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9 (K4, 205.) But he said to me,' Sufficient 9 But he said to me, Sufficient for qualifying thee to be an apostle for thee is my grace; (48) besides, my power is my grace; the miraculous gifts with which I have endowed thee: is perfected in weakness : (see chap. iv. 7. note Besides, my power in the conversion of the world is displayed in the 3.); most gladly therefore, I will boast rather weakness of the instruments whereby that work is accomplished. of my weaknesses, that the power of Christ may Most gladly, therefore, I will boast rather than be ashamed of my dwell? upon me. (See John i. 14.)

weaknesses, that the power of Christ may abide with me. 10 Wherefore, I am well pleased with weak. 10 Wherefore, instead of being dissatisfied, I am well pleased with nesses, with insults, with necessities, with per- bodily weaknesse8, with insults, with poverty, with persecutions, with secutions, with distresses, for Christ's sake; be- distresses for Christ's sake; because, when I am most oppressed cause when I am weak, then I am strong. with these evils, then I am strong ; my ministry is most successful

through the power of Christ dwelling upon me. 11 Have I become a fool by boasting? Ye 11 Do I appear a fool by boasting? Ye have constrained me to have constrained me to IT; for I ought to it : for when my character as an apostle was attacked by the false have been commended by you, (gas, 90.) be- teacher, I ought to have been vindicated by you ; because ye knew cause I am in nothing behind the very greatest' that I am in no respect inferior to the very greatest apostles, alapostles, though I be nothing.?

though my enemies would persuade you that I am nothing. 12 Truly the signs of an apostle' were fully 12 For truly the proofs of an apostle were fully exhibited by me, wrought (®, 172.) among you with ali pa during my long abode among you, with great patience, by the signs tience,2 by signs and wonders, and powers. and wonders which I wrought, and the spiritual powers I conferred

on you. See 1 Cor. xii. 10. note 1. 13 For what is the thing wherein ye were 13 I therefore boldly ask you, What is the spiritual gift, privilege, inferior to other churches, unless that I myself or ornament, wherein ye were inferior to any other church? unless have not been burdensome to you ? (see chap. this, that I myself have not been burdensome to you in respect of xi. 8, 9.): Forgive me this injury.

maintenance, as the other apostles have been to the churches planted

by them. Forgive me this injury. 14 Behold, a third time! I am ready to come 14 Behold, a third time I am ready to come to you, and I will not to you; and I will not be burdensome to you; be burdensome to you more than formerly; because, in preaching tho Gas, 90.) because I seek not yours, but you: gospel, I seek not your money nor your goods, as some others do, but for the children ought not to lay up for the your welfare ; and in this I have behaved like a father to you : For parents, but the parents for the children. it is not required of children to lay up for their parents temporal

things, but the parents for the children. 15 Yea, I most gladly will spend and be 15 Yea, I most gladly will spend all my time, and be spent in respent for the sake of your souls, even although spect of my bodily strength, for the sake of the salvation of your the more abundantly I love you, the less I be souls ; and that even although I am sensible the more exceerlingly 1 loved.

love you, the less I be loved by you. 16 Be it so then, I did not burden you ; 16 Be it so then, (for ye cannot deny it), I did not burden you : nevertheless, ther sar, being crafty, I caught nevertheless the faction say, being crafty in not demanding mainyou with guile.

tenance, I caught you with guile, taking money from you as a present. 17 WITH RESPECT to'any one of them I 17 But, with respect to any one of them I sent to you, I ask you, sent to you, Did I by him make gain? of you? Did I by him receive any thing, either in money or goods, from you ?

None of you can say I did. 18 I besought Titus TO GO TO rou; and 18 I besought Titus to go to you with my former letter ; and with with sim I sent a brother :! Did Titus make him I sent a brother : Did T'itus, or that brother, receive any thing any gain of you ?? Did we not walk in the from you? Did we not all shew the same disinterestedness of disposame spirit ? Did we not WALK in the same sition? Did we not all follow the same course, labouring with our

hands for our own maintenance ? 19 (News) Br SENDING T'ITUS again, 19 By sending Titus again, think ye that I apologize to you for think ye that we apologize to you?' In the not coming myself? In the presence of God I solemnly protest, that

steps ?

