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to Peter .the keys of the kingdom of heaven,' together the laws of the gospel, (see Harmony of the Gospels, with the powers of “binding and loosing, and of remit sect. 74. p. 317.), rather than of his being authorized to ting and retaining sins,' Christ did not confer on him pronounce excommunications, anathematisms, degradasupreme and uncontrolled authority over his brethren tions, and other censures and penalties or penances, as apostles, and over the Catholic church, is clear from the Rhemish translators of the New Testament affirm; Christ's own words, Luke xxii. 24. There was also a which sentences are all ratified in heaven. In like manstrife among them, which of them should be accounted ner, the power of 'remitting and retaining sins,' which the greatest. 25. And he said to them, The kings of the was promised to all the apostles, may more naturally be Gentiles exercise lordship over them. 26. But ye shall interpreted of their being enabled by inspiration to denot be so. But he who is greatest among you, let him be clare whose sins, according to the tenor of the gospel, are as the younger; and he that is chief, as he that serveth.'— to be forgiven, and whose sins are not to be forgiven; Matt. xxiii. 8. •Be not ye called Rabbi, for one is your than to interpret it, as the Romanists do, of a power master, even Christ, and all ye are brethren.'—Christ granted to their priests to pardon and absolve sinners, on having thus expressly forbidden any one of his apostles their performing the penitential works of praying, fastto usurp authority over the rest; also having declared ing, alms, and other penances of human invention; and, them all brethren, that is, equals in authority, is it to be if these are not performed, to continue the sinner under supposed, that by promising to Peter 'the keys of the the guilt of his sins, though truly penitent, and to consign kingdom of heaven,' he subjected to him the rest of the him at least to purgatory, till released by the efficacy of apostles, together with all who at that time believed on their prayers and masses. See James v. 14, 15, 16. notes. Christ? Farther, allowing, that by the powers of binding 4. In opposition to the high claims of the bishops of and loosing, and of remitting and retaining sins, Christ Rome as Peter's successors, I observe, that they cannot actually meant, as the Papists contend, the powers of prove, by good historical evidence, Peter's having ever making laws, and of establishing constitutions of discip- been a bishop of the church at Rome; consequently they line binding on the whole community of Christians, can cannot be his successors in a see which he never filled. any reasonable person believe that these powers were It is true, to prove that Peter was the first bishop of the conferred on Peter exclusively of the rest of the apostles, church at Rome, the following testimonies from the fawho recollects that these powers were afterwards conferred thers are appealed to by the Papists :-Irenæus, who was on all the apostles ? Powers of such magnitude, said to bishop of Lyons in Gaul, and who flourished about the be bestowed on Peter, and through him conveyed to the year 178, tells us, " that Linus was made bishop of Rome bishops of Rome, ought not to be acknowledged on by Peter and Paul, and after him Anacletus, and the doubtful evidence, and far less on no evidence at all; as third Clemens." Tertullian, who flourished about the that certainly must be reckoned, which is contradicted by year 200, saith, “Clemens was the first bishop of Rome Christ himself.—This, however, is not all. We know, after Peter.” See Fulke's note on Rom. xvi. 16. in his that by 'the keys of the kingdom of heaven,' and the edition of the Rhemish New Testament.—Eusebius, who powers of . binding and loosing,' &c. Peter himself did flourished about the year 315, in his E. Hist. b. 3. c. 2. not understand “ the height of government, the power of without hinting that either Paul or Peter were bishops making laws, of calling councils,” &c.; neither did he of Rome, thus writeth : “ After the martyrdom of Paul fancy that such prerogatives were conferred on him singly. and Peter, Linus first obtained the episcopate of the For at no time did he either exercise or claim authority church of the Romans.-Of him, Paul writing to Tiover his brethren apostles. As little did he assume the mothy, makes mention in the salutation in the end of the sole government of all the churches of Christ planted in epistle, saying, Eubulus, and Pudens, and Linus, and his lifetime. More particularly, he did not call the Claudia, salute thee.” The same Eusebius saith, Peter Council of Jerusalem, which met to determine the ques was the first bishop of Antioch. E. Hist. b. 3. c. 36. tion concerning the circumcision of the converted Gen “ At the same time flourished Ignatius, who is still highly tiles. Neither did he preside in it. That office the apos- honoured, being the second in the succession of the tle James seems to have performed. For, as president church of Antioch after Peter." But in chap. 22. of of the Council, he summed up the debate, and dictated the same book Eusebius saith, “Euodius having been the decree, by which the Gentiles were freed from obe- the first bishop of Antioch, Ignatius succeeded him.”dience to the law of Moses, as a term of salvation.- Jerome, who flourished about the year 392, saith, “ Peter Lastly, no instance can be produced of Peter's opening sat at Rome 25 years, until the last year of Nero.". If heaven to any one, or of his shutting it against any one,
so, Peter came to Rome in the second or third of Claudius, according to his own pleasure.—How ridiculous, then, and from that time forth had his ordinary residence among must it appear in the bishops of Rome, to assume powers the Christians in Rome, as their bishop, till his death. and prerogatives, as Peter's successors, which we are cer
Yet the same Jerome, in his book of illustrious men, tain Peter himself never pretended either to possess or to chap. 16. calleth “Ignatius the third bishop of the exercise !-See Gal. ii. 14. note.
