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der that they were enraged against him, and persecuted the first, its date may be fixed to the summer of the year him with the bitterest calumnies: For it was this apostle 57. For, as we have shewn in the preface, Sect. 5. the chiefly who opposed them, in their unrighteous attempt first epistle was written in the end of the year 56, or in of wreathing the yoke of the law of Moses about the neck the beginning of the year 57. of the Gentiles. He it was likewise who resisted the in It was observed in Sect. 1. of this Preface, that St. Paul's troduction of the dogmas of the heathen philosophy into second epistle to the Corinthians was sent by Titus, who the church, by teachers who, having nothing in view but carried his former letter. This excellent person is often worldly considerations, endeavoured to convert the Greeks mentioned by the apostle, and was in such esteem with at the expense of corrupting the religion of Christ. In him, that he left him in Crete to regulate the aflairs of fine, he it was, who openly and severely rebuked the false the churches there. He seems to have been originally an teachers and their disciples for the licentiousness of their idolatrous Gentilc, whom Paul converted in his first apos
:-Yet he was not the only object of these men's tolical journey, and brought with him to Antioch when he malice. Barnabas also had a share of their hatred, (1 Cor. returned from that journey. For he took him up to Jeruix. 6.), probably because he had been active in procuring salem when he went thither from Antioch lo consult the and publishing the decree of the council of Jerusalem, apostles and elders and brethren there, concerning the whereby the Gentile converts were freed from obeying the circumcision of the converted Gentiles. Not long after institutions of Moses,
this Paul undertook his secor:d apostolical joumey, for the
purpose of confirming the churches he had formerly plantSect. III.-Of the Place and Time of writing the Second ed. On that occasion, Titus accompanied him in his proEpistle to ihe Corinthians; and of the Person by whom preaching the gospel to the Corinthians
. So the apostlo
gress till they came to Corinth; for he assisted him in it was sent.
himself informs us, 2 Cor. viii. 22. “If any inquire conOr the place where the apostle wrote his second epistle cerning Titus, he is my partner and fellow-labourer in the to the Corinthians, there is little doubt. In the epistle gospel toward you. Wherefore, when the apostle wrote itself, ii. 12. he tells us, that from Ephesus, where he was this, having been in Corinth only once, if Titus was luis when he wrote his first epistle, he went to Troas, and then partner and fellow-labourer in the gospel toward the Cointo Macedonia, to meet Titus, whose relurn he expected rinthians, it must have been at Paul's first coming to Coabout that time: that while he abode in Macedonia, Titus rinth when he converted the Corinthians. These particuarrived and brought him the good news of the submission Jars shall be more fully explained in the Preface to Titus. of the Corinthians; and that, on hearing these tidings, he But it was necessary to mention them here, because they wrote his second letter to them, to encourage them to go shew the propriety of the apostle's sending Titus, rather on with the collection for the saints in Judea, that the than any of his other assistants, with his first letter to the whole might be finished before he came to Corinth, 2 Corinthians, some of whom had forsaken the apostle, and Cor. ix. 3, 4, 5. The apostle therefore was in Mace. had attached themselves to a false teacher. Titus being donia, in his way to Corinth to receive their collection, such a person, St. Paul hoped he might have had some inwhen he wrote his second epistle to the church in that fluence with the Corinthians to persuade them to return to city.
their duty. Besides, a number of them having been either The facts just now mentioned, which shew that the converted or confirmed by him, he had an interest in the apostle's second epistle to the Corinthians was written in welfare and reputation of their church. Wherefore, when Macedonia, in his way from Ephesus to Corinth, after the he joined the apostle in Macedonia, although he had but riot of Demetrius, shew likewise that it was written but a just come from Corinth, he not only accepted of Paul's few months after the first epistle. For, whether the first invitation to return with him to that city, but being desirous was written immediately before or immediately after the that the Corinthians should finish their collection for the riot, there could be but a short interval between the two saints, he, of his own accord, offered to go back immediepistles ; namely, the time of the apostle's abode in Ephe- ately, to persuade them to do so without delay, that their sus after writing the first letter, and at Troas after leaving collection might be ready when the apostle came. By Ephesus, and the weeks which he spent in Macedonia be. Titus, therefore, St. Paul sent his second epistle to the fore the arrival of Titus; all which, when joined, could Corinthians, who, we may believe, on receiving it, set not make above half a year at most. Since therefore the about the collection in earnest, and finished it by the time second epistle to the Corinthians was written so soon after the apostle arrived.