Ver. 9.-1. But be said to me, sufficient, &c.}-Probably Christ 3. By signs and wonders.)-See Rom. xv. 19. note 1. The appeal appeared to bis apostle, and spake to him. At any rate, it was an which the apostle here, and 1 Cor. iv. 7., made to the whole church other revelation of the Lord, which his subject led him to mention, of the Corinthians, in which there was a great faction which called though his modesty did not allow him to insiet on it directly. his apostleship in question), concerning the miracles which he had

2. Boast rather of my weaknesses.)-Bengelius thinks the mean wrought in their presence, and the spiritual gifts which he had coning is, boast of my weaknesses, rather than of the visions and reve. ferred on many of them, is a strong proof of the reality of these lations of the Lord.

miracles and gifts. See 1 Thess. i. Illustration at the close. 3. That the power of Christ may dwell upon me. The original Ver. 14. Behold, a third time I am ready to come to you. I-Be. word literally signifies 'pitch its tent over me;' cover me all over, cause it does not appear from the history of the Acts, that Paul had and abide on me continually. See John i. 14.

been in Corinth more than once before this letter was written, EsVer. 11.-1. The very greatest apostles.)-He meant Peter, James, tius was of opinion, that the resolution which he formed in Ephesus, and John, whom he called pillars, Gal. ii. 9.

of going directly to Corinth by sea, was the second time of his be2 Though I be nothing: -This was an epithet_given by the ing ready to come to them; consequently, that this was the third Greeks to contemptible persons. Thus Aristophan. Equit. lin. 1240. time he was ready to come to them. See chap. xiii. 1. note. “Ah, miserable me! (oudov se jeo nyw)I am a contemptible person.” Ver. 17.-1. With respect to.)-The original requires some prepo.

Ver. 12.-1. The signs of an apostle. --The signs whereby one sition to govern Tova. I have in the translation supplied ****, with was known to be an apostle, were his performing great and evident respect to. miracles openly in the view of the world; especially his healing dis 2. Did I by him make gain of you?)-ETA:OVS*T*T*. Estius, avare cases, his casting out devils, and his speaking foreign languages. estorsi. The original phrase signifies to make gain by improper or But the greatest of all the signs was his conveying the spiritual gifts fraudulent methods. See chap. ii. 11. note 1. to them who believed; a power which none possessed but the apos Ver. 18.-1. And with him I sent a brother. Who that brother tles. See Titus jii. 6. note. All these signs St. Paul having exhibit was is not known. He may have been one of the apostle's coin. ed at Corinth ; and, in particular, having communicated the spiritual panions in travel, who was with him in Ephesus when he wrote his gifts to many of the Corinthians, he, on account thereof, called first epistle to the Corinthians. Or he may have been one of the them, in his former letter, the seal of his apostleship,' 1 Cor. ix. 2. Ephesian brethren, whose zeal for the gospel moved him to accoun:

2 With all patience. --By mentioning his patience, the apostle pany Titus to Corinth when he carried The former letter. The brought to the remembrance of the Corinthians the hardships brother spoken of, 2 Cor. viii. 18. 22. accompanied Titus when he which he had endured while he executed the apostolical office carried this letter. asrlong them, and supported himself by his own labour. Perhaps, 2. Did Titus make any gain of you ?)—Did he draw any money likewise, as Locke supposes, there is here an oblique reproof to from you, either on account of his own maintenance, or on prehe false teachers, for the luxury and ease in which they were living tence that he would persuade mo to receive it for mine 1 anong the Corinthians.

Ver. 19. By sending Titus again, think yo that we apologize to

presence of God we speak by Christ, () that I speak by the direction of Christ when I say, that all these things, all these things, beloved, ARE DONE for your beloved, are done for your edifîcation, that the guilty may have edification.

time to repent. 20 (Taf, 98.) Yet I am afraid, lest perhaps, 20 Yet I am afraid, lest perhaps, when I come, I shall not find when I come, I shall not find you such as I you the reformed persons I wish you to be ; and that I shall be found wish ; and that I shall be found by you such by you such as ye do not wish, on account of my punishing you: 1 as ye do not wish: I MEAN, lest perhaps mean, I am afraid lest perhaps strifes about your teachers, and emustrifes, emulations, wraths, bruwlings, back. lations among the leaders of parties, and wraths for injuries received, bitings, whisperings, swellings, tumults be and brawlings, and evil speakings, and whisperings against me, and AMONG rou.

