothing that should lead us to not receive these strangers, nor even the brethren, that is, think preachers are spoken of, but only persons in the Christians who were of his acquaintance, because they want." joined the rites of the law with the gospel. This, like Commentators are no less divided concerning the wise, was the opinion of Le Clerc and Beausobre. Where- character and office of Diotrephes.- Erasmus in his fore, according to these authors, Diotrephes was a Gentile paraphrase saith, Diotrephes was the author of a new convert, and zealous for the freedom of the Gentiles from sect. This likewise was Bede's opinion. But, as other the yoke of the law. But Mosheim rejects their opinion, learned men have well argued, if Diotrephes had been a as having no foundation in antiquity. Others think corrupter of the Christian doctrine, the apostle without these strangers were Gentile converts, whom Diotrephes, doubt would have cautioned Caius, and all the members a Jew zealous of the law, would not receive, because they of his church, to have avoided him, as he desired the elect did not observe the rites of Moses. That opinion Benson lady to avoid the false teachers of whom he wrote in his adopted, founding it on this circumstance, that Diotre letter to her. But this, as Lamy observeth, he did not phes did not receive John ;' that is, did not acknow do. He only reproved the pride of Diotrephes, his ledge his authority as an apostle. For he thinks none contempt of the apostle's authority, but especially his orbut the Judaizing teachers denied the authority of the dering the members of his church not to shew kindness to apostles.

the brethren and the strangers who applied to them for The brethren who were hospitably entertained by relief. Caius, were some believers who had gone from Ephesus It is the opinion of many, that Diotrephes was a bishop to the church where Caius abode ; for they are said to in the church where he resided, and of which Caius was have praised his liberality, in the presence of the church a member. In support of their opinion they observe, first, over which John presided. Probably they belonged to That he is said to have hindered those from receiving the that church as members. Further, since the apostle brethren and the strangers, who were willing to shew them desired Caius to help these brethren and strangers for kindness; and to have cast them out of the church, who, ward on their journey, it implieth that they had gone contrary to his orders, continued to entertain them. Next, forth, or were going forth, on a second journey among they take notice that the apostle said to Caius, ver. 9. 'I the Gentiles, in which they proposed to visit Caius again. would have written to the church ; but Diotrephes, who Estius conjectures, that John sent this letter to Caius by loveth to rule them, doth not receive us.' The apostles them.

wrote most of their letters to the churches, that is, to the The account given, ver. 7. of the purpose for which whole body of Christians living in a particular place, and the brethren and strangers went forth to the Gentiles, in- sent them to the bishops and elders of these churches, to clines me to think they were preachers : : For his name's be by them read in the public assemblies for the instrucsake they w forth. Bede however informs us, that tion of their people. But, as Diotrephes did not acknowanciently two interpretations were given of these words. ledge John's authority, he had reason to fear, that if he The first was, 'For his name's sake they went forth to had written to the church, and had sent his letter to preach the gospel ;' the second, 'For the faith and pro- Diotrephes to be read by him publicly to the brethren, he fession of the holy name of Christ, they were expelled would have suppressed it by virtue of his episcopal authofrom their native country.' Heuman adopts the latter rity; or, if it had been read to the church without his coninterpretation, and often calls these strangers exiles ; and sent, he would have rendered it ineffectual by means of saith they were Gentiles. But, as the brethren are dis his adherents. tinguished from the strangers, and as it is said that they Heuman thought that Diotrephes was a deacon; and bare witness to Caius's love before the church, it is rea. that, having the charge of the church's stock, he had it sonable to think these brethren were members of the in his power to refuse relief to the brethren and strangers church over which St. John presided. -- And with respect who applied to him; and that by so doing he cast them to the strangers, without determining in this place whe out of the church, that is, obliged them to depart. But ther they were exiles from their own country or not, I Lardner, who supposeth Diotrephes to have been a bishop, suppose, that, having come to the place where the bre- argueth, that as he loved to rule every thing in his church thren of whom the apostle speaks dwelled, they joined according to his own pleasure, his office as bishop enabled them in their journey, which I think was undertaken for him to restrain the deacons from employing any part the sake of preaching Christ to the Gentiles. If I am of the church's stock in relieving the brethren and the right in this conjecture, the strangers as well as the strangers. brethren were preachers, as above observed. For, if Demetrius, who is so highly praised by the apostle in they were only persons in want, it was no commendation this letter, is thought to have held some sacred office in of them, that they went forth taking nothing of the the church of which Caius was a member. But Benson Gentiles;' because, standing in need of alms, it was their rejects this opinion, because, on that supposition, Caius duty, not only to receive but even to ask alms, for the must have known him so well as to need no information support of their life, from the unbelieving Gentiles; concerning bis character from the apostle.