View and Nlustration of the Matters contained in this Chapter. Arter giving the Corinthians his apostolical benedic sentence of death in himself, to teach him that he should tion, St. Paul began this chapter with returning thanks to not trust in himself, but in God, ver. 8, 9. God, who had comforted him in every affliction, that he When the apostle sent Timothy and Erastus from might be able to comfort others with the consolation Ephesus into Macedonia, as mentioned Acts xix. 22. it wherewith he himself had been comforted, ver. 3–7. By is probable that he ordered them to go forward to Cothis thanksgiving the apostle insinuated, that one of the rinth, 1 Cor. xvi. 10., provided the accounts which they purposes of his writing the present letter, was to comfort received in Macedonia gave them reason to think their the sincere part of the Corinthian church, and to relieve presence in Corinth would be useful; and that he ordered them from the sorrow occasioned to them by the rebukes them likewise to inform the Corinthians, that he was in his fornier letter.—Next, to shew the care which God coming straightway from Ephesus to Corinth, to remedy took of him as a faithful apostle of his Son, he gave the the disorders which some of the family of Chloe told him Corinthians an account of a great affliction which had had taken place among them. But after Timothy and befallen him in Asia, that is, in Ephesus and its neigh. Erastus departed, having more than ordinary success in bourhood, and of a great deliverance from an imminent converting the idolatrous Gentiles in the province of Asia, danger of death, which God had wrought for him ; namely, he put off his voyage to Corinth for some time, being when he fought with wild beasts in Ephesus, as men- determined to remain in Ephesus and its neighbourhood tioned in his former epistle, chap. xv. 32. and had the till the following Pentecost; after which he purposed to
go through Macedonia, in luis way to Corinth. This al- 20.—wherely, as weil as by the carnest of the Spirit put teration of his intention the apostle notified to the Co. into his heart, God had fully established his authority rinthians in his first epistle, chap. xvi, 5-8. But the with the Corintbians. It was therefore absurd to impule faction having taken occasion therefrom to speak of hiin either levity or falsehood to one who was thus publicly as a false, fickle, worldly-minded man, who in all his ac and plainly attested of God to be an apostle of Christ, tions was guided by interested views, he judged it ne- by the spiritual gifts which he had conferred on his discessary, in this second letter, to vindicate himself from ciples, ver. 22, 23.- Lastly, he called God to witness, that calumny, by assuring the Corinthians that he always that hitherto he had delayed his journey to Corinth, exbehaved with the greatest simplicity and sincerity,' ver. pressly for the purpose of giving the faulty among them 12.- And by declaring that what he was about to write time to repent, ver. 23.--and that in so doing he had on that subject was the truth ; namely, that when he sent acted suitably to his character; because miraculous powers them word by Timothy and Erastus of his intention to were bestowed on the apostles, not to enable them to lord set out for Corinth immediately by sea, he really meant it over the persons and goods of the disciples by means to do so, ver. 13. 16.--And that the alteration of his re. of their faith, but to make them helpers of their joy, persolution did not proceed either from levity or falsehood, suading them, both by arguments and chastisements, lo ver. 17.-as they might have known from the uniformity live agreeably to their Christian profession, ver. 24. of the doctrine which he preached to them, ver. 18, 19,
COMMENTARI. Cuap. I.—1 Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ Cuap. I.—1 Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ, agreeably 10 the by the will of God, and 'T'imothy' mr brother, will of God, and Timothy, (see i Thess. i. 1. note 1.), my fellowto the church of God which is in Corinth, 10 labourer in the gospel of Christ, to the church of God which is in Coçether with all the saints who are in all Achaia ;? rinth, and to all who prosess to believe in Christ, who are in all the
province of Achaia; 2 Grace be to you, and peace (see Rom. i. 2 Grace be to you, with peace temporal and eternal, from God our 7. note 4.) from God our Father, and from common Father, the Author of every blessing, and from the Lord the Lord Jesus Christ.
