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THEM in Tartarus, delivered THEM over to be sinned, notwithstanding their high rank, but, with chains of darkness kept for judgment;'

confining them in Tartarus, delivered them over to be kept for

judgment and punishment; 5 And did not spare the old world, but 5 And did not suffer the wicked inhabitants of the old world to saved Noah, a preacher of righteousness,' the go unpunished, but saved Noah, a preacher of righteousness, the eighth WHO WAS SAVED,? when he brought eighth person who was saved, when he brought the flood upon the the flood upon the world of the ungodly ;3 earth on which the ungodly dwelt, and destroyed them all, though

they were so many in number, 1 Pet. iii. 20. 6 And having reduced to ashes the cities of 6 And having reduced to ashes the cities of Sodom and GoSodom and Gomorrha,' punished THEM with morrha, punished their inhabitants with a great overthrow, placing an overthrow, placing THEM an example2 to them a typical example of that dreadful punishment by fire which those who afterward would live ungodly ; he will inflict on the wicked at the last day, to deter those who in

after-times would live ungodly; 7 And rescued righteous Lot, exceedingly 7 And, to shew his regard to good men, rescued righteous Lot, grieved by the lewdness of the behaviour of who had been exceedingly grieved by the lewdness of the behaviour the lawles8; WILL HE SPARE THEM? (See of the lawless Sodomites ;-will he, do ye think, suffer those unver. 4. note 1.)

godly teachers to go unpunished, who by their false doctrine destroy

multitudes? 8 For that righteous man, dwelling among 8 Lot was justly delivered when the Sodomites were destroyed ; them,' by seeing and hearing tormented us for that righteous man, dwelling among them, was so far from imirighteous soul from day to day with their un- tating thein, that, by seeing their base actions, and hearing their lawful works.

lewd speeches, he tormented his righteous soul from day to day with

their unrighteous works. 9 The Lord knoweth to rescue the godly out 9 From the preservation of Noah and Lot, with their families, ye of temptation, (de, 101.) and to keep in ward may be sensible that the Lord is willing and able to rescue the godly the unrighteous to the day of judgment, to be out of temptation; and from the example of the angels who sinned, punished.' (Vulg. cruciandos).

that he will keep in ward the unrighteous to the day of judgment,

to be punished. 10 And especially those who go after the 10 And especially God will punish those who go after the flesh sin by many is thought to have been pride, and a discontent with claimed to the antediluvians ihe destruction of the world by a flood, their station. See I Tim. iii. 6. note 3. But whatever it was, con: that from the dread of that impending judgment of God they might sidering their high intellectual powers, they might easily have avoid. be brought to repentance; like as Jonah proclaimed to the Nineed it; and therefore God did not spare them, as he spared Adam vites the destruction of their city for the saine purpose. and Eve, who, on account of the greatness of the temptation spread 2. The eighth who was saved. Pearson on the Creed, p. 113. for them by the evil angels, and their own inexperience, were fit translates this the eighth preacher of righteousness; supposing objects of mercy.

that Enoch, (Gen. v. 21.), from whom Noah was descended, was the 3. With chains (see Jude ver. 6. note 3.) of darkness, confining them first preacher of righteousness, and that all the intermediate per. in Tartarus.)- This is a literal translation of cinezos socou TupTapwe sons were likewise preachers of righteousness. But there is not *s. The word Tartarus is not found in the LXX. nor anywhere any evidence that the intermediate persons were preachers of in the New Testament but here. Its meaning therefore must be righteousness, and therefore the translation I have given seems sought for among the Greeks. Homer represents Tartarus as a deep more natural. For in the ark were Noah, and his sons Shem, Ham, place under the earth, liad. o. line 13. In like manner Hesiod and Japhet, and Noah's wife, and the three wives of his sons, speaks of Tartarus as a place far under ground, where the Titans are Gen. viii. 16. in all eight persons. Bryant, Mythol. vol. ii. hath shewn, bound with chains in thick darkness, Theogon. line 119.718. But that the knowledge of the flood, and of the eight persons who were on other occasions the Greek writers speak of Tartarus as in the air, saved, hath been preserved anong the different nations of mankind and at the extremity of the earth, beyond the region of Mauritania by tradition; that in the ancient heathen writings there is mention Hence the epithet Tæprapor suposrta, airy Tartarus. The Jews, as made of the sacred eight; that the hill where the ark rested is callappears from Job ii. 2. thought the fallen angels, or at least some of ed the hill of the eight; and that village near that hill bears the them, were permitted to wander up and down the earth, and to same name, Themanim. See Hammond. teinpi men. This was the opinion of the evangelists likewise, who 3. The world of the ungodly. 1-The antedilavians were called un. speak of the devil's tempting our Lord; and of Peter, who represents godly, because they had lost all knowledge of God, were universally the devil as a roaring lion walking about,' &c. 1 Epist. v. 8. , and addicted to idolatry, and lived in the gratification of the lusts of the the opinion of Paul, who insinuates that evil spirits have their habi. flesh, Gen. vi. 2. 4. These likewise were the sins of the false teachtation in the air, Eph. ij. 2. vi. 11, 12. Wherefore, seeing the Greeks crs of whom Peter speaks. named the place where they supposed the Titans, the enemies of Ver. 6.-1. The cities of Sodom and Gomorrha.)-The sin of Sothe gods, were confined, Tartarus, it was natural for Peter, when doin was unnatural lusts, Gen. xix. 5. and 'pride with fulness of writing in the Greek language concerning the confining of the evil bread, (luxury), and abundance of idleness,' especially among the angels in the air, or wherever else they are shut up, to call the place women, and hard-heartedness towards the poor, Ezek. xvi. 49. Jude, of their confinement Tartarus, although his idea of Tartarus was ver. 7. different from that of the Greeks.-Peter's expression, 'chains of 2. Placing them an example. Because the word used here is darkness,' and Jude's, ' reserved in everlasting chains under dark- uTodowy ks, not apudtog Hex, Erasmus supposes the apostle meant, ness,' are not inconsistent with the fact asserted by the other in not an example to be imitated, but an example to be avoided ; and spired writers, that the evil spirits are confined in our atmosphere; that Jude, to express the same idea, uses