Benson especially as, in many places, there may have bee therefore believed him be the bearer of this letter, and Christians to whom they could apply for relief. Where one of the brethren who went out to preach to the Genas, if they were preachers, they were greatly to be praised, tiles. But whoever Demetrius was, his character and

no

behaviour were the reverse of the character and behaviour certainty. But he tells us, “ Mill places them about the of Diotrephes. For the apostle speaks of him as one same time with the first ; that is, in the year 91 or 92. who was esteemed of all men, and whose behaviour in Whiston supposeth that they were all three written about every respect was conformable to the gospel ; in short, the year 82 or 83. I imagine that St. John was some. one to whom the apostle himself bare the most honour- what advanced in age, and that he had resided a good able testimony. This high character of Demetrius, John while in Asia before he wrote any of these epistles ; wrote to Caius, that he and all the members of the consequently I am disposed to think that these two were church might imitate him rather than Diotrephes, whose not writ sooner than the first. And as it was before arrogance, uncharitableness, and contempt of the apostle's argued, that the first epistle was written about the year authority, were so great, that he threatened to punish 80, these two may be reckoned to have been writ between him for these enormities when he visited Caius; which the years 80 and 90." Thus far Lardner, Can. vol. iii. he promised to do soon, that he might have an opportu. p. 313. nity of speaking with Caius face to face concerning that In the preface to the first epistle, I bave attempted to imperious man.

shew from the epistle itself, that it was written about the time of the destruction of Jerusalem : But there is no

thing in the second and third epistles leading us to think Sect. IV.-Of the Date of the Second and Third

they were written so early. We may therefore fix their Epistles of John.

date as late as Lardner hath done ; or even later, when Of the time of writing the second and third epistles John was so old as with much propriety to take the title of John, nothing, as Lardner observes, can be said with of the elder, or aged apostle, by way of eminence.

View and Nlustration of the Matters contained in this Epistle.