Jesus Christ, by whom the Father dispenses his favours. 3 (Euncgnt, 1 Cor. x. 16. note 1.) Praised 3 Praised be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, (Eph. RE the God and Father of our Lord Jesus i. 3. ; 1 Pet. i. 3.), the Author of tender mercies to sinners, anul the Christ, the Father of tender mercies, and the God who bestows all consolation on the faithful disciples of his Son; God of all consolation.
4 Who comforteth us in all our affliction, 4 Who comforteth us in all our affliction, that we may be able to that we may be able to comfort them who are comfort them who are in any affliction, whether of body or mind, in any affliction,' by the consolation wherewith by explaining to them froin our own experience, the consolation we ourselves are comforted of God.
wherewith we ourselves are comforted of God. What that consola
tion was, see in the note on ver. 5. 5 For as the sufferings for Christ abound in 5 For as the sufferings for Christ and his gospel abound in us, so us, so also our consolation' aboundeth through also our consolation under them aboundeth through the promises of Christ.
Christ performed to us. 6 (Est ds, 106.) Whether, therefore, we le 6 Whether, therefore, wc be afflicted, it is for your consolation afflicted, it is for your consolation and salva and salvation, which is accomplished by the influence of our example, tion, which is wrought in rou by enduring animating you patiently lo endure the same sufferings which we the same sufferings which we also suffer; or also patiently suffer; or whether we be comforted by God's deliverwhether we be comforted, it is for your con- ing us from sufferings, or by his supporting us under them, it is de. solation and salvation.
signed for your consolation and salvation, by encouraging you to
hope for the like support and deliverance. 7 And our hope (imag, 307.) concerning you 7 And our hope concerning your consolation and salvation is is firm, knowing that as ye are partakers of the firm, knowing, that as ye are partakers of our sufferings, so also sufferings, so also shALL TE BE of the consola- shall ye be of the consolation which we derive from the discoveries tion.
and promises of the gospel, and from the assistance of Christ. 8 (rus) Wherefore, we would not have you 8 Wherefore, I would not have you ignorant, brethren, concerning ignorant, brethren, concerning our affliction the great affliction which befel me in Asia, namely, when I was conwhich happened to us in Asia,' that we were strained to fight with wild beasts at Ephesus, that I was exceedingly erceedingly pressed above our strength, in so pressed down; that affliction being greater than I thought myself much that we despaired even of life.
able to bear, in so much that I despaired even of life on that occasion. Ver. 1.-1. And Timothy. ?–From this it is evident, that Timothy tled to take copies of it, in order to read it in their public meetings was with the apostle when the Second to the Corinthians was writ. for Uleir own edification. See Essay ii. page 22 ten.-Timothy was a zealous preacher of the gospel, the apostle's Ver. 4. To comfort them who are in any affliction. - According to constant companion, (sce 1 Tim. Pref. sect. 1.), and one, of whose Locke, the apostle in this passage insinuated, that by his own afilic. ability and integrity the Corinthians had received recent prooss tions he was qualified to confort the Corinthians, under the distress during his late visit to them, 1 Cor. xvi. 10. Ilis testimony, there. of mind which they felt from a just sense of their errors and mig. fore, to the things written in this epistle, might have had weight, carriages. But the afllictions of which the apostle speaks, were even with the faction, to convince them, that when the apostle seni chielly outward afllictions: being the same with those which he them word by him and Erastus, that he intended to go directly from himself suffered, as is plain from ver. 6, 7. Ephesus to Corinth, (see Illustration), he was perfectly sincere, as Ver. 5. Our consolation aboundeth through Christ. The consohe declares, ver. 13-16.; and that when he aliered his resolution, lation of which the apostle speaks, was derived from the presence and delayed his visit, it was on motives purely conscientious.-By of Christ with him in his ailliction; from a sense of the love of allowing Timothy to join in his letter, the apostle did him the greai. Christ shed abroad in his heart; from the joy which the success or est honour, and highly advanced his credit with all the churches the gospel gave him; from the assured hope of the reward which of Achaja. See 1 Thess. Pref. sect. 3.