church of Antioch after the apostle Peter.”—Damasus, These things considered, may not the keys of the who was himself a bishop of Rome, and contemporary kingdom of heaven,' promised to Peter, more reasonably with Jerome, saith, “ Peter came to Rome in the beginsignify his being appointed to open the gospel dispensa- ning of Nero's reign, and sat there 25 years." But as tion by preaching salvation to all who should repent and Nero reigned only 14 years, if the testimony of Damasus believe, than of his being raised to supreme authority in is to be credited, we must believe that Peter survived the Catholic church, to rule it according to his own will? Nero 11 years, and was not put to death by him ; conEspecially as the proposed sense of the promise is agree- trary to ancient tradition, which represents Paul and able to the fact, Acts ii. 14-40., and is founded on Dan. Peter as put to death at one time by Nero.-Origen, ii. 44., where the erection of the Christian church is fore- who flourished about the year 230, speaks of Peter as told under the idea of a kingdom which the God of hea- the bishop of Antioch; for in his sixth homily on Luko ven was to set up, and which was never to be destroyed. he thus expresses himself, “ I have observed it elegantly -For the same reasons, the power of binding and written in an epistle of a martyr, Ignatius, second bishop loosing,' which was promised to Peter in common with of Antioch after Peter,” &c.—Lastly, according to Epithe other apostles, Matt. xviii, 18., may be interpreted phanius, Peter and Paul were both of them bishops of of his being inspired, as an apostle, to declare infallibly Rome. See Fulke's note on Philip. iv. 3.
The reports of the ancients concerning Peter's being sors, would
have a better title to these powers than the the first bishop of Rome being so different and so incon- bishops of Rome. sistent, it is a proof that these reports were not founded If any more arguments were necessary to refute the on any certain tradition, far less on any written evidence; extravagant claims of the bishops of Rome to infallibility but took their rise, in all probability, from the bishops of in doctrine and discipline, the following well-known facis Rome themselves, who very early attempted to raise might be mentioned as absolutely decisive. Different themselves above all other bishops; and for that purpose bishops of Rome, in different ages, have directly contraspake of themselves as Peter's successors in the see of dicted each other in their decisions concerning doctrine, Rome: And because, in the third and fourth centuries, as well as concerning discipline. The same may be said when religious controversies were carried to a great of councils, both general and particular, where the bi. height, and the churchmen who were put out of their shops of Rome have presided, either in person or by their places generally fled for redress to the bishops of Rome, legates. Where, then, is the so much vaunted infalliit was natural for the oppressed to advance the power of bility of the bishops of Rome? And where the infallibitheir protectors, by readily admitting all the claims which lity of councils, on which so much stress hath been laid they set up as Peter's successors.- Nay, some of them both in ancient and modern times? may, from flattery, have invented the strange story of From the foregoing facts and reasonings it appears, Peter's having sat as the bishop of Rome 25 years; not that the church of Rome is not the church of the living withstanding, according to the ancient tradition already God, which is the pillar and support of the truth,' exclumentioned, he was the first bishop of Antioch. But the sively of all other Christian churches. Far less is it improbability of Peter's having resided in Rome, as bi- 'the pillar and support of the truth,' by virtue of any inshop of the church there, for so many years, will appear fallibility which its bishops possess as Peter's successors from the following well known facts.—Paul's epistle to in the bishoprick of Rome. The honour of supporting the Romans was written a. D. 57 or 58, that is, in the the truth, as shall be shewed immediately, belongs to no third or fourth year of Nero, when, according to Jerome, particular church whatever, but to the Catholic church, Peter had acted as bishop of the church at Rome full consisting of all the churches of God which have existed 15 years. Now in that epistle, although many saluta- from the beginning, and which are to exist to the end of tions were sent to persons of inferior note, no salutation the world.--Farther, it appears that the bishops of Rome was sent to Peter. This I think could not have happen- have no just title to supreme authority over all the ed, if Peter had been then residing in the church at churches of Christ, as successors to the apostle Peter; Rome as its bishop. See Heb. xiii. 24.—In the letters because there is no certain evidence that he preceded which Paul wrote from Rome, during his first imprison- them in the bishoprick of Rome.—To conclude, the claim ment, which lasted more than two years, he made no of the bishops of Rome to infallibility and supreme mention of Peter, not even in his letter to the Colossians, authority in the Catholic church, which they have foundchap. iv. 10, 11, where he recites the names of all the ed on a fact so destitute of evidence as Peter's having brethren of the circumcision, who were his fellow-la- been the bishop of Rome during 25 years, ought to be bourers in the kingdom of God.' Is not this a strong strenuously resisted by the whole Christian world, as subpresumption that Peter did not then reside in Rome as versive of the liberty wherewith Christ hath made manits bishop ?- Towards the end of Paul's second imprison- kind free in all religious matters. ment, he thus wrote to Timothy, · At my first answer no II. The futility of the claim of the church of Rome one appeared with me, but all forsook me. May it not to be “the pillar and support of the truth,' will appear be laid to their charge!' If Peter then resided at Rome, still more clearly, if we consider what the truth is, of as bishop of the church there, is it to be thought that he which the church of the living God is the pillar and would have forsaken his brother apostle on so trying an support. occasion, when the testimony of Jesus was to be main The truth which is supported by the church of the live tained before the emperor, or his prefect ?—Lastly, is it ing God, as by a pillar placed on a firm foundation, is probable that Paul, who never had been at Rome, and not any particular system of doctrine expressed in words was personally unknown to most of the brethren there, of human invention, such as the symbols of faith, which, would have written to them so long a letter to instruct both in ancient and modern times, have been composed them in the true doctrine of the gospel, and to compose by convocations of the clergy, assembled in councils, the dissensions which had taken place among them, if whether general or particular, under the patronage of the Peter had resided among them, and instructed them as civil powers. But the truth which is supported by the their bishop, during the space of 25 years ? Besides, church of the living God, is that scheme of true religion, would Paul, who, in his epistle to the Hebrews, hath so consisting of the doctrines, precepts, and promises, which often mentioned the apostles, under the denomination of God hath made known to mankind by revelation ; and their rulers, have omitted, in his epistle to the Romans, which having been consigned to writing by the apostles to mention Peter, if he had been residing among them and prophets, to whom it was revealed by the Spirit, as their bishop at the time it was written ?