swellings of pride and ambition, and actual tumulto be among you. 21 And lest, when I come again, my God 21 And lest, when I come again, my God may humble me among may humble me among you ; and I shall be- you, by shewing me your church, which I planted, corrupted with waill many who have formerly sinned, and many vices; and I shall, with lamentation, punish many who hare have not repented? of the uncleanness, and for- formerly sinned, and have not repented of the uncleanness, and fornication, and lasciviousness,3 which they have nication, and lasciviousness in speech and behaviour, which they have committed,

committed, through joining the heathens in their idolatrous feasts, and keeping company with wicked persons,

you ?)-The word **div, again, at the beginning of this verse, ac sum, lib. 3. Hence to mourn, and lo bewail, in the language of cording to the apostle's laconic manner of writing, refers to ver. 18. these times, signified to punish. where he says, 'I besought Titus,' namely, to go to Corinth. His 2. Why have formerly sinned, and have not repented.)-The insending Titus a second time, some might imagine was done to ex. cestuous person was not of this number; for he had repented, 2 cuse his not coming himself.' But he here assured them he had no Cor. il. 7, 8. Those of whom the apostle speaks, were such of the such view in sending Titus. He had delayed his own coming faction, who, notwithstanding all he had written in his former letter, merely to give the guilty time to repent.

had not refrained from partaking in the idolatrous sacrifices of the Ver: 20.–1. Brawlings.)- According to Suidas, spo9.04, brawl. heathens, and from the lewd practices connected with idolatry, to ings, are contentions by words, or abusive language.

which, by their former education, they were still addicted. 2. Swellings.)--Qurowors, swellings, are those vain boastings, by 3. Of the uncleanness, and fornication, and lasciviousness.)-Es. which proud and ambitious men endeavour to make themselves tius thinks the apostle by uncleanness means those sins of the flesh look big in the eyes of their fellows, together with the temper of which are against nature; and by fornication, the conjunction of mind from which the boasting and the insolent behaviour which male and female out of marriage. Of lasciviousness, he says it they occasion proceed.

consists ' in libidinosis osculis, tactibus et cæteris hujusmodi.'' But 3. Be among you.}-I have added this clause from the Vulgato by lasciviousness Bengelius understands sodomy, bestiality, and version, but have marked it as not in the Greek text.

the other vices contrary to nature. But although some of the fac. Ve 21.-1. And I sh bewail.)-From this passage, and from 1 tion at Corinth may have been guilty of uncleanness, fornication, Cor. v. 2. it appears, that when the Christian churches cut off any and lasciviousness, in the ordinary sense of these words, fancying, of their incorrigible members by excommunication, it occasioned through the prejudices of their education, that these things were great grief, especially

to the bishops and pastors, and was performed no sins, I scarcely think that any of them, after their conversion, by them, and assented to by the church, with great lamentation for would continue in the commission of the unnatural crimes men. the offender, whom they consider as lost. See Origen contra Cel tioned by Estius and Bengelius.


View and Illustration of the Threatenings and Admonitions in this Chapter. Tue taunting speech of the faction, that the apostle selves, ver. 4.-And since ye seek a proof of Christ was bold by letters when absent, but humble and meek speaking by me, I desire you to try yourselves, whether when present,' he had answered by a delicate but pointed ye be a church of Christ, and to prove your ownselves, irony, chap. X. 1, 2. But as that speech contained an whether as a church ye possess any spiritual gifts. Know insinuation, that his threatenings to punish them by a ye not yourselves to be a church of Christ, by the spiritual supernatural power were mere bugbears, without any gifts ye received from me ? and that Jesus Christ is among foundation, he in this chapter told them plainly, that he you by his miraculous powers and spiritual gifts ? unless was now coming to Corinth a third time, and would perhaps ye are without that proof of his presence, ver. 5. punish all who opposed him, as well as those who had –In this passage the apostle, by a very fine irony, shew. sinned habitually; and whatever of that kind was proved ed the faction the absurdity of their seeking a proof of by the testimony of two or three witnesses, he would Christ's speaking by one who had converted them, and consider as fully established, ver. 1.-In my former who had conferred on them, in such plenty, those spiritletter, said he, I foretold that the delivering the incestu- ual gifts whereby Christ manifested his presence in every ous person to Satan, would be followed with the destruc- church. The apostle added, that although they should tion of his flesh ; and I now foretell, as present with you be without that proof of Christ's presence, having banishin spirit the second time, that the same thing will follow ed the Spirit from anong themselves by their heinous the censures which I shall inflict on the guilty; and being sins, he trusted they should not find him without the absent in body, I write to all those who have sinned be- proof of Christ's speaking by him, if it were needful for fore ye received my former letter, and to all the rest who him to punish any of them when he came, ver. 6.-Yet have sinned since, that, if they oppose me when I come, he prayed to God that they might do nothing evil; his I will not spare them, ver. 2.-And this I will do the wish being, not to appear approved as an apostle by rather, that some of you, in derision, seek a proof of punishing them, but that they might repent, although the Christ speaking by me. For though ye think me not consequence should be, that he should appear as one able to punish you, yet, by the spiritual gifts which Christ without proof of his apostleship, having no occasion to hath bestowed on you, ye must be sensible, that he is exert his power in punishing them, ver. 7.-For the sufficiently strong to punish every guilty person among apostles could at no time use their miraculous power you, ver. 3.—He was crucified indeed through the weak- against the truth, but for the truth, ver. 8.--He there ness of his human nature; but though he gave himself fore rejoiced when he appeared weak, through bis having to be put to death, he now liveth by the power of God. no occasion to punish offenders, and wished the CorinIn like manner, though I also am weak in body, and thians to become perfect, by repenting of their faults, subject to death as he was, I will nevertheless shew my ver. 9.–And to promote their perfection, being absent, self alive with him, by exercising the power he hath given he had written these things to them, that when present me in punishing you, however strong ye may think your he might not need to act sharply against them, according