was prepared for him; from his knowledge of the influence of his 2. Who are in all Achaia. )-Corinth being the metropolis of the sutrerings to encourage others; and from the enlarged views which province of Achaia, (see 1 Thess. i. 7. note), the brethren of Achaia, he had of the government of God, whereby all things are made to no doubt, had frequent intercourse with those in Corinth, and by work for good to the who love God; so that he was entirely rethat means had an opportunity of hearing this letter read in the conciled to his sufferings, (bristjan assemblies at Corinth. But as they had equal need with Ver. 8. Afliction which happened to us in Asia. - This is under. the Corinthians of the admonitions and advices contained in this stood by some of the riot of Denierius, when they suppose the letter, it was addressed to thein likewise, that they might be enti. apostle washrown to the will beasts. But as he did not go into the
9 However, we had the sentence of death! 9 However, I was suffered to pass sentence of death on myself, in ourselves, that we should not trust in our to teach me that in dangers I should not trust in myself, but in God, selves, but in God, who raiseth the dead;2 who preserveth the living from death, and even raiseth the dead
to life; 10 Who delivered us from so great a death, 10 Who delivered me from so terrible a death, and doth deliver and doth deliver ; in whom we trust that he me daily from dangers to which I am exposed, and in whom I trust will yet deliver us :
that he will deliver me, while he needs my service: 11 Ye also working together secretly for us 11 Ye also working together in secret for me by carnest prayer to hy prayer,' so as the gift which cometh to ug? God, in such a manner that the gracious gift of deliverance from through many persons, may by many persons death, which cometh to me through the prayers of so many devout be thankfully acknowledged for us.
persons, may by many persons be thankfully acknowledged on my
account. 12 For our boasting is this,' the testimony 12 I think myself entitled to the prayers of the faithful, and am of our conscience, that with the greatest sim- persuaded that God will hear their prayers in my behalf, because plicity and sincerity, not with carnal wisdom, my boasting is this, the testimony of my conscience, that with the but with the grace of God,' we have behaved greatest simplicity and sincerity, not with carnal wisdom, but with in the world, and more especially (790, 293.) the gracious assistance of God, I have behaved as an apostle everyamong you.
where, and more especially among you. 13 For we write no other things to you than 13 For in what follows, ver, 15, 16. I write no other things to you, what ye read,' (i x4, 195.), and also acknow. than what are implied in the obvious meaning of the words which ledge, and I hope that even to the end ye will ye reail, and also acknowledge to be my meaning; and I hope that acknowledge ;
to the end of your life ye will aeknowledge, that I always write
sincerely. 14 (K25s x4, 203. 218.) Seeing, indeed, ye 14 This hope I entertain, seeing indeed a part of you have achave acknowledged us in part, that we are your knowledged me as an apostle, of whom ye boast on account of his boasting, even as ye also WILL BE ours, in the faithfulness; even as ye also will be my boasting at the day of judge day of the Lord Jesus.
ment, on account of your perseverance in the faith and practice of the
gospel. 15 And in this persuasion I purposed to 15 And in this persuasion that ye believe me a faithful apostle, 1 come to you first,' that ye might have a second sincerely purposed to come to you first, that ye might have a second gift;2
gift of the Spirit as soon as possible, by the imposition of my hands. 16 And (des, 121.) from you to pass through 16 And after wintering with you, 1 Cor. xvi. 6. from you to pass into Macedonia, and from Macedonia to come through into Macedonia, and from Macedonia to come again to you, again to you, and (10') by you to be sent for. and by you to be sent forward into Judea, with your collection for ward into Judea.