their gospels and epistles contain the truth, expressed in Since, then, the most ancient Christian fathers, Ter- that form of sound words,' which the apostle Paul comtullian excepted, mention Peter as the first bishop of An- manded Timothy 'to hold fast,' 2 Tim. i. 13. tioch; and since the testimonies concerning his being the Agreeably to this account of the truth, the gospel refirst bishop of Rome are of a later date, and are in them- velation is called the truth in the following passages of selves not only different but inconsistent; also, since scripture-Gal. iii. 1. v. 7. Eph. i. 13. 2 Thess. ii. 10. 12. there are such strong presumptions in Paul's epistles, that I Tim. ii. 4. vi. 5. 2 Tim. ii. 15. 18. Tit. i. 1. and elsePeter did not reside in Rome during Paul's lifetime, where.—The inspired writers having so often called the there is good reason to think that he never was bishop of gospel revelation the truth, it can hardly be doubted, that the church at Rome. But if Peter never was bishop of when the apostle Paul, in his first epistle to Timothy, Rome, the claim of the bishops of that church to be his gave to the church of the living God the honourable successors in an office which he never held, is ridiculous. appellation of the pillar and support of the truth, he Wherefore, although it were true that the powers pro- meant to tell him, that the Catholic church, by preservmised to l'eter were promised, not only to him as the ing in their original integrity the inspired writings of the bishop of a particular church, but also to his successors evangelists and apostles, and of Moses and the prophets, in that episcopate, the bishops of Antioch, as his succes- which contain the revelations of God from first to last,
have supported or preserved the truth in the world. For other book extant at that time: insomuch, that there is all the revelations of God to mankind being exhibited, in no heathen writing existing, of which there are so many an infallible manner, in these writings preserved by the ancient MS. copies remaining, as of the writings which church, if any errors, either in faith or practice, are at compose the canon of the New Testament. tempted to be introduced by false teachers, or by men Of those ancient MSS. of the New Testament which covetous of power or of riches, they may be detected still remain, some are found in the libraries of princes, and refuted, not by appealing to the decrees of councils, universities, and monasteries, and some have been brought and to the creeds of particular churches, but to the di- into Europe from different and distant parts of the world. vinely inspired scriptures, fairly interpreted according to These, added to the former, have considerably increased the plain unconstrained meaning of the passages which the number of the ancient copies of the scriptures; so relate to these subjects, taken in connexion with the con- that the learned of this and the preceding ages have had text where they are found.
an opportunity of examining and comparing many very Thus it appears, that the universal church of the live ancient copies, both of the whole New Testament, and ing God,' by preserving the scriptures in their original of particular parts thereof. Accordingly, these learned integrity, in which the whole revelations of God are con men have, with incredible labour, faithfully collected all tained, hath not only secured the truth of revelation it- the various readings of the copies which they collated, self from being shaken by the attempts of infidels to over and have found, that although in number these readings throw it, but hath prevented its doctrines, precepts, and amount to many thousands, the greatest part of them promises, from being corrupted by false teachers and make no material alteration in the sense of the passages worldly men, who endeavour to make gain of godliness. where they are found. And with respect to those which Moreover, by handing down the scriptures from age to alter the sense of particular passages, the same learned age in their genuine purity, the Catholic church hath men, by that critical skill for which they were famed, prevented the revelations of God from being lost. And have been able in most instances, with a good degree of by so doing, the church of the living God hath actual- certainty, to fix upon the genuine readings of all the ly become the pillar and support of the truth;' because, doubtful passages. if the scriptures had either been corrupted or lost, the re Every one, however, must be sensible, that if the scripvelations of God, which are the truth, would have been tures had come down to us only in the copies preserved corrupted or lost together with them.