To encourage Caius to persevere in that virtuous write, ver. 9.—He added, that because Diotrephes did not course by which he had obtained the love of all who acknowledge his authority, he would, when he came knew him, John, in the inscription of this letter, declared among them, put him in mind of his deeds; his prating his own love to him, on account of the uncommon good against the apostle with malicious words, his not receiving ness of his character and actions, ver. 1.—and prayed to the brethren and the strangers who had applied to him in God to prosper him in his spiritual concerns, ver. 2.--and their straits for relief, his hindering the members of his told him what joy it gave him, when the brethren who church from assisting them, who were disposed to do it, had been assisted by him, brought him the welcome and his casting those out of the church who had persenews of his perseverance in the true doctrine of the vered in assisting them, contrary to his arbitrary orders. gospel, ver. 3.-because the apostle's greatest joy was By this, I think, the apostle threatened to exercise to hear that his disciples walked in the truth, ver. 4.- his miraculous power in punishing Diotrephes for his Next, he praised Caius as acting agreeably to the gospel, evil deeds, ver. 10.-But, beloved, said he, do not imitate when he shewed kindness to the brethren and to the what is evil in Diotrephes, but what is good in Demetrius, strangers who had applied to him for succour in their one of your own church: For he who doth good actions straits, ver. 5.-And to encourage him to persevere in is begotten of God; but he who doth evil actions bath these charitable Christian offices, he told Caius, that the not seen God-he hath no right knowledge of God, brethren and strangers, when they returned, bare an ver. 11.-He then told Caius, that Demetrius was every honourable testimony to his love publicly before the church way worthy of being imitated, because he was praised not over which John presided. And as they were, at the time only by all good men, but by the gospel itself, his temper this letter was written, making a second journey among the and actions being conformable to the precepts of the gospel Gentiles, he told them, if he helped them forward a second in every respect. To these honourable testimonies John time, in a manner worthy of God whom they served, by added his own approbation of Demetrius's character, succouring them he would still do a good work acceptable which Caius knew to be a true testimony, because he to God, ver. 6.—because these brethren and strangers, knew that the apostle never praised any person from for the sake of publishing the name of Christ and the flattery, ver. 12.—He told him farther, that he had many doctrine of the gospel among the Gentiles, were gone things to write to him concerning the unchristian temper forth, as formerly, with a resolution of taking nothing and conduct of Diotrephes; but he would not commit on the score of maintenance from the Gentiles, notwith- them to paper, lest his letter, falling into other hands, standing they greatly benefited the Gentiles by preaching might be shewed to that imperious man, and enrage the gospel to them, ver. 7.-For which cause, all who had him against Caius, ver. 13.—But he hoped to visit Caius the furtherance of the gospel at heart, he told him, were soon, and then would speak to him mouth to mouth freely bound to shew such persons kindness, that they might be concerning Diotrephes. In the mean time, to testify joint labourers with them in spreading and establishing his esteem of Caius, ho gave him his apostolical benedicthe truth, ver. 8.

tion, together with the salutation of all the faithful who Next, he told Caius, that he would have written the were with him; and whom he named the friends, because same exhortation to the church of which he was a mem- they were the friends of Christ, and lived in strict friendber ; but he had abstained from writing, because Diotre- ship with each other. Lastly, he desired Caius in his name phes, who ruled every thing in that church according to to wish health and happiness to all the faithful in his his own humour, did not acknowledge his apostolical church, whom he termed the friends, because they also authority: thereby insinuating, that Diotrephes probably were the friends of Christ, and lived in the strictest friend. would have suppressed any letter which the apostle might ship with each other, ver. 14.

New Translation. Ver. 1. The elderl to Caius the beloved, whom I love in truth.2

COMMENTARI. VER. 1.—The elder to Caius the beloved of all who know him, whom I also love most sincerely.

Ver. 1.-1. The elder.)– This appellation signifies the aged apos. lle. See Pref. to 2 John, sect. 1. penult paragi,

2. To Caius (see Pref. sect. 2.) the beloved, whom I love la truth.) -See 2 John, ver. 1. note 5.

2 Beloved, I pray that (Trogi, 279.) with re 2 Beloved, having the highest opinion of thy faith and love, I spect to all things, thou mayest prospera and pray to God that with respect to all things thou mayest prosper, and be in health, even as thy soul prospereth.3 be in health to as great a degree as thy soul prospereth in faith, and

love, and every virtue. 3 For I rejoiced greatly' when the brethren? 3 For I rejoiced greatly when the brethren, who went to the came and bare witness to thy truth,3 even as church of which thou art a member, came back, and informed me of thou walkest in truth.

thy holding the true faith of the gospel, and of thy walking agree

ably to that true faith. 4 I have no greater joys than those WHICH 4 I have no greater joys than those which I have when I hear my I have' (ivd, 199.) when I hear? my chil disciples are walking in the true faith of the gospel. dren are walking in truth.