the word og kr. Estius for, in comparison of the regions out of which they were cast, our says, these differences in the use of the words are noi always obair is a place of darkness. Or darkness and chains of darkness may served; and therefore he is of opinion, that by an example Peter be understood metaphorically, as denoting the horror and misery of means a type or representation of the future punishment of the the state in which the evil spirits now are. Sec ver. 17 Because it wicked by everlasting fire. Jude, ver. 7. is said, Rev. xx. 3. that'Satan was cast (515 zurro) into the abyss ;' Ver. 8. Dwelling among them.)-Lot dwelled sixteen years in and Luke viii. 31. that the devils besought Jesus 'that he would not Sodom after he parted with Abraham; which was a long space of command them to go out (1=5 KEUTTow) into the abyss,'Estius infers severe trial. Doublless Lot, who was so exceedingly grieved with that Tartarus and Bell are the saine; and that the greatest part of the lewdness of the Sodomites from day to day, often carnestly dethe angels who sinned are confined there, though some of them are sired to depart froin so wicked a city. But he was directed, it seems, allowed to roam about on the earth, tempting men. For more con by God to remain, that he might be an example of his goodness and cerning Tartarus as a place of punishment, see Pope's note on line power in delivering the godly both from temptation and punish16. of his translation of the 8th book of the Iliad.

inent. 4. Delivered them over to be kept to judgment. Jude, ver. 6. Ver. 9. And to keep in ward the unrighteous, &c.}-So trest sig. "The judgment of the great day.' ^ From this it follows, that the nifies, Acts xvi. 23. "The multitude of the inhabitants of the old angels who sinned are not at present suffering the punishment due world, and of the cities of the plain, was in the eye of God no reason to thein for their crimes, but, like malefactors, they are kept in du. for not destroying them. He destroyed them all at once. On the rance in the air, till the time come when they are to be punished other hand, a few godly persons among them were not overlooked with the wicked of mankind whom they have seduced. This was by God because they were few, but were preserved by an immediate the opinion of all the Christian writers for five centuries, as Whit. interposition of his power. This last observation Peter makes, lo by hath shewn; and it is agreeable to our Lord's doctrine, who calls shew, thal, notwithstanding Cod permits false teachers to arise and the fire into which wicked men are to be cast, 'fire prepared for deceive many, he will preserve the sincere from being deluded by the devil and his angels.'

them, and at length will destroy them out of the church. By God's Ver. 5.--1. But saved Noah (xmpusce) a preacher of righteousness.) keeping the unrighteous in ward to be punished at the day of judg. :- By calling Noah engura, a crier or herald of righteousness, Peter ment, we are taught, that the punishment inflicted on the wicked insiuuates, that all the time Noah was preparing the ark, he pro in this life will not hinder them from being punished in the next.

flesh' in the lust of pollution, and who despise through unnatural lust, and who despise the government both of government:? BEING audacious, self-willed, God, and man, hating to be restrained thereby : and being audacious, they do not fear to revile dignities.

self-willed, they do not fear to revile magistrates when they punish

them for their crimes. 11 Whereas angels, who are greater in 11 Whereas the holy angels, who are greater in strength and strength and power, do not bring a reviling! power than the angels who sinned, when they complain of them, do accusation against them? before the Lord.3 not bring an accusation against them in reviling speech before the

Lord, but set an example of temperate language, which mankind

ought to imitate. 12 But these, as natural irrational animals,' 12 But these false teachers, like natural wild beasts made for made for capture and destruction, speaking capture and destruction on account of the mischief they do, reviling evil (®, 166.) of MATTERS which they do not laws and magistrates, whose excellent nature they do not underunderstand, shall be utterly destroyed by their stand, shall be miserably destroyed, both in the present and future own corruptions,

life, by their own corrupt doctrines and practices ; 13 Receiving the Due reward of unright 13 Thus receiving the due reward of unrighteousness. They eousness. They reckon riot which is in the reckon riot which is in the day the highest pleasure, because it is a duy, pleasure. THEY ARE spots and causes carrying vice to the greatest pitch, 1 Thess. v. 7. They are spots of reproach' living in riot2 by their own de in the body of Christ, deformities in the church, and causes of receits, when they feast? with you.