the saints. 17 Wherefore, having purposed this, did I, 17 Wherefore, having purposed this, did I, forsooth, use levity forsooth, use levity ?1 or the things which I when I altered my resolution? Or the resolutions which I form, do purpose, do I purpose according to the flesh,? I form them from carnal motives, so as with me what I say I am to 80 as with me yea should be yea, and nay, do, should be done, and what I say I am not to do, should not be nay, AS IT SUITS MY DESIGNS? done, according as it suits some worldly view, without any regard to
my own declarations? theatre then, (Acts xix. 30.), but kept himself concealed from the 3. Not with carnal wisdom.)-What that was, the apostle tells us rioters, he ran no such risk of his life on that occasion as to make afterwards, chap. iv. 2. 5. where he contrasts his own behaviour him
pass * a sentence of death' on himself, ver. 9. and say he was with that of the false teacher. delivered from so great a death,' ver. 10. I therefore suppose with 4. But with the grace of God. )--Ilis behaviour was suitable to the Whitby, that this terrible death of which he was in danger, was gracious dispositions which God had implanted in his heart, and to his being torn in pieces by the wild beasts with which he fought in the assistance wbich from time to time he had granted to him. Ephesus on another occasion, mentioned 1 Cor. xv. 32. See note Ver. 13.-1. I write no other things to you than what ye read.} 1. on that verse.
It seems the faction had affirmed, that some passages of Paul's for. Ver. 9.-1. However, we had the sentence of death in ourselves. - mer letter were designedly written in ambiguous language, that he A ToleoMZ TOU I xvxrou, literally, the answer of death. See Ess. iv. 32. might afterwards interpret them as it suited his purpose. He there. - The sentence of death' is that which the apostle, when order. fore told them, that the apology for altering his resolution respect. ed to fight with wild beasts, pronounced on himself in his own mind. ing his journey to Corinih, which he was going to write to them, See preceding note.
was to be understood by them according to the plain obvious 2. But in God who raised the dead. --The apostle, in his former meaning of his words. epistle, having proved the resurrection of the dead by many irre. 2. And also acknowledge. This the apostle was warranted to fragable arguments, inentions that instance ofthe power of God here say, by the account which litua had given him of the good disposi. with exultation, as a solid foundation for his expecting deliverance tion of the greater part of the Corinthian church. in the most perilous situations, and the rather, that formerly he Ver. 15.- 1. I purposed to come to you first. )-SO TETEor signi. himself had been raised from the dead in Lystra. Acts xiv. 19, 20. fies here. See Parkhurst's Diction. -As soon as the apostle was Ver. 11.-1. Ye also working together secretly for us by prayer.) informed by some of the family of Chloe, that dissensions had ariFrom this we learn, that the most eminent saints may be assisted ern among the Corinthian brethren, he determined to go to Corinth and benefited by the prayers of persons much inserior to them in first, that is, before he went into Macedonia. This intention was to station and virtue. It is therefore a great encouragement to us to go straightway to Corinth by sea, because he wished to be there pray for one another, and a reason for our desiring each other's Boon, in the expectation that his presence among the Corinthians prayers.
would put an end to their divisions, either in the persna. 2. That the gift which cometh to us.)-The word 7 sproux, trans sion or of punishment. Wherefore, to prepare the Corinthians lated gift, being commonly used by St. Paul to denote a spiritual for his coming, be notified his resolution to them by Timothy and or miraculous gif, it may have been used on this occasion 10 in Erastus, But, after their departure, having great success in sinuate, that his deliverance was cffected by some special interpo preaching, and the messengers from Corinth arriving with a letter sition of the power of God. And truly something of that kind was from the sincere part of the church, the apostle judged it prudent necessary to accomplish his deliverance from a death which he to delay his visit to Corinth, to give them who had sinned time to thought inevitable.