5 Beloved, thou dost faithfully! what thou 5 Beloved, thou dost agreeably to the faith which thou professest performest for the brethren, and for the what thou performest for the brethren who are gone forth to preach strangers.2

the gospel, and for the strangers who assist them in that good work. 6 (01, 67.) These have borne testimony to 6 These brethren and strangers have borne an honourable testithy (2727) love in the presence of the mony to thy benevolence in the presence of the church here, whom if church ;' whom if thou help forward on their thou help forward on their second journey, by entertaining them and journey? in a manner worthy of God, thou supplying them with necessaries, in a manner worthy of God, who wilt do well ;

reckons what is done to his distressed servants as done to himself,

thou wilt do well ; 7 Because for his name's sake they went 7 Because, for making the name of Christ as the Son of God forth,' receiving nothing from the Gentiles.? known among the Gentiles, they went forth, and received nothing on

the score of maintenance from the Gentiles to whom they preached,

that their preaching might be the more acceptable. Ver. 2.- 1. Beloved, I pray that with respect to all things thou those who were under his inspection the appellation of pee Texv, mayest prosper.)- In the Greek it is, Tię navtav suzohen Ivodour. my children, to express his tender affection to them, and his con. Sai, which in our Bible is rendered, 'I wish above all things that cern for their welfare. And in support of their opinion they ob. thou mayest prosper.' Beza's translation is, 'Deum oro de omni. serve, that the term children is used to express affection, 1 John ii. bus rebus--I pray God concerning all things,' things temporal as But the terms used in that chapter are Teuvove jou, my little children, well as things spiritual, 'that thou mayest prosper.' In this trans anda.dox, young children, which strongly express affection. See lation Beza is followed by Estius and Erasmus Schmidius. Dod. 1 John ii. 1. note I. ; whereas here, 64* TsXvs, my children, denotes dridge's translation is, 'Beloved, I pray that in respect of all things.' simply the relation of children to their father.

2. Thou mayest prosper. )-- Evodouriasignifies to go on safely Ver 5.-1. Beloved, thou dost faithfully.)-1.50v TO:N15, Thou and successfully in a journey. Hence it signifies to be prosperous dost a faithful thing; a thing becoming a faithful person; or one in general.

who is a real believer. 3. And be in health, even as thy soul prospereth. )--From John's 2. What thou performest for the brethren, and for the strangers.) using the word vyozoviov, some conjecture that Caius was of a sickly -As the brethren are here distinguished from the strangers, the constitution of body; and from his wishing him prosperity, they brethren, I suppose, were members of the church over which John fancy that Caius had sustained considerable worldly losses. But I presided. Accordingly it is said of them, ver. 7. that they went forth see no reason for either of these conjectures. His worldly affairs, Irom the place of their residence, which I suppose was Ephesus, or at the time John wrote to him, were such as enabled him to lodge some other city of Asia where John abode, to publish the name of and entertain the brethren and strangers who applied to him for re Christ as the son of God to the Gentiles in those parts. And, at lief. Perhaps also he gave them money to defray the expenses of their return from their first journey, they bare witness to the faith their journey among the Gentiles. But be this as it may, it is evi.

and love of Caius in the presence of the church from which they dent that Caius had made himself remarkable among the Christians went forth. But the strangers were poor Christians, who, as Heu. in that part of the world for his many virtues. For the apostle made man supposes, having been driven from their habitation by their his proticiency in the Christian graces the measure of that tempo. persecutors, had come to the city where Caius dwell, in the hope rul prosperity and health which he wished to him, not for his own of finding relief; and happening to meet the brethren there, they sake alone, but for the benefit of the church. Wherefore, in the joined them in their first journey among the Gentiles.-To shew apostle's wish there was a delicate insinuation that is Caius's riches, how unfaithfully the Papists have translated the scriptures, Benson of which he had made so good a use, and his bodily health, were in takes notice, that, to give countenance to their pilgrimages, they proportion to his virtues, they would be very great, and the continu. have in some of their versions of this passage translated the clause ance of his life and health would be a singular blessing to the *** 945 TOUS Govous, and to pilgrims. With the same view they have church.

translated sin Evvodom Tov, 1 Tim. v. 10. 'If she hath lodged pilgrims.' Ver. 3.-1. For 1 rejoiced greatly. 1-The connexion in which this See another instance, James v. 11. note.---These examples shew of verse stands with ver. 2. where the apostle told Caius that he prayed what importance toward the faithful translation of the sacred for him, teacheth us, that the most proper expression of our joy for oracles it is, to give the true literal meaning of the word, as far as it the happiness and virtue of our friends, is to give thanks to God for can be done with propriety. the same, and to pray that these blessings may be continued to them. Ver. 6.-1. These have borne testimony to thy love in the pre