in any one church of the living God, and we had been III. It remains to shew in what way the divinely in- restrained from consulting the copies preserved elsewhere, spired scriptures, which contain the gospel revelation as we must have been if the scriptures had been entrustwhich is the truth, have been preserved in their originaled to a particular church, the errors unavoidably occaintegrity by the church of the living God.
sioned by the carelessness of transcribers, and by other Some of the writings of the New Testament were in- causes, could not in many instances have been corrected, scribed and sent to particular churches ; such as Paul's unless by the uncertain conjectures of critics, which, in epistles to the Thessalonians, the Corinthians, the Ro- writings divinely inspired, would have been of no authomans, the Ephesians, and the Colossians. Others of rity. Whereas, by consulting copies of the scriptures them were written and sent to particular persons; such found in different and distant parts of the world, the as his epistles to Timothy, Titus, and Philemon; and faulty readings of one copy have been happily corrected John's epistles to Gaius, and the Elect Lady. Others by the concurring better readings of other copies, conof them were inscribed and sent to persons professing firmed by the readings preserved in the ancient translathe Christian faith, who were scattered through widely tions of the scriptures still remaining; so that we have extended and distant countries; such as Paul's epistles the text of the gospels and epistles as it was originally to the churches of Galatia, and to the Hebrews; Peter's written by their inspired authors, or nearly so.—The two epistles to the strangers dispersed through Pontus, world, therefore, being indebted for the preservation of Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia; and the epistle the scriptures, not to any one church of the living God, of James to the twelve tribes scattered abroad. These but to the whole community of the churches of Christ, writings, though sent to particular churches and persons, each having contributed its share by the copies which it were not intended for their use alone, but for the use of hath preserved, the universal church, and not any particuthe whole community of Christians every-where. It is lar church, is the church of the living God,' which, by therefore reasonable to believe, that while the particular preserving the scriptures, hath become in very deed the churches and persons to whom the apostles sent their pillar and support of the truth.' See 1 Tim. vi. 20. epistles, preserved the originals with the greatest care, note 1. they would transcribe them, not only for the use of their The same reasoning will apply to the ancient oracles of own members, but for the use of their brethren in other God, which were delivered to the Jews to be kept. For, churches, to whom, no doubt, they sent these transcripts, by carefully preserving the Hebrew scriptures, in which that they might have an opportunity of taking copies of the former revelations are recorded, and by handing them them, and of dispersing them for general edification. down from age to age uncorrupted, notwithstanding in Moreover, as in the first age the disciples of Christ were their disputes with us Christians they had many temptavery zealous in spreading the knowledge of their reli- tions to corrupt them, the church of the living God' gion, we may believe that into whatever country they among the Jews was to them, as the Christian church is travelled for the purpose of preaching Christ, they car to us, the pillar and support of the truth. ried with them such of the sacred writings as were in Here, however, it is to be carefully abserved, that altheir possession, that their converts might take copies of though the church of the living God hath supported the them to be used in their public assemblies for worship, truth, by preserving the scriptures in which it is containand by themselves in private. Thus, copies of the gos- ed, neither the truth itself, nor the writings in which it is pels and epistles were in a short time carried into all the contained, derive any part of their authority from the provinces of the Roman empire, and even beyond the Catholic church. The truth derives its authority from bounds of the empire, where the gospel was introduced. the inspiration by which it was made known to the evanAnd these writings being considered by the disciples of gelists and apostles; and the copies of the scriptures in Christ as their most precious treasure, the copies of our possession, which contain the truth or revelations of them were preserved with much more care, and were God, derive their authority, not from the church, but pultiplied to a far greater degree, than the copies of any from their being materially the same with those written