proach, living in riot by means of their own corrupt doctrines, when

they join you in your love feasts. 14 They have eyes full of an adulteress, 14 On these occasions, they look lasciviously on the married woand which cease not from sin: They allure' un. men whom they have debauched, without ceasing from looking on stable souls: They have an heart exercised in them. With the bait of sensual pleasure, they allure souls who have covetous practices. (See Eph. iv. 19. note 2.) no fixed principles of virtue, making them believe the Lord's SupChildren of the curse. (Matt. xxv. 41.) per was instituted to promote carnal love. Besides being lewd, they

are ercessively covetous : They are heirs of the curse which Christ

will pronounce on the wicked. 15 Having forsaken the straight way, they 15 Having forsaken the straight path of virtue, these teachers have wandered, following in the way' of Ba- have wandered, following in the crooked path of Balaam the son laam The son of Bosor, who loved the hire of of Beor, who loved the hire of unrighteousness promised him by unrighteousness ;) (see Numb. xxii. xxii.) Balak to such a degree, that he resolved to curse the Israelites

whether God gave him permission to do so or not. The principal part of their punishment will be that which they shall agament, lore feasts, because the rich, by feasting their poor suffer after the judgment.

brethren expressed their love to them ; see Jude, ver. 12. note 2. Ver. 10.-1. Those who go (0715 TMPXos) after the flesh.)- Jude, On these occasions the false teachers and their disciples were ver. 7. 'after strange flesh. This is a periphrasis for sodomitical guilty of much lewdness. For, as is mentioned in the next verse, practices.

they intlamed themselves by looking lasciviously on the married 2. They despise government. Since 80E5, dignities, persons in wotnen, whom they had debauched by telling them that Christ's high oslices, magistrates and rulers, are mentioned in the following precepi of loving one another was chietly to be understood of the clanse, it is natural to suppose that xupIOTATOS signifies the office of mutual love of the sexes. Thus did these wicked teachers and magistrates, or rather the exercise of their office--they hate the their disciples live in riot by their own deceits. government which God and men carry on by righteous laws. In Ver. 14. They allure unstable souls.)-For the import of 81104. this passage the apostle had an eye to the false teachers of the foutis, here translated allure, see James i. 14. note. The persons, Jewish nation, whose principles led them to despise the heathen especially the women, who were thus allured, were souls not esmagistrates, and even to revile and resist them. See Rom. xiii. n. tablished in the faith and practice of the gospel. lustration.

Ver. 15.-- 1. Following in the way of Balaam.)-Balaam loved Ver. 11.-1. A reviling accusation.-BX 40 CMUON pirin, The wealth and honour so immoderately, that to obtain them he acted Greek word 82450MM!v signifies to uiler speech, whether true or contrary to his conscience. "To follow in his way,' therefore, is to false, which hurts the reputation of another. Here il signifies true be guided by the same base passions, and to commit the same base speech of that kind, expressed in bitter language.

actions. 2. Against them.}-One MS., supported by the Vulgate, reads here 2. The son of Bosor. He is called by Moses the son of Beor; jautwv, against one another, which no doubt gives a good meaning. and his city was Petbor, Nurnb. xxii. 5. Wherefore, either Balaain's But the common reading autov, them, is better supported, and may father had two names, or, as Ainsworth and Lightfoot conjecture, be retained, because it is no uncommon thing in scripture to in the apostle adopts the Chaldaic orthography, in which letters are troduce a relative, the antecedent of which is not expressed; see often changed, as in this name Aijn is changed to Samech. Ess. iv. 64. Or Utw may be read with the spiritus asper, thus, 3. Who loved the bire of unrighteousness. )-When Balaam was aur; in which case the translation will be one another. To this first sent for to curse the Israelites, Balak's messengers carried only temperate manner of speaking concerning the angels who sinned, the rewards of divination in their hand, ver. 7.; and, therefore, the holy angels are led by their own virtue, and by their reverence when God forbade him to go, he easily acquiesced and refused to go, for God. li is probable the apostle had in his eye Michael's contest ver. 13. But when Balak sent a second request, by more honourable with the devil, mentioned Zech. iii. 1. To which also Jude refers, messengers, and with them a promise to promote him to very great ver. 9. For angels, the plural, signify one angel here. See iv. 22. honour, and to do whatever he should say to him, Balaam, intlamed

3. Before the Lord.) ir, as is generally supposed, this is an allu. with a love of the proinised bire, endeavoured a second time to obsion to Zech. iii. 1, 2. before the Lord' means 'before the angel tain permission to go. And though God allowed him to go, on the of the Lord.'

express condition that he should do nothing in the affair without his Ver. 12. But these, as (Cucinz) natural irrational animals. ]-The order, Balaam went with the resolution of cursing the Israelites epithet natural is given here to wild beasts, to signify that they act whether God permitted him or not. This appears from the follow. always according to their natural dispositions; and that the false ing circumstances :--1. God's anger was kindled against Baiaam, teachers, whom the apostle compares to them, were like them because he went,' ver. 22. ; and that notwithstanding he had per. furious, rapacious, lustiul, and revengeful; and, on account of their milted him to go.-2. An angel was sent to stop him on the road, mischievous nature, were to be taken and destroyed. For in these because his way was perverse, ver. 32.-3. After the angel rebuked things the false teachers resembled wild beasts, and not in reviling him, Balaain confessed he had sinned; not surely in going, since laws and magistrates; unless we suppose the apostle means, that God had permitted bim to go, but in going with ihe resolution to in so doing they were actuated, like wild beasts, by the impulse of curse the Israeliteg.-4. Having acknowledged his sin, Balaam was their passions.' See Jude, ver. 10. note.