2. When the brethren came.)--That pmojsvæv is rightly render sence, &c.)--Since the apostle represents the strangers as joining ed came, see proved 2 John ver. 7. note 1. - The brethren here the brethren in bearing witness to Caius's love before the church spoken of seem to have been those mentioned ver. 5. who, having from which the brethren went forth to the Gentiles; also, since in been sent by the apostle either to convert the Gentiles or to water in ver. 7. these strangers are represented as having gone forth with the Gentile churches already planted, had been hospitably enter the brethren to the Gentiles, it is probable, as was observed in nole lained by Caius, and perhaps assisted by him with inoney; and who, 2. on ver. 5. that these strangers met the brethren in the city or on their return to the apostle, had, in a meeting of the church over place where Caius lived, and joined them in their journey to the which he presided, given an account of Caius's perseverance in the Gentiles; and accompanied them when they returned to the church true faith, and declared the great kindness which he had shewed from which they had come. to them, ver. 6. which was the more acceptable to them, as they 2. Whom if thou help forward on their journey.)--These bre. had generously resolved to take nothing for their maintenance thren and strangers, it seemeth, proposed to undertake a second from the Gentiles to whom they preached the gospel.

journey, or had undertaken it, for the purpose of preaching to the 3. And bare witness to thy truth. The apostle emphatically Gentiles. The apostle, therefore, requested Caius still to assist tering Caius's joining works of charity with faith in the doctrines of thein in executing their pionis resolution, by entertaining them. the gospel his truth. For there is no true faith without good works; For, in the language of scripture, lo help forward on a journey sig. it always produces good works: neither are any works good but nifies, not only to accompany a person on a part of his journey, such as proceed from faith. The two joined constitute the truth of Acts xxi. 5. but also to furnish him with necessaries for his jour. religion

ney, Tit. iij. 13. Ver. 4.--1. I have no greater joys than those wbich I have.)-In Ver. 7.--1. Because for his name's sake they went forth.)-For the new translation of this clause I have supplied the words which the different interpretation of these words given by the ancient I have : because the plural demonstrative pronoun TOUTH, con commentators, see Pres. sect. 3. par. 4.--I think these brethren strued as it inust be with us oro *v **pxv,cannot be translated with and strangers were preachers, who had gone forth among the Gen. out the addition of these words.-Rich. Baxter's note on this verse tiles for the sake of making known to thein the name of Christ, thal is good :-" True ministers rejoice more for the welfare of men's is, his character as the Son of God, and his office as Saviour of the souls, than in their procuring wealth and worldly honours."-See world ; because, as was observed, Pref. sect. 3. par. 4. if these 2 John ver. 4. note 2.

strangers had been merely persons in want, there was no reason for 2. When i hear.)--So iva ixtun must be translated. This use of their not receiving assistance from the Gentiles, whether converted ivo is thought by some a peculiarity in John's style. See, however, or unconverted, Ess. iv. 199

2. Receiving nothing from the Gentiles.)--It is not clear whether 3. My children.)-I think John, by reckoning Caius in the num. the apostle meant the converted or the unconverted Gentiles, or ber of his children, ineans to tell us that Caius was converted by both.' I am of opinion that he meant both ; because, if the brethren bim. Others, however, are of opinion, that the apostle gave to and the strangers were preachers, they may have prudently resolved