to the miraculous power which the Lord Jesus had given if they followed, God would be with them ; desired them him, for edifying and not for destroying his church, to salute one another with a kiss, expressive of their pure ver. 10.

mutual love ; told them that the saints (meaning the breThe apostle having now finished his reproofs to the thren of Macedonia, where he then was) saluted them, in faction, turned his discourse to the whole church, and token of their regard for them; then concluded with bade them farewell; gave them a few directions, which, giving them his own apostolical benediction, ver. 11-14. New TRANSLATION,

COMMENTARY. Chap. XIII.-1 I am coming this third time Chap. XIII.—1 I am coming this third time to you, fully reto you:' by the mouth of two witnesses, or solved to punish the obstinate. By the testimony of two witnesses three, every matter shall be established.

or three, every matter shall be established: For I will hold that to

be true, which shall be so proved. 2 I foretold, and I now foretell as present 2 I foretold formerly, that the delivering of the incestuous perin spirit the second time, and being absent son to Satan would be followed with the destruction of his flesh; IN BODY, I now write to them who have be- and I now foretell as present in spirit the second time, that the same fore sinned, and to all the rest ; (óri, 260.) thing will follow the censures I shall inflict; and being absent in Certainly, when I come again, I will not sparel body, I now write to them who have sinned before ye received my TOU,

letter, and to all the rest who have sinned since, and have not re

pented ; Certainly, when I come aguin, I will not spare you, 3 Since ye demand a proof of Christ's speak 3 Since ye insolently demand a proof of Christ's speaking by ing by me, who (95, 151,) towards you is not me the threatenings in my first letter, who towards you is not weak, weak, but is strong (ev, 172.) among you.' but is strong among you, by the spiritual gifts conferred on you, and

by the punishments already inflicted on you. 4 For though indeed he was crucified (€) 4 For, though indeed Christ was crucified, by reason of the weakthrough weakness, yet he liveth by the power ness of his human nature, which was liable to death, yet he now live of God:' (x24 798, 98.) and though we also eth by the power of God. And though I also, his apostle, am weak, are weak with him, we shall, nevertheless, live as he was, being subject to persecution, infamy, and death, I shall with him, by the power of God, (es, 149.) nevertheless shew myself alive with him, by exercising the power among you.

of God among you, punishing you severely ye do not repent. 5 Try yourselves, whether ye be in the 5 I say, since ye demand a proof of Christ's speaking by me, faith ;' prove yourselves ;2 know ye not your. Try yourselves, whether ye be in the faith: prove yourselves, wheselves; that Jesus Christ is (wv, 172.) among ther as a church ye possess spiritual gifts : know ye not yourselves, you ?4 unless perhaps ye be without proof. that Jesus Christ is among you as a church, unless perhaps ye be

without proof? Ver. 1. I am coming this third time to you.)-In the Acts of the the proof of his being now alive. In this latter view, the power of Apostles, as was observed chap. xii. 14. note, there is no mention God signifies the power of God communciated by Christ to his made of St. Paul's being at Corinth more than once before this se. apostles, to enable them to work miracles, and to confer the spiritcond epistle was written. But that history by no means contains ual gifts on believers, and to punish offenders, for the confirmation all the apostle's transactions. We may therefore suppose, that du. of the gospel. ring the eighteen months which passed from his first coming to Ver. 5.-1. Try yourselves, whether ye be in the faith. ]-Estius Corinth, to the insurrection in the proconsulship of Gallio, the apos thinks faith here signifies the faith of miracles, because that was a the left Corinth for a while, and travelled through Laconia, Arcadia, clear proof of Christ's speaking to the Christians by Paul, who had and the other countries of the province of Achaia, where he con. conferred on then that gilt. But as the expression, 'in the faith,' verted many,