by the inspired penmen. And of this we are assured, in the ancient copies of these writings in our possession, are the same manner that we are assured of the genuineness more in number, and of greater weight, than the proofs of the writings of other ancient authors. Only the proofs which can be produced in behalf of the authenticity of in behalf of the authenticity of the scriptures, arising from any other ancient writing whatever.
View and Nlustration of the Matters contained in this Chapter. St. Paul began this epistle with asserting his apostoli- whereas the Jews perverted the law, when they taught cal dignity, not because Timothy was in any doubt con that it made a real atonement for sin by its sacrifices; cerning it, but to make the Ephesians sensible of the for the law was not given to justify the Jews, but by danger they incurred, if they rejected the charges and temporal punishments to restrain them from those crimes admonitions, which, by the commandment of God and of which are inconsistent with the well-being of society ; so Christ, the apostle ordered Timothy to deliver to them, that the law of Moses, being a mere political institution, ver. 1, 2.–Next, to establish Timothy's authority with was no rule of justification to any person, ver. 9, 10.the Ephesians as an evangelist, he renewed the commis- This account of the law, Paul told Timothy, was agreeasion he had given him at parting; namely, to charge ble to the representation given of it in the gospel, with some who had assumed the office of teachers, not to teach the preaching of which he was entrusted, ver. 11.-an differently from the apostles, ver. 3.-and, in particular, honour he was exceedingly thankful for, because formerly not to draw the attention of the people to those fables he had been a persecutor of the disciples of Christ, ver. which the Jewish doctors had invented to make men rely 12, 13.—But he had received mercy, for this cause, that on the ritual services of the law for procuring the favour in him Jesus Christ might shew to future ages such an of God, notwithstanding they were utterly negligent of example of pardon, as should encourage the greatest sinthe duties of morality; neither to lay any stress on those ners to hope for mercy on repentance, ver. 16.—Then, in endless genealogies whereby individuals traced their pedi- a solemn doxology, he celebrated the praise of God in a gree from Abraham, in the persuasion that, to secure sublime strain, ver. 17.--And that Timothy might be their salvation, nothing was necessary but to be rightly animated to surmount the danger and difficulty of the descended from him; an error which the Baptist, long work assigned to him, the apostle informed him, that he before, had expressly condemned: Luke iii. 8. •Begin had committed it to him by prophecy; that is, by special not to say within yourselves, we have Abraham to our impulse of the Spirit of God; and from that considerafather,' ver. 4.—This kind of doctrine the apostle termed tion urged him to carry on strenuously the good warvain babbling, because it had no foundation in truth, and fare against the false teachers, ver. 18.-by always holdmade men negligent both of piety and charity, ver. 5, 6. ing the truth with a good conscience; which some teach--Farther, because in recommending these fables and ers having put away, had made shipwreck of themselves genealogies, the Judaizers pretended they were teaching and of the gospel, ver. 19.–Of this sort were Hymeneus the law of Moses, the apostle assured Timothy they were and Alexander, two noted Judaizing teachers, whom the utterly ignorant of that law, ver. 7.—which he acknow- apostle, after his departure from Ephesus, had delivered ledged to be a good institution, provided it was used law to Satan, that they might learn no more to blaspheme, fully; that is, agreeably to its true nature, ver. 8. ver. 20.