8 We, therefore, ought to entertain' such, 8 We, therefore, who do not undertake expensive journeys for the that we may be joint labourers in the truth. sake of preaching the gospel, ought to entertain in our houses those

who do so, that in this manner we may be joint labourers with them

in spreading the gospel. 9 (Engsett, supply ar) I would have writ. 9 I would have written the same exhortation to the church of ten' to the church; but Diotrephes,? who loveth which thou art a member; but Diotrephes, who loveth to rule them to rule them, doth not receive us,

according to his own humour, doth not acknowledge my authority

as an apostle of Christ. 10 For this cause, when I come, I will bring 10 For this cause, when I come, I will bring his deeds to his rehis deeds to remembrancel which he practiseth, membrance-I will punish him for his deeds—which he practiseth, prating against us with malicious words ; and, prating against me with calumnious speeches, as if I were no aposnot content therewith, he doth not himself re- tle, but had assumed that office; and not content therewith, he doth ceive the brethren, and forbiddeth them who not himself shew kindness to the brethren in their journey to the Genwould, and casteth Them out of the church.2 tiles, and forbiddeth them who are disposed to entertain them; and

casteth them out of the church, when they do so contrary to his or

ders. 11 Beloved, do not thou imitate what is evil, 11 Beloved, do not thou imitate what is evil in the behaviour of but what is good.' He who doth good is of Diotrephes, but imitate rather what is good in the behaviour of DeGod; but he who doth evil hath not seen God.2 metrius, knowing that he who doth good works is begotten of God,

but he who behaveth uncharitably to the servants of Christ in their

straits, hath no right knowledge of God, 1 John iii. 10. 12 Testimony is borne to Demetrius by all 12 Praise is bestowed on Demetrius by all who know him, on acmen,' and by the truth itself. And we also count of his benevolence, his meekness, and his humility ; and by bear testimony; and ye know that our testimony the gospel itself, his temper and conduct being conformable to its preis true.

cepts. And I also praise him highly; and ye know that my praise is

always well-founded. 13 I have many things to write :' But I do 13 I have many things to write concerning the affairs of your not incline to write them to thee with pen and church, and concerning Diotrephes : But I do not incline to write to receive neither entertainment nor money from the Gentiles, lest Liseth.}-'Y TO HAVE Tu properly signifies to bring another to the re. it might have marred the success of their

preaching among them, membrance of a thing, and it is so translated Jude ver. 5. In thus when they found the reception of the gospel attended with expense. speaking, the writer of this epistle shewed himself to be Diotre. This at least was the consideration which determined the apostle phes's superior. It is therefore highly probable, that the writer of Paul to preach the gospel gratis. — The cominentalors who think the third epistle of John was not the person called by the ancients these brethren and strangers were simply poor Christians, who had John the presbyter, but John the apostle. Heuman and Lardner been driven from their homes by their persecutors, suppose that are of opinion, that the apostle only meant that he would put Diothey received nothing from the unconverted Gentiles, lest it might trephes in enind of his evil deeds, and endeavour to persuade him have given the occasion to say that there was no charity among to repent of them by mild admonitions. But there is no occasion to the Christians.

give a mild sense to the apostle's words. For, allowing that John Ver. 8. We, therefore, ought to entertain such. }-See Luke xv. threatened to punish Diotrephes for his insolence in prating against 27. Gal. iv. 5. where 17043454vrov signifies simply to receive, which, him with malicious words, and for his uncharitableness in refusing in the language of the New Testament, means to lodge and enter. to entertain and assist the brethren and the strangers, his threaten. tain a person in one's house ; to keep company with him, as one ing did not proceed from resentment, but from zeal for the interwhom we esteem. Wherefore, the apostle's sentiment in this pre ests of religion, in which he is to be coinmended; because, as Whitcept is, that such of the brethren as had not devoted themselves to by remarks on this verse, “ Private offences against ourselves must the preaching of the gospel, but followed their ordinary occupations be forgiven and forgotten; but when the offence is an impediment at home, were bound to contribute according to their ability toward to the faith, and very prejudicial to the church, it is to be opposed the maintenance of those who went about preaching the gospel. and publicly reproved.” And to render his exhortation the more acceptable to them, he in. 2. He doth not himself receive the brethren, and forbiddeth them cluded himself in the exhortation: 'We ought to entertain such.' who would, and casteth them out, &c.)-Because Caius, who shew. Benson thinks Caius was a Jewish Christian, and that the apostle's ed great kindness to the brethren and the strangers, doth not seem exhortation was directed particularly to Jewish believers, who, if to have been cast out of the church by Diotrephes, Heuman conthey contributed towards the support of those who preached the tends, that the persons who were cast out of the church were not gospel to the Gentiles, would thereby shew their earnest desire of those who shewed kindness to the brethren and to the strangers, the conversion of the Gentiles.