2 Cor. i. 1. having preached the gospel to them gra is nowhere else used in that sense, I rather think 'in the faith' sig. tis, as at Corinth, chap. xi. 10. and founded several churches, called, nifies, 'in the faith of the gospel;' see chap. i. 24. And that when 2 Cor. ix. 2. Achaia, That is, the churches of Achaia. If, therefore, the apostle desired the faction to‘try themselves, whether they the apostle made the excursion I have supposed, and spent some were in the faith,' he meant that they should try, whether by their months in it, his return to Corinth would be his second coming; con faith they were become a church of Christ, and possessed the spisequently, the coming spoken of in this verse was his coming the ritual gifts which every church of Christ enjoyed. For if they posthird time to them.' Estius, because the apostle, 2 Cor. i. 15. speaks sessed any spiritual gift, having received it from the apostle, it was of his bestowing on the Corinthians a second gift on his coming to a clear proof to them that Christ spake by him. This interpretation them from Ephesus, argues, that if he had gone to them then, it of the phrase ' in the faith,' is noi materially different from that of would have been his second visit; and infers, that the whole of his Estius; but it agrees better with what follows in the verse. eighteen months abode in Corinth was considered by him as his 2. Prove yourselves. )--Because the faction had required the apos. first coming. But this conclusion does not follow; because the tle to shew them a proof of Christ's speaking by him, he desired apostle may have conferred no gifts on the Corinthians after his them to prove themselves, whether they had received any spiritual return from the countries of Achaia.

gifts from him; that being a proof which ought to have convinced Ver. 2. I will not spare you.)-Ifthis is separated from the follow. them of his apostolical authority. ing verse by a full stop, the sense of that verse will evidently be 3. Know ye not yourselves ?)-This being spoken to the faction, incomplete. But if the two verses are separated only by a comma, who were in such a state of wickedness, that it cannot be so much as I have done, the mean!r.g will be, when I come again I will not as supposed that Jesus Christ was in them, in the sense in which spare you, since ye demand a proof of Christ's speaking by me.' our translators understood the phrase, we must translate and interThis, with the other threatenings in the apostle's letters to the Co pret the passage as I have done.-Some are of opinion, that in this rinthians, is a strong proof of the righteousness of the cause in question, Know ye not yourselves ? the apostle alluded to the which he was engaged. For if he had been carrying on an impos. greatest of all the precepts of the Greek philosophy, Know thyself ; ture with the aid of his disciples, he would have flattered them in and that he ridiculed the faction for being ignorant of themselves, their vices, instead of threatening to punish them; as he must have that is, of the gifts which they possess, and of the efficacy of these known that such threatenings, while he himself was more culpable gifts to prove ihe person froin whom they had received them to be than they, would have provoked then to discover the cheat. - It is an apostle of Christ. The irony in this passage will appear the supposed that in these threatenings the apostle had the false teacher more pointed, if we recollect that the Corinthians valued themselves particularly in his eye, though he uses the plural number. And exceedingly on their knowledge of the Grecian philosophy, and on Michaelis is of opinion, that at his coming to Corinth he exercised their skill in reasoning: the rod on that impostor so severely, that he obliged hiin to leave 4. That Jesus Christ is among you ?]-Whitby thinks the apostle the city; or that, being terrified by the threatenings in this letter, alluded here to the speech of the rebellious Israelites in the wilderhe fled of his own accord before the apostle arrived.

ness, who, after all the proofs which God had given of his presence Ver. 3. Is strong among you.1-Whitby's note on this verse is as among them, said, Exod. xvii. 7. 'Is the Lord among us or not?' follows:-"Christ shewed his power among the Corinthians, by en. 5. Unless perhaps. In this translation of the phrase ramen To, I abling St. Paul to preach the gospel to them in 'demonstration of have followed the Vulgate version, which has here Nisi fortè. the Spirit and of power,' so efficaciously as to convert them to the 6. Ye be (360x1440) without proof;}-namely, or Christ's presence faith, 1 Cor. ii. 4. : In that variety of gifts conferred on them, to among you. So the word signifies, ver. 3. Since ye desire (80x1. gether with the gospel, by which their 'testimony of Christ was Mmx) a proof of Christ's speaking by me.' The proof of Christ's confirmed,' 1 Cor. i. 6, : By his power, conspicuous in seconding presence in any church, was the existence of miraculous powers St. Paul's delivery of the incestuous person up to Satan, 1 Cor. v. and spiritual gifts in that church. For these being sent down by 1.5.: By the chastisements they suffered for communicating in the Christ, Acts ii. 33. were tokens both of his presence and power.-In Lord's supper unworthily."