COMMENTARY. Chap. I.—1 Paul an apostle of Jesus Christ, Cuar. I.-1. I Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ, write this epistle by the commandment! of God our Saviour, by the commandment of God, the contriver of our salvation, and and of the Lord Jesus Christ our hope ;3 of the Lord Jesus Christ, on whose death, and not on the sacrifices
of the law, our hope of eternal life is founded ; 2 To Timothy, my genuine son' in the faith ; 2 To Timothy, who is my genuine son in the faith, being like (x+855) grace, (1035) mercy, and (signon) peace, minded with myself: May gracious assistances, merciful delirerfrom God our Father, and Christ Jesus our ances, such as I have often obtained, and inward peace from God Lord.
our Father, and from Christ Jesus our Lord, be multiplied to thee. 3 As I entreated' thee to continue in Ephe 3 As I entreated thee to continue in Ephesus, when I was going sus, when going into Macedonia, 80 do,2 that into Macedonia, I now, by the commandment of God, require thee thou mayest charge some3 not to teach differ- 80 to do; that thou mayest charge the Judaizers not to teach differently.
ently from the inspired apostles of Christ;
Ver.1.-1. By the commandment of God.)-This clause, if joined because he had converted him, and thereby conveyed to him a new with what goes before, signifies that Paul was made an apostle by nature. We have the same phraseology, Philem. ver. 10. my son the commandment of God and of Christ. See Tit. i. 3. noiel. But Onesimus, whom I begat in my bonds." 1 Cor. iv. 15. "To Christ joined with what follows, the meaning is, that he wrote this epistle Jesus, by the gospel, I have begotten you.'—Perhaps also the apos. to Timothy by the commandment of God and of Christ. This con tle called Timothy his genuine son, on account of his age, and be. struction I have adopted as most suitable to the apostle's design : cause he resembled bim in the disposition of his mind, his faith, 1. Because when Timothy charged the teachers, and exhorted the his love, and his zeal in spreading ihe gospel. people, and ordered the whole affairs of the church of Ephesus, it 2. Grace, mercy, and peace.)-To the churches, and to Philemon, was of great importance that the Ephesians should know that in all the benediction is, Grace and peace.' But lo Timothy and Titus, these matters he followed the commandment of God and Christ, de. who were exposed to great dangers in discharging their office, the livered to him by the apostle : 2. Because Paul was made an apostle, apostle wished mercy likewise; which therefore may mean merci. not by the commandment of Christ, but by Christ himsell, Acts ful deliverances from dangers and enemies. xxvi. 16-18
Ver. 3.-1. As I entreated thee.)-Beza observes, that by using 2. Our Saviour.)-This title is given to God in other passages, the soft expression, 720*410* T!, I entreated thee, the apostle I Tim. ii. 3. iv. 10. Tit. iii. 4. Jude ver. 25. because he contrived the hath left a singular example of modesty, to be imitated by superiors, method of our salvation, and sent his Son into the world to accom in their behaviour towards their inferiors in the church. plish it, John iii. 16.