permitted to go without farther opposition; doubtless because he Ver. 13.-1. And causes of reproach. )- In this translation I have had at that time laid aside his wicked project, and was determined followed Estius, because the videos, which signifies a reproach, to do nothing but by Gou's order. Nevertheless, his love of the hire is here put for a cause of reproach.

still continuing, he again resumed his wicked project, and endea. 2. Living in riot.)- The word ontruçav properly signifies (deliciari) voured, by repeated sacrifices and enchanunents, to obtain per. to live in sensual pleasure, especially that of eating and drinking mission to curse the people, that he might obtain the hire, chap: carried to excess.

xxiv. I.

And when these were ineflectual, though he so far obeyed 3. By their own deceits, when they feast with you.}-Eureus%ou. God that he blessed the Israelites, it was no dictate of his heart, but Je vos, irom sun 04, an elegant plentiful feast, from ou $%$TOUS a suggestion of the Spirit of God, which he could not resist. For GevoOUT*6.-The priinitive Christians were used to feast together be. that his love of the hire, and his inclination to curse the Israelites fore they celebrated the Lord's Supper, because it was instituted by continued, he shewed by his after behaviour, when, to bring tbe Christ after he had eaten the passover with his disciples, see I Cor. curse of God on the Israelites, he counselled Balak to entice them xi. 21. note I. These previous suppers wero called, Jude, ver. 13. to fornication and idolatry, by means of the Midianitish women,

16 But received a rebuke for his own trans 16 But he received a rebuke for his own transgression, the gression, (naver inre suzov) the dumb beast, dumb beast on which he rode, speaking to him in man's language, speaking in man's' language, forbade the mad- put a stop to the madness of the prophet, by occasioning him to atness of the prophet."

tend to the angel who stood in his way. 17 These TEACHERS are wells without wa

17 These teachers, though they promise much instruction to their ter; clouds driven by a tempest,' (o • Ścous) for disciples, are wholly void of knowledge; so may be called wells withwhom the blackness of darkness? is reserved out water, and clouds driven about by a tempest, which give no rain. for ever:

For these hypocritical teachers and their disciples, the gloomiest

darkness is reserved for ever : 18 (Tag, 98.) Because, speaking great swell 18 Because, though they are utterly void of knowledge, speak. ing WORDS of falsehood, they allure by the ing great swelling false words concerning their own illumination, lusts of the flesh, EVEN by lasciviousness, and their knowledge of the gospel, they allure by the lusts of the those who have actually fled awayè from them flesh, even by permitting all kinds of lasciviousness, those to become who are living in error.3

their disciples, who, as Christians, have actually separated themselves

from the heathens, who are living in error and sin. See ver. 20. 19 They promise them liberty,' themselves 19 By teaching that men's appetites are given them to be gratified, being slaves of corruption. (See chap. i. 4. and that the gospel allows them every pleasure, they promise them note 3.) For by what a man is conquered, by liberty. But what sort of liberty that is, may be known from themthat also he is enslaved.?

selves being slaves of corruption. For, by what a man is over.

come, by that he certainly is enslaved. 20 (Tag, 97.). Now if, having fled away 20 Now the deluded ought to consider, that if, having fed away from the pollutions of the world' through the from the pollutions of the heathens, through the knowledge of the knowledge of the Lord and Saviour Jesus Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, being a second time entangled in Christ, being again entangled in these they are these lascivious practices, they are overcome (ver. 19.) by them, the overcome,

the last POLLUTIONS become latter pollutions are more fatal to them than the first, because they worse to them than the first.

are more aggravated, more difficult to be expelled, and will be more

severely punished. See Matt. xii. 45. 21 (rug, 93.) Therefore it had been better! 21 Therefore it had been better for them never to have known for them not to have known the way of right- the gospel, the way of righteousness, than after having known it and eousness, than, having known it, to turn away embraced it, to turn away from the holy commandment delivered to from the holy commandment delivered to them.? them by the avostles of the Lord and Saviour, chap. iii. 2.

Numb. xxxi. 16. Rev. ii. 14. Now, in giving that advice Balaam ciousness of the false teachers, are set forth in the strongest acted most unrighteously, as lie did it in contradiction to the will of colours. See Jude 12. note 5, 6. God made known to him, and in opposition to his own knowledge 2. The blackness of darkness.}-10 scripture, darkness signifies that God's purpose concerning the Israelites was irrevocable, a state of disconsolate nisery. llere it denotes the punishment of Numb. xxi. 19. &c. He therefore gave the advice, not in the per the wicked after the judgment, which our Lord also hath representsuasion that it would be effectual, but merely to gain the promised ed by persons being cast into outer darkness,' Malt. viii. 12. "The hire, which therefore is called 'the hire or unrighteousness.' In blackness ofdarkness,'therefore, is a great degree of future misery. these things the false teachers, who, to draw money from their dis Ver. 18.-1. Great swelling words of falsehood.)– The false ciples, encouraged them by their doctrine to commit all manner of teachers, pretending to an illumination superior to that of the apos. lewdness, might well be said to follow in the way of Balaam ;' and tles, vaunied thereof on all occasions in pompous language, to gain their doctrine might justly be called 'the doctrine of Balaam.? credit to every thing they taught. The doctrine mentioned by