supposing that the faction might be without this proof, the apostle Ver. 4. He liveth by the power of God.)-Here'the power of God' indirectly but sharply rebuked them for their vices, (chap. xii. 20, is declared to be, not only the cause of Christ's resurrection, but 21.), because the Spirit of God is provoked to depari both from so

6 But I trust that ye shall know that we are 6 But, though ye should be without proof of Christ's presence not without proof.

among you, having quenched the Spirit, I trust that ye shall know,

that I am not without the proof of Christ's speaking by me. 7 (A4, 100.) Nevertheless, I pray to God 7 Nevertheless, I pray to God that ye do nothing evil; my wish that ye do nothing evil; not wishing that being, not that I may appear having proof as an apostle by punishwe may appear having proof, but that ye may ing you, but that ye may do what is good, may repent; although, in do whut is good, (de, 100.) though we should consequence thereof, I should be indeed without proof of my apostlebe (ws, 319.) indeed without proof.!

ship, having no occasion to punish you. 8 For we can do nothing against the truth, 8 For we apostles cannot exercise our miraculous power in oppobut for the truth.

sition to the truth, but always in support thereof. 9 (ras, 93.) Therefore we rejoice when we 9 Therefore, instead of delighting to shew my power, I rejoice are weak, and ye are strong: and this also we when I can inflict no punishment on you because ye are strong in pray for, EVEN your restoration.!

virtue. And this also I pray for, even your reformation. 10 For this reason, being absent, I write 10 For this reason, being absent, I write these threatenings against these things, that when present I may not act the obstinate, that when present I may not need to act sharply, acsharply, according to the power which the Lord cording to the power of punishing which the Lord hath given me hath given me (545, 142. 2.) for edification, and for e.lifying the church, by reclaiming the vicious and confirming not for destruction.

the virtuous, and not for the destruction of its members without cause. ii Finally, brethren, farewell : be ye re 11 Finally, brethren, farewell. Be ye restored by repentance ; stored a comfort yourselves ; mind the same comfort yourselves with the prospect of eternal life; pursue the same thing ;2 live in peace; and the God of love great objects ; live in peace, by avoiding those emulations which and peace will be with you.

hitherto have rent your church : And the God who delights to see his creatures living in love and peace, will be with you to direct and

protect you. 12 Salute one another (ev) with an holy kiss, 12 When ye meet, or part, salute one another with an holy kiss, (See Rom. xvi. 16. note 1.)

in token of that pure love which ye bear to one another, as the disci

ples of Christ. 13 All the saints salute you.

13 All the disciples of Christ who are with me send their good 14 The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and 14 Receive ye my apostolical benediction: The favour of the the love of God, and the communion of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the common fruition of Holy Ghost,' be with you all. Amen. (See the gifts and aids of the Holy Ghost, be ever with you all who love Eph. vi. 24. note 2.)

the Lord Jesus Christ. Amen. cieties and from individuals by their wickedness. The word box.. good in doctrine and morals, 2 Tim. jii. 8. Men of corrupt minds MO, which our translators have rendered reprobates, does not adinit (xboxokos spa Tv Trsov) witbout discernment concerning the faith.' of that meaning in this passage, as is plain from the scope of the dis -Tit. i. 16. They profess to know God, but in works they deny course, and from the apostle's applying that word to himself, ver. 7. him, being abominable and disobedient, and to every good work which he could not do in its common signification. See the note (x30X640) without discernment.'-Rom. i. 2. 'As (cux180x14x8**) on that verse.