2. So do.)-Al the time the apostle wrote this letter, the absolute 3. Our hope.)-The apostle hoped for salvation, not through the necessity of Timothy's presence in Ephesus having been made sacrifices of the law, as the Judaizers did, but through the atone. known to him, perhaps by revelation, he turned his former request ment for sin made by the death of Christ.
into a command. Ver. 2.--1. Timothy my genuine son.)-See Titus, chap. i. 4. Illus. 3. That thou mayest charge some not to teach differently.)-These tration. Some think the apostle called Timothy his son, for the teachers seem to have been Judaizers, and members orihe church xame renson that the disciples of the prophets were called the sons at Ephesus. For with other teachers Timothy could bave little in. of the prophets. But I rather suppose he called Timothy his son, nucnce. In not mentioning the naines of these corrupt teachers,
4 Nor to give heed to fables! and endless 4 Nor to inculcate fabulous traditions, invented to prove that genealogies,” which occasion (Entutus) dis men cannot be saved unless they obey the law of Moses; and uncerpules, rather than great edification,3 which is tain genealogies, by which every Jew endeavours to trace his descent (ev, 167.) through faith.
from Abraham, and which by their uncertainty occasion disputes,
rather than the great edification which is through a right faith only. 5 Now, (TO TEAOS Tas Traga77€1625, ver. 3.) 5 Now the scope of the charge to be given by thee to these teachthe end of the charge is love from a pure heart, ers is, that, instead of inculcating fables and genealogies, they inculand a good conscience, and unfeigned faith ;2 cate love to God and man, proceeding from a pure heart, and
directed by a good conscience, and nourished by unfeigned faith
in the gospel doctrine: 6 From which things some having swerved, 6 From which things some teachers having swerved, have in have turned aside to foolish talking ; (see 1 Tim. their discourses turned aside to foolish talking ; talking which vi. 20. 2 Tim. ii. 14.)
serves no purpose but to discover their own folly, and to nourish
folly in their disciples : 7 Desiring to be teachers of the law,' though 7 As thou mayest know by this, that they set themselves up as they neither understand what they say, nor (Frage teachers of the law of Moses, though they understand neither what Flywv) concerning what things they strongly they themselves say concerning it, nor the nature of the law which affirm.
they establish. 8 We know indeed that the law is good, if 8 I acknowledge indeed that the law of Moses is an excellent inone use it lawfully.
stitution, if one use it agreeably to the end for which it was given. 9 Knowing this, that the law is not made Now we know this, that the law is not made for justifying a for a righteous! man, but for the lawless and righteous man, but for condemning and punishing the lawless (see 1 disorderly, the ungodly and sinners, the unholy John iii. 4. note 2.) and disorderly, namely, atheists and idolaters ; and profane, murderers of fathers and murdere persons polluted with vice, and who are excluded from things sacrs of mothers, manslayers,
cred, murderers of fathers and murderers of mothers, those who
slay others unjustly ; 10 Fornicators, sodomites, man-stealers, 10 Fornicators and sodomites, man-stealers, liars, those who liars, false swearers, and if any other thing perjure themselves; and if any other practice be opposite to the be opposite to wholesome doctrine ;2
doctrine which preserves the soul in health, the law was made to
restrain and punish it. 11 According to the glorious' gospel of the 11 This view of the law I give according to the glorious gospel blessed God,2 with which I am entrusted. of the infinitely and independently blessed God, with the preaching
of which I am entrusted. 12 (Kas, 204.) Now I thank Christ Jesus 12 Now I thank Christ Jesus our Lord, who strengthened me our Lord, who hath strengthenedl me, because for preaching it, by bestowing on me the gifts of inspiration and he reckoned me faithful when he appointed me miracles, because he knew that I would be faithful to my trust, to the ministry ;
when he appointed me to the apostleship; 13 Who was formerly a defamer, and a per 13 Who was formerly a defamer of him and of his doctrine, and secutor, and an injurious person. But I re a persecutor of his disciples, and an injurious person in my beceived mercy, because I acted ignorantly in un haviour towards them. But I received pardon, (ver. 16.), because belief.:
I acted from ignorance, being in a state of unbelief, and fancying that I was doing God service,
the apostle shewed great delicacy, hoping that they might still be justifying the most righteous man that ever lived, but for restrain: reclaimed. The same delicacy he had observed in his treatment ing the wicked by its threatenings and punishments. This will of the false teacher at Corinth, and of the incestuous person there. appear still nore clearly, if the doctrine of the Judaizers is con
Ver. 4.-1. Nor to give heed to fables.]—These are called, Til. i. sidered. They affirmed that obedience to the law of Moses was 14. 'Jewish fables,' because they were invented by the Jewish doc the only way in which men could be saved; understanding by tors to recommend the institutions of Moses.