but the brethren and strangers themselves, whom he obliged to Ver. 9. – I would have written to the church.)-Eyeyu Ty ex leave the church, by denying them relief himself, and by binderκλησια. Six or seven MSS. read here sypaya xv, which is followed ing others from relieving them. In support of this interpretation by the Vulgate scripsissem. The second Syriac likewise, and the it is but fair to observe, iliat the relative pronoun often expresseth Coptic versions, follow that reading, which I suppose is genuine; not the near, but the remote antecedent, Ess. iv. 63. Yet I doubt because, is the coromon reading is retained, the particle av must be that Heuman's interpretation doth not give the true meaning of the supplied; as is plain from what follows, where the apostle, in apo passage. Some commentators, by Diotrephes's casting the persons logy for not writing to the church, adds, But Diotrephes, who spoken of out of the church, understand his excommunicating loveth to rule them, doth not receive us; doth not acknowledge them; a sense of the phrase which is suitable to Diotrephes's inine as an apostle. The letters which the apostles wrote to the solent and arrogant disposition, and agreeable to the supposition, churches were all sent to the bishops and elders in these churches, that the persons whom he cast out of the church were those who to be

them read to the people in their public assemblies. See relieved the brethren and the strangers. Ess. ii. 'Is Diotrephes was a bishop, or elder, of the church to which Ver. 11.-1. Beloved, do not thou initate what is evil, but what John would have written, he might suspect that that imperious ar. is good.}-Having reprobated the temper and behaviour of Diorogant man would have suppressed his letter; consequently, to have prephes, the apostle naturally cautioned Caius against the pernicious written to a church of which he had usurped the sole government, intluence of his bad example ; and exhorted him to imitate another would have answered no good purpose. The translation of this member of his own church, named Demetrius, who in character clause of our English Bible represents the apostle as saying, that and conduct was the direct reverse of Diotrephes, and therefore he had written a letter, which is now lost

. This to some may ap was highly praised by all good men, and among the rest by the pear a difficulty. But the translation I have given, which is sup. apostle himself. ported by several MSS., and by the Vulgate version, obviates that 2. He who doth good is of God.)-EX TOU O sou 151, 'Is begotten of difficulty:

God;' for so this phrase signifies, 1 John iii. 10. See 1 John iii. 12. 2. Bui Diotrephes, who loveth to rule them,)-namely, who are notel. members of his church. From Diotrephes's loving to rule the Ver. 12.-1. Testimony is borne to Demetrius by all men.)—By church of which Caius was a meinber, many have supposed him to bearing testimony to a person, the Jews meant the the praising of have been the bishop of that church. Besides, they think if he had him for his good qualities and actions. Thus it is said of Jesus, been a private person only, he could not have hindered any letter Luke iv. 22. All bare him witness,' that is, praised him. In like which the apostle might have written to that church from being manner, Paul speaking of David, saith, Acts xii. 22. 'To whom God read in it, and from having its due effect. See the Preface to this bare witness, saying, I have found David,' &c.-See what is said epistle, sect. 3. par. 3. from the end.

concerning Demetrius, Pref. sect. 3. last paragr. 3. Doth not receive us.)-On this circumstance Benson founds 2 And ye know that our witness is true.)-This expression is his opinion, that Diotrephes was a bigoted Judaizing teacher. For twice used by John in his gospel, cbap. xix. 35. xxi. 24. which is a he thinks the persons who denied John's authority as an apostle clear internal evidence that this epistle was written, not by John were the Judaizers only, and not the Gentile teachers.

the presbyter, but by John the apostle. Ver. 10.-1. I will bring his deeds to remembrance which he prac. Ver. 13. I have many things to write, &c. )-John said the same

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