dey did not approve of holding God with acknowledgment, (uapia Ver. 7. Though we should be used 04.04.) indeed without proof;) I wxSV KUTOUS 60:05 115 58oxerov your) God delivered them over to an -without that proof of our apostleship which would be given to you, unapproving mind; a mind not capable of discerning and approving were we miraculously to punish the obstinate offenders anong you. what is right,' 'to work those things which are not suitable. That in this passage the word adoramos signifies persons without Ver. 8. We can do nothing )-Indiis verse, churchmen are taught proof, and not reprobates, every reader inusi see when he considers for what end the censures of the church are to be in dicted. Not to that the Corinthians doing that which was good, could not have any gratify revenge or private pique, but for reforming the vicious, and influence to render the apostle a reprobate, in the modern sense for supporting the cause of truth and virtue. of the word. And even though it could have had that influence, is Ver. 9. Even your restoration. The word x 9TXETIÇeov properly it to be supposed, that the apostle would have consented to be made signifies to reduce a dislocated member to its right place in the body; a reprobate, in order that the Corinthians might do that which was also to restore and make things whole which have been broken: good ? In the language of modern times, a reprobate is one who is Matt. iv. 21. Gal. vi. 1. Ezra iv. 12, 13. LXX. The word therefore is excluded from the possibility of salvation by an absolute decree of applied with great propriety to a church, in which many of its mem. God; one who is delivered over to perdition. But nowhere in scrip. bers had misbehaved, and put themselves out of their places. ture is the word adoxikos used in that sense. It is applied to va. Ver. 11.-1. Be restored. - The original word **THAT Cert may rious subjects, but always agreeably to its literal signification, with. be translated, Be ye fully restored; namely, by repentance and reout proof. Thus doxiuos is applied to silver, Prov xxv. 4. Isa. i. formation, 22. sequerov xoxipor, adulterated silver, silver which doth not 2. Mind the same thing. I-Wall is of opinion, that TO KUTO POVEIT! abide the proof.-It is applied likewise to land which, notwith should be translated, Be unanimous, namely, in your deliberations standing it is properly cultivated, and receiveth the influences of the on all matters relating to your union as a church. But I rather heavens, bringeth forth nothing but briers and thorns. For that think the apostle's meaning is, that they should set their affections kind of land is said, Heb. vi. 8. to be xdox140s, without proof, name. on the same great objects, namely, the glory of God, and the inte. ly, of fertility ; consequently, it is deserted by the husbandman, and rests of the gospel. See 1 Cor. i. 10. where the same exhortation allowed to remain under the curse of sterility.-- It is applied to those is given who offered themselves as combatants in the sacred games, and Ver. 14. The communion of the Holy Ghost. Koowwroz tovågoou who, on being examined, were found not to have the necessary πνεύματος.

For the different senses of the word x316*is, see 1 qualifications, and therefore were rejected by the judges. 1 Cor. John i. 3. note 3. Here it signifies, as in the commentary, the joint ix. 27. 1 bruise my body, and lead it captive, lest perhaps, having fruition, or the participation of the gifts and graces of the Holy Spi. proclaimed to others, I myself (x80x1xos y v w xo) should be one not rit. This the apostle wished to the Corinthians, that in all their approved.'--It is applied to those who are not able to discern what is public transactions they might all be animated by one spirit.

wishes to you.


Essay V.-On the Covenant which God made with and they are they which testify of me.' Also, at his first Abraham, the Father of the Israelites.

appearance to his disciples after his resurrection, he said

to them, Luke xxiv. 44. . These are the words which I Our Lord, John v. 39. thus exhorted his Jewish hear. spake to you while I was yet with you, that all things ers, . Search the scriptures,' (the writings of Moses and must be fulfilled which were written in the law of Moses, the prophets), ‘for in them ye think ye have eternal life; and in the prophets, and in the psalms, concerning me.'

And that they might know what things were written in faith to him for righteousness. Ver. 1. · When Abram these books concerning him, 45. He opened their un was ninety years old and nine, the Lord appeared to derstandings that they might understand the scriptures:' Abram, and said to him, I am the Almighty God, walk he gave them the knowledge of the meaning of those pas before me and be thou perfect. 2. And I will make sages of the scriptures which relate to himself

, that they my covenant between me and thee, and will multiply might be able to confirm the gospel which they were to thee exceedingly. 3. And Abram fell on his face : and preach, by testimonies taken from the law and the pro- God talked with him, saying, 4. As for me, behold my phets. Accordingly, the apostle Paul, who, like the covenant is with thee, and thou shalt be a father of many other apostles, had the true meaning of the Jewish scrip- nations. 5. Neither shall thy name any more be called tures communicated to him by inspiration, hath on these Abram, but thy name shall be Abraham, for a father of writings founded those enlarged views of the doctrines many nations have I made thee. 6. And I will make of the gospel, and of the divine dispensations, which he thee exceedingly fruitful, and I will make nations of thee, bath delivered in his epistles; in so much that his expli- and kings shall come out of thee. 7. And I will estacations of the Jewish scriptures, and the conclusions which blish my covenant belween me and thee, and thy seed after he hath drawn from them, make a principal part of the thee, in their generations, for an everlasting covenant, to gospel revelation.

be a God unto thee and to thy seed after thee. 8. And The passages of the writings of Moses, which Paul hath I will give unto thee, and to thy seed after thee, the explained in his epistles, and which deserve our special land wherein thou art a stranger, all the land of Canaan, attention, are those in which God's transactions with for an everlasting possession; and I will be their God.' Abraham the father of the Israelites are recorded : name Some time after this transaction, to shew us that the ly, Gen. xii. 1-3. 14, 15, 16. xiii. 14–16. xv. 1-7. 18. xvii. things promised to Abraham in the covenant depended 1-8. xviii. 19. xxii. 10-18.