Ver. 16.-1. The dumb beast, speaking (ev v P*TOU coun) in Jude, ver. 16. for the sake of which the false teachers boasted of inan's language, (for this translation, see I Cor. xiv. 10. note), for. their illumination, was different from the doctrine of which Peter bade.)-The apostle does not mean that the ass forbade Balaam, in speaks here; see Jude, ver. 16. note 4. so many words, to go with the princes of Moab; but that her un. 2. Who have actually fled.)-For outws the Alexandrian MS. hath willingness to proceed in the journey, her falling down under him here orgas, a little, and the Vulgate paululum. Some MSS. bave rather than go on, her complaint in man's language of his smiting Oliyor. her three times for not going on, and her saying, was I ever wont 3. Fled away from them who are living in error.}The word to do so to thee were things so extraordinary, especially her αποφυγοντες is rightly construed with τους αναρριφομενους, the speaking, that Balaam, from ihat miracle at least, ought to have who are living, because it governs the accusative. See ver. 20. understood that the whole was a rebuke from God of his foolish Ver. 19.-1. They promise them liberty. )-By teaching their disproject. But the thoughts of the riches and honours proinised him ciples to despise government,' ver. 10. they promised them liberty by Balak so occupied his mind, that nothing of that sort occurred to gratify their lusts without restraint, ver. 18. which they pre. to him till the angel shewed himself, and rebuked him for his per. tended was the true Christian liberty. But as the apostle obscrves verseness. That Balaam's ass should have spoken on this occasion in this verse, instead of being liberiy, that method of living is the cannot be thought incredible. "God opened her mouth,' that is, most grievous bondage. made such a change in its parts as fitted them for emitting articu. 2. For by what a man is conquered, by that also be is enslaved. )late speech; and, either by his own operation, or by the operation This, Le Clerc tells us, is an illusion to the ancient custom of of an angel, directed the ass to utter what she said. There is there. making those slaves who were conquered and taken in battle. fore no necessity to suppose, either that the ass was endowed for Such persons were called servi, because they were preserved a few moments with reason, or that the particulars relating to her from death to be made slaves. Just. Inst. lib. i. tit. 3. It was one were presented to Balaam's imagination in a dream, as Maimonides of the stoical paradoxes, that the wise man is the only free mon, believed; or that, according to the system of the metempsychosis, and that all wicked men are slaves. This inaxim the apostle adopts she was animated by a human soul. The whole transaction, on and supports in its sound sense, by unanswerable argument; the supposition that it was miraculous, is rational and consistent. namely, that the man who is conquered by his lusts hath no free.

2. The madness of the prophet.)- The apostle terms Balaam's dom left hiin, but must, as a slave, obey all their dictates. Hence resolution to curse the Israelites without the divine permission our Lord said to the Jews who boasted of their freedom, John viii. madness, because it could have no effect but to bring the curse of 34. Whosoever committeth sin is the slave of sin.! Orihe slavery God upon himself. Though Balaam is termed a soothsayer, Josh. in which every wicked man lives, St. Paul hath giren a lively pic. xiij. 2. and is said to have used enchantments, Numb. xxiv. 1. Peter ture, Rom. vi. 16-20. justly calls him a prophet, on account of God's speaking to him, and Ver. 20. The pollutions of the world.)-What these are, Peter giving him a very renarkable prophecy, recorded Numb. xxiv. 15. hath described 1 Epist. iv. 3. The word ***+ ****, in the language However, being a very bad man, he may often have reigned com. of the ancient physicians, signified the infection of the plaguc. It munications with the Deity, to draw money from the multitude. is here used to denote sin in general; but more especially the sin Perhaps the only cominunications he ever had with God were on of lasciviousness, on account of its infectious nature and destructhis occasion; and they may have been granted to bim, that by ut: tive consequences. tering them in the hearing of Balak, and of the princes of Moab and Ver. 21.-1. Better for them not to have known the way of right. Midian, the coming of one out of Jacob who was to have dominion, cousness;}-because their sin would have been less, and their might be known to the nations of the east. See Numb. xxiv. 19. punishinent lighter. If a man forsakes the way of righteousness

Ver. 17.-1. Wells without water; clouds driven by a tempest.} which he hath once walked in, he sins knowingly and wilsully. There being few wells and little rain in the eastern countries, it was This our Lord declares to be worthy of many stripes.-See Heb. a grievous disappointment to a thirsty traveller to come to a well vi. 6. X. 26. where the dangerous nature of the sin of apostasy is that had no water. The husbandman was equally disappointed to described. See also James iv. 17. see clouds arise which gave him the prospect of rain, but, ending in 2. The holy commandment delivered to them.)- Bishop Sherlock a tempest, instead of refresbing, destroyed the fruits of the earth. understands this of some directions drawn up by the apostles, and By these comparisons, the ostentation, hypocrisy, levity, and perni. delivered to the Christians, concerning their conduct with respect

22 But the saring of the true proverb 22 But the saying of the true proverb hath happened to them : hath happened to them : The dog is turned The dog is turned again to his own vomit, (Prov. xxvi. 11.) anu again to his own vomit;' and the washed sow the washed sow to wallowing in the mire ; which proverbs teach, lo wallowing in the mire.

that it is as difficult to change the dispositions of wicked men, as to alter the nature of brute animals.

to the false teachers of that age. But I rather understand it of the commandinents delivered by the apostles in their epistles, concern. ing the moral conduct or Christians in general. -See what is meant in scripture by delivering, tradition, &c. Col. ii. 6. note.