obedience one's doing the things which that law enjoined; or, in 2. And endless genealogies.}-- Though the Jews were all, except case of failure, his having recourse to the atonement which it preing the proselytes, descended from Abraham, the genealogies by scribed for the offence. But to overturn this corrupt doctrine, the which many of them pretended to derive their pedigree from him, apostle here declared, that the law of Moses was not given for the could not with certainty be showed to end in him; for which reason purpose of justifying any man, not even the righteous, but merely the apostle termed them %750V Toas, endless. See Tit. iii. 9. note l. for restraining the lawless and disorderly by its threatenings and
3. Great edification.)-So the phrase orxadovev @sou properly punishinents; so that it was not a religious institution, but a mere signifies, being the Hebrew superlative.- Mill affirms that all the municipal law, whereby God, as king of the Jews, governed them ancient MSS., without exception, read here , o xovliv DVE OU TRY SV in Canaan as his people or subjects. It is thoughi by some, that in 71586, 'rather than the dispensation of God which is by faith;' the the catalogue of sinners given in this and in the following verse, Christian dispensation. But I have followed the reading ofthe com. the apostle had the ten commandments in his eye. mon edition adopted by the English translators, as it gives a good Ver. 10.-1. Man-stealers.)- They who make war for the inhuman sense of the passage.
purpose of selling the vanquished as slaves, as is the practice of the Ver. 5.-1. Now the scope of the charge.)-The word Tup%972 ** African princes, are really man-stealers. And they who, like the denotes a message or order brought to one from another, and deli African iraders, encourage that unchristian traffic by purchasing vered by word of mouth, The charge here meant, is that which the slaves whom they know to be thus unjustly acquired, are the apostle ordered Timothy to deliver to the teachers in Ephesus. partakers in their crime. For he had said, ver. 3. 'I entreated thee to remain, &c. So do, (ive 2. Wholesome doctrine.}-- According to the apostle, wholesome T4g groans) that thou mayest charge some.' Here he told him doctrine is that which condemns wicked practices. On the other what the scope of his charge was to be. See ver. 18. Others think hand, the doctrine which encourages inen to sin, or which makes **8*77. here signifies the gospel. But I do not remember that them easy under sin, is in the apostle's estimation unu holesome. this word has that sense any where in scripture.
Ver. 11.-1. Glorious gospel.] The gospel is called glorious, be. 2. Unfeigned faith.}- According to Benson, the apostle in this cause in it the light of true doctrine shines brightly. expression had those Judaizing teachers in his eye, who, to gain 2. Of the blessed God. }– The epithet of blessed is given to God, the unbelieving Jews, taught doctrines which they knew to be because being infinitely and independently happy in himself, he false ; so that their faith in these doctrines was seigned.
stands in no need of any of his creatures to make him happy. Ver. 6. From which things some having swerved.)The verb Ver. 12. Who hath strengthened me. )- Before his ascension, *502102VT!s, as Theophylacı observes, signifies to err from the Christ promised the spiritual gifts to his apostles under the name inark at which one shoots; and is elegantly used in this place, as of Surcus, 'power or strength from on high.' Acts i. 8. Hence the Tado was introduced in the preceding verse.
spiritual gifts are termed, 2 Cor. xii. 9. Cursos Tuv Xposou, 'the Ver. 7. Teachers of the law.)-No 40008202205 properly signifies power or strength of Christ. Wherefore the phrase in this verse, & doctor of the lar, and is of the same import with ihe Hebrew word ενδυναμιωσαντε με,
who hath strengthened or empowered me, Rabbi.
means, who hath bestowed on me inspiration and miraculous Ver. 9. Is not made for a righteous man, &c.)-The law of Moses power, to fit me for being an apostle. being given as a rule of life to the good as well as the bad, the apos. Ver. 13. I acted ignorantly in unbelief.-In the instance of Paul, lle's meaning doubtless is, that it was given, not for the purpose of we sec how much guilt a man, who is not at pains to inform him.