on his continuing to believe and obey God, and on his In the first of these passages we are informed, that commanding his children after him to keep the way of God commanded Abraham to leave his country and kin- the Lord, and to do justice and judgment, the Lord said dred, and go into a land which he would shew him. And concerning him, Gen. xviii. 19. I know him that he to encourage him to break his connexions with his idola. will command his children after him, and his household, trous kindred and acquaintance, God said to him, Gen. to keep the way of the Lord, and to do justice and judgxii. 2. 'I will make of thee a great nation, and I will ment, that the Lord may bring upon Abraham that which bless thee and make thy name great, and thou shalt be he hath spoken of him.' a blessing. 3. And I will bless them that bless thee, At length, when Abraham was an hundred years old, and curse him that curseth thee: and in thee shall all and Sarah was ninety, she brought forth her long expectthe families of the earth be blessed.' Having received ed son, whom Abraham named Isaac, (laughter), on acthis command, Abram obeyed and went out, not know count of the joy which his birth occasioned to his parents. ing whither he went,' Heb. xi. 8. He went out, not- - But lo! when this only son, to whom all the promises withstanding he did not know whether the land into were expressly limited, was grown up, God put Abrawhich he was going was a good or a bad land ; or ham's faith to a trial still more severe than that which whether it was far off or near.

was occasioned by deferring his birth so long : He comOn leaving Haran, Abram it seems was directed to manded him to offer this only son as a burnt-offering, go to Canaan. For on his coming to the plain of Moreh Gen. xxii. 2. This most difficult command, Abraham, in Canaan, Gen. xii. 7. • The Lord appeared to Abram and without hesitation, set about obeying. He went with said, Unto thy seed will I give this land.' Some time Isaac to the appointed mountain, raised an altar, put after this, when Abram separated from Lot, Gen. xiii. wood on it, bound Isaac, laid him on the altar on the 14. ^ The Lord said to Abram, Lift up now thine eyes, wood, and stretched forth his hand, and took the knife and look from the place where thou art, northward, and to slay his son: and would have slain him, had not the southward; and eastward, and westward. 15. For the angel of the Lord called to him, and said, ver. 12. •Lay land which thou seest, to thee will I give it, and to thy not thine hand upon the lad, neither do thou any thing seed for ever. 16. And I will make thy seed as the dust to him ; for now I know that thou fearest God, seeing of the earth : so that if a man can number the dust of the thou hast not withheld thy son, thine only son, from me. earth, then shall thy seed also be numbered.'

-15. And the angel of the Lord called to Abraham out All this while Abram had no child; for which reason, of heaven the second time, 16. And said, By myself have eight years after he left Haran, when God said to him, I sworn, saith the Lord, for because thou hast done this Gen. xv. 1. • Fear not, Abram, I am thy shield and ex. thing, and hast not withheld thy son, thine only son, 17. ceeding great reward,' he replied, “What wilt thou give That in blessing, I will bless thee, and in multiplying, I me, seeing I go childless ?' Being now above eighty years will multiply thy seed as the stars of heaven, and as the old, the performance of the promise, to make of him a sand which is upon the sea-shore; 18. And in thy seed great nation, appearing every day more and more impro- shall all the nations of the earth be blessed, because thou bable, he became uneasy at the delay. Wherefore, ver. hast obeyed my voice.' Here it is to be remarked, that 5. God brought him forth abroad,' early in the morn God confirmed all his former promises with an oath; and ing, and said, Look now toward heaven, and tell the declared that he would perform these promises, because stars, if thou be able to number them; and he said unto Abraham had done the difficult work of offering up his him, So shall thy seed be. 6. And he believed in the only son as a burnt-offering. Also he gave him a new Lord, and he counted it to him for righteousness. 7. promise, That the person in whom all the nations of the And he said to him, I am the Lord who brought thee earth are to be blessed, should be one of his descendants ; out of Ur of the Chaldees, to give thee this land to in- and declared, as before, that he made him this promise, herit it.' And ver. 18. • In that same day,' to assure him because he had obeyed his voice. of the performance of this promise, “the Lord made a From the foregoing account of God's transactions with covenant with Abram, saying, Unto thy see:) have I given Abraham, it appears that God's covenant with him conthis land, from the river of Egypt unto the great river, tained six separate promises or stipulations on the part of the river Euphrates.

God, namely, In an after transaction, recorded Gen. xvii. the Lord I. That God would exceedingly bless Abraham. explained to Abram the particulars comprehended in the

II. That Abraham should be the father of many nacovenant which he made with him, after counting his tions, and very fruitful.

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