Ver. 22. The dog is turned again to his own vomit.}-As applied by the apostle this proverb signifies, that although the persons spoken oi had at their baptism promised to renounce their wicked practices,

and perhaps had begun to do so, yet, as the corruptions of their nature still remained, they returned to their evil practices with more greediness than ever. Blackwall says this proverb, “with great propriety and strength, marks out the sottishness and odious man. ners of wretches enslaved to sensual appetites and carnal lusts; and the extreme difficulty of reforming vicious and inveterate habits." Sacr. Classics, vol. ii. p. 82.


View and Nlustration of the Discoveries in this Chapter. Tue apostle informed the brethren, that his design in The apostle, it seems, foresaw, that on account of the writing both his epistles, was to bring to their remem- day of judgment's being so long delayed, the scoffers brance the doctrines and precepts delivered by the pro- would charge Christ with a want of faithfulness, or want phets and apostles ; because it was the most effectual me- of power to perform his promise. He therefore assured thod of preserving them from being seduced by false the brethren, that God's purposes are not affected by any teachers, ver. 1.-Wherefore, as one of the greatest of duration whatever. One day is with the Lord as a thouthese men's errors was, their denying the coming of sand years, and a thousand years as one day. His purChrist to judge the world and destroy this mundane poses are accomplished with as much certainty, however system, he desired the brethren to recollect what the holy long delayed, as if they had been executed the very day prophets anciently had spoken, together with the com- they were declared, ver. 8.-Further, he assured them, mandments of the apostles of Christ to their disciples, to that Christ does not delay his coming, either because he prepare for and to expect these events, ver. 2.—But, lest has forgotten his promise, or because he wants power to they might think Christ was to come to judgment im- do what he hath promised, but merely with a view to afmeiliately, he told them they were to know this, that in ford sinners space for repentance, ver. 9.; that his comthe last age of the world scoffers will arise in the church ing will be sudden and unexpected, and occasion inexitself, who, though they may pretend to believe the reve. pressible terror to infidels ; that after the judgment, the lations of God, (see ver. 5.), will be infidels at heart, ver. heavens and the earth, and all the works of God and man 3.--and who, because Christ's coming was so long de upon the earth, shall be utterly burnt, ver. 10.; and that, layed, will ridicule the promise of his coming as a mere knowing these things, believers ought always to live in a fable, and from the permanency of the mundane system, godly manner, ver. 11.-looking for, and earnestly desiring without any alteration since the beginning, will argue the coming of the day of the Lord, in which the heavens that there is no probability of its being ever destroyed, being set on fire, &c. ver. 12.--But though the world is ver. 4.-But to shew the fallacy of these reasonings, the thus to be burnt, the apostle declared, that he with all the apostle observed, that such atheistical Christians are wil. godly, according to God's promise, expected a new heaven fully ignorant of Moses's doctrine concerning the making and a new earth, in which the righteous are to dwell for of the heavens and the earth of water, and concerning the ever, ver. 13.—Wherefore he exhorted the faithful, in the earth's subsisting by water through the power of the word expectation of an abode in that happy country, to endeaof God, ver. 5.—and concerning the destruction of the vour earnestly to be found blameless by Christ at his old world by the same word of God, through his over. coming, ver. 14. flowing it with water, ver. 6.- Wherefore, the world In the remaining part of the chapter St. Peter informed having been once destroyed, as well as made, by the word Che brethren, that some of the teachers built their false docof God, there is a possibility that it may be destroyed by trine on certain passages of his brother Paul's epistles, him a second time. This conclusion following clearly which they wrested, as they also did the other scriptures, from the Mosaic history, the apostle did not think it ne to their own destruction, ver. 15, 16.—He desired them cessary to mention it. But to shew the certainty of the therefore to be on their guard, that they might not be cardestruction of the mundane system, he assured the bre- ried away by the error of these lawless persons, ver. 17.thren, and all mankind, that the world is no more to be and exhorted them to grow in grace, and in the knowledge destroyed by water but by fire ; being defended from de- of our Lord Jesus Christ, to whom he addressed a doxololuges, and kept safely to be destroyed by fire at the day gy; and so concluded his letter, ver. 18. of judgment, ver. 7.--This argument being founded on experience, was unanswerable.


COMMENTARY. Chap. III.-1 Beloved, this second epistle CAAP. III.-1 Beloved, this second epistle I now write to you, in I now write to you, in which' EPistles I which two epistles my design is to stir up your sincere mind to the stir up your sincerez mind (ov, 163.) to remem. practice of every virtue, by bringing to your remembrance some things brance :

which ye know ; 2 To recollect (Tier Sauertwv) the words be. 2 Even to recollect the predictions before spoken by the holy profore spoken by the holy propbets, (chap. i. 12. phets, Enoch (Jude, ver. 14, 15.), David (Psal. l. 1–6. lxxv. 8.), 19.), and the commandment of us the apostles and Daniel (xii. 2.), concerning the power and coming of Christ

Ver. 1.-1. In which.)-Ev árs. Because the antecedent, second 2. Your sincere mind )-Esorpion. The apostle calls their mind pistle, implies that Peter had written a first, he puts the relative sincere, to signify that lie believed they had a real love of truth and in the plural, to shew that he speaks of both bis epistles.


of the Lord and Saviour. (See ver. 11, 12.) to judgment: also the commandment of us the apostles of the Loru

and Saviour, to prepare for that event, which we delivered to you as

his commandments. 3 Knowing this first, that scoffers will come! 3 But that your faith in the prophetic word may not be shaken, in the last of the days,2 walking after their ye are to know this first of all, that scoffers will arise in the last own lusts, 3

part of the days of the world, walking after their own lusts, 4 And saying, Where is the promise of his 4 And saying, where is his promised coming to raise the dead, and coming? For from the TiME2 the fathers to destroy the earth ? For from the time of the death of the first race have fallen asleep, all things continue as at of men, all the parts of the mundane system continue as they were at the beginning of the creation.4

their first creation. Christ's coming, therefore, is a delusion. 5 (Tag, 98.) But this wilfully escapes them, 5 But this wilfully escapes the scoffers, (who, from the stability of that the heavens were anciently, and the earth all the parts of the universe, argue against the creation and destruc(6) of water,' and (di, 113.) through water tion of the world), that, according to Moses, the aerial heavens were THE EARTH consists? by (740107 ) the word at the beginning, and the earth made of water, and through water of God.

the earth subsists, and all by the word of God. See John i. 3. 6 (ai o TOTE xornos) By whom the then 6 By whom the then created world, being overflowed with water, world, being overflooded with water, perished.' perished before it was two thousand years old.

Ver. 3.-1. Scoffers will come.)-When the apostle wrote this pas heaven, and then the dry land, which he calls earth, &c. So that sage, there were Epicureans and others among the Gentiles, and all the different parts of our system, according to Moses, were of Sadducees among the Jews, who ridiculed the promises of the gos. water; which is what Peter likewise atlirms. The ancient philosopel concerning the resurrection of the dead, the general judgment, pher Thales gives the same account of the origin of things, I supthe destruction of the earth, and a future state of rewards and pu. pose, from ancient tradition : Ex Tou idatos con Gursexv*• via, nishments. Wherefore, seeing the scoffers of whom Peter speaks which Cicero thus translates, “Ex aqua dixit omnia conslare, had not yet appeared, but were to come in the last period of the du. He said that all things consist of water." ration of the world, it is probable that they were to arise in the 2 And through water the earth (TUVE5w7x) consists.)- Because church itself. Accordingly they are reproved, ver. 5. for being wil. this Greek word is the nominative singular feminine, it cannot fully ignorant of the Mosaic history of the creation and of the de. agree with ó ouerevo«, the heatens, which is masculine. The earth, luge. And Jude, ver. 18, 19. says the scoffers separated themselves hyn, therefore, is understood; and I have supplied it accordingly. from other Christians, and had not the Spirit, though they pretend. The apostle's meaning is, ibai as the earth was made of water, it ed to be inspired. The evil of scoffing at the doctrines and promises consists or subsists by water; for water is necessary to unite ils of the gospel may be learned from Psal. i. 1. where scoffing at reli. parts, lo render it fruitful, and to afford drink to animals. Water gion is represented as the highest stage of impiety. The prediction also is necessary to the subsistence of the heavens or atmosphere, of the coming of scoffers shews that they come by the permission to render it fit for respiration, and for distilling rain to fructify the of God, who, no doubt, will bring good out of that great evil.

earth. Erasmus translates the clause thus: “That the heavens 2. In the last of the days.)-E 11WATOU TAVA Mes wv. This is dif were anciently, and the earth of water, and through water, consiste ferent from isopois xeovons, 1 Tim. iv. 1. 'future times,' and from ing by the word of God.' But both the number and the gender of 18%#TAISYMOQ*, 2 Tim. iii. 1. latter times.' See the note on that the word cuvs5w7%, consisting, forbid this translation. See the next verse. It is different likewise from $7' 17%ATWY TWv Xpovwv, 1 Pet. note. 1. 20. 'in the last of the times.' Perhaps it means the last part of Ver. 6.–1. By whom the then world, being overflowed with water, the days of the world's duration.

perished.}--Because the relative Aruv, By whom, is in the plural 3. Walking after their own lusts. ]-Here the apostle has laid number, and the immediate antecedeni, the word of God, is in the open the true source of infidelity, and of men's scoffing at religion, singular, Beza, who is followed by Whitby, Benson, and others thinks As Benson says, “They may pretend to religion, but they are go Army refers to the heavens and the carth, the remote antecedent,and verned by sense and appetite: and they take refuge in infidelity, interprets the passage thus: By which heavens and earth, the inand scoff at religion, to make themselves easy in their vices.'' habitants of the old world, being overflowed with water, perished.'

Ver. 4.-1. Where is the promise of his coming ?)-that is, the For as the waters of the deluge came from the heavens or atmoaccomplishment of the promise of his coming. The promise of sphere, and from the earth, he thinks the antediluvians might be Christ's coming we have, Mati. xv. 27. "The Son of man shall come said to have been overflowed with water by the heavens and the in the glory of his Father, with his angels; and then he will reward earth. But first, that the then world which perished, means princievery man according to his works. See also John xiv. 3. This pally the material fabric, and not its inhabitants only, I think is promise was renewed by the angel at our Lord's ascension, Acts i. plain from ver. 7. where the éi vur oupzvor xosign, the present heall. This same Jesus, who is taken from you into heaven, will so rens or atinosphere, and the earth,are opposed to what is called, ver, come in like manner as ye have seen him go into heaven.'-By re 6. Ó TOTS X00405, the ihen world, and is said to have been overflowed presenting Christ's promised coming as a delusion, the scoffers set with water. For is, as all agree, the 6. vuv oup*10* ****yn, which are themselves and others free from all fear of future judgınent, and said, ver. 7. to be kept for fire, incan the present mundane system, berest the righteous of the hope of reward.

the 5 TOTI KOGUOS, which was overflowed with water, and which is 2. For (ans supply upas) from the time.)-Grotius translates opposed to the present heavens and earth, mast undoubtedly mean this, “For except that the fathers have fallen asleep,' contrary to the antediluvian earth itself, rather than its inhabitants, whose perishthe propriety of the Greek idiom.

ing was only the consequence of the overflowing of the earth with wa. 3. All things continue as at the beginning. 1-By all things, the ter. Secondly, with respect to the account given ver.6.of the cause of scoffers meant the existence and motion of the heavenly bodies, the deluge, l'acknowledge that Araw in the beginning of the verse the succession of the seasons, the revolutions of day and night the may imply that it was brought on, either by the instrumentality of the same degree of light and heat in the world, the fruitfulness of the heavens and the earth, as Beza supposes,or, which is the more geneearth, the successive generation and corruption of animals and ve ral opinion, by the efficiency and direction of the word of God. This getables; in short, every part of this stupendous fabric, which, be. latter sense I take to be the apostle's meaning; for as his design in cause it suffers no change, the scoffers will say must be eternal. the passage was to prove that Christ is able to destroy this mundane And with respect to the resurrection; as the first races of men, system, it was directly to bis purpose to speak of him as the intelliwho have fallen asleep, continue to sleep, without the least symp gent efficient cause of the overflowing of the old world with water, tom of their awaking, the scoffers will atlirm, that the resurrection after having made it at first out of water. The reason is, if the word of of the dead is a thing altogether improbable. The same they will God destroyed the old world with water, he certainly is able to desay of the creation of the new heavens and new earth. The athe. stroy it a second time. And having promised to preserve it from be. ists of the present age have no better arguments for proving the ing destroyed again by water, that he way destroy it by fire at the eternity of the world, in opposition to the arguments froin tradition, judgment and destruction of ungodly men, ver. 7 his having


. from history, from the recent invention of arts, from the imperfectly preserved it during so many ages from any deluge, is a proof population of the earth; which all shew that it was made, and that which, the longer the world continues, becomes the stronger, lo not very long ago.

convince us that it shall be destroyed by fire, as Christ hath declar4. of the creation.)-The scoffers being nominal Christians, will ed. On the other hand, for the apostle to have mentioned, as Beza speak of the creation, not because they believe it, but as using the supposes, that mankind perished by the heavens and the earth over common phraseology; or, perhaps, by way of ridicule. For if they flowing them with water, is no proof that the world shall be destroy. allowed the world to have had a beginning, they could not deny tho ed a second time; and far less is it a proof that the heavens and the possibility of its having an end.

earth sball be destroyed by fire at the judgment. Yet that event the Ver. 5.-1. That the heavens were anciently, and the earth of wa. apostle infers, ver. 7. from the old world's having been destroyed by ter.}-As in this passage the heavens signify the aerial atmosphere water. See the notes on that verse. For all these reasons I conwhich surrounds this earth, the plural is put for the singular, by a clude, that the relative Aráv, ver. 6. does not refer to the heavens change of the number very common in the scripture. See Ess. iv. and the earth, the remote antecedent mentioned ver. 5. but to the 22.--Further, since Moses tells us, that 'in the beginning God creat: word of God, the near antecedent in the end of the verse. It is no ed the heavens and the earth;' and that after the earth was created objection that the relative is in the plural number; for as the He. 'it was without form and void,' and then calls it the deep, and the brews, in order to aggrandize the person and things of which they waters, be certainly speaks of the creation of the chaos. But the treat, speak of thein in the plural number, although in their nature apostle Peter speaks of the formation of the different parts of the they are singular, (Ess. iv. 22.), Aruv, in ver. 6. may, agreeably to inundane system outofthe chaos or water, of which Moses also gives the llebrew idiom, be put for rów; consequently the word of God,

For the latter tells us, that the Spirit of God moved thongh it be singular, inay very well be its antecedent. Orihe reon the face of the waters; and then that God brought from them, lative in this passage may be put in the plural form, to shew that first light, next the firmament or atmosphere, which he calls the expression word of God includes two persons, namely, God and

an account.

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