repent. And therefore, instead of going straightway to Corinth by Ver. 12.-1. Our boasting is this. )—The apostle sets the ground of sea, he resolved to go by the way of Macedonia. This alteration his boasting, namely, the testimony of his conscience, that with of his purpose he signified to the Corinthians in his first epistle, simplicity,' &c. in opposition to the ground of the false teacher's chap. xvi. 5, 6, 7. boasting, namely, his Jewish extraction, and his enjoining obe. 2. That yé might have a second gift. So our translators have dience to the law of Moses as necessary to salvation.
rendered ihe word 2 giv, chap. viii. 4. I think th word is here put 2. That with the greatest simplicity and sincerity. Ex ár OTHT for % eroux, a spiritual gift, in which sense it is used, Rom. xii. *** gonorevine :gu, literally, with ihe simplicity and sincerity of 6. Ephes. iv 7. God.' This is a Hebrew superlative-the greatest siinplicity and Ver. 17.-1. Did I, forsooth, use levity ?)-Was the alteration of sincerity. Ess. iv. 27. Or it may signify, ibat simpliciiy and sin. my purpose a proof that I formed it without due consideration ? cerity which proceeds from the fear of God; or that simplicity and 2. 'Or the things which I purpose, &c.)-Soe ile View prefixed to sincérity which God requires in the apostles of his Son.
18 But as God is faithful,' (ori, 260.) cer 18 But as certainly as God is faithful, our promise which was tainly our word which was to you, was not sent to you by Timothy and Erastus was not yea and nay, as it suited yea and nay.
some carnal purpose. 19 For the Son of God, Jesus Christ, who 19 This ye may believe, when ye consider that I never used any was preached () to you by us, EVEN by me, deceit in preaching. For the Son of God, Jesus Christ, who was and Silvanus,' and Timothy, was not yea and preached to you by us, even by me, and Silvanils, and Timothy, nay, but (v) through him was yea.
was not preached differently at different times, but through his as
sistance was preached in the same manner at all times. 20 (Oru gag, 97.) And whatever promises 20 And whatever promises of God were preached by us, concernof God WERE PREACHED (from ver. 19.) by ing the pardon of sin, the assistance of the Spirit, the resurrection us, WERE (s, 167.) through him yea, and of the dead, and the life everlasting, were through Christ's inspirathrough him amen,' to the glory of God. tion at all times the same, and through Christ's power will be veri.
fied to the glory of God. 21 Now he who establisheth us with you in 21 Now he who establisheth my authority with you as an apostle Christ, and who hath anointed' us, is God; of Christ, and who hath consecrated me to that high office, by the
gifts of the Spirit, is God; 22 Who hath also sealed' us, and given us 22 Who, to shew that I am an apostle, and to fit me for that office, the earnest of the Spirit in our hearts. hath also sealed me, and given me the earnest of the Spirit in my
heart; the spiritual gifts abiding in me. 23 Now, I call on God as a witness (ori) 23 Now, that ye may believe me in what I am going to say, I call against my soul,' That, sparing you, I have on God as a witness against my soul, if I do not speak truth, that, not as yet come to Corinth.
to avoid punishing you, I have not as yet come to Corinth ; wishing
to give you time to repent. 24 Not (iti, 254.) because we lord it over 24 I speak of punishment, not because we apostles exercise absoyou THROUGH the faith,' but we are joint lute dominion over you through the gospel, but by fatherly chastiseworkers of your joy : for by the faith ye stand.? ments we are joint workers of your joy; for by persevering in the
gospel, ye stand in the favour of God.
3. Yea should be yea, and Nay, nay.)-See James v. 12.
2. And given us the earnest of the Spirit in our hearts.)-Servants Ver. 18. But as God is faithful. 1-The original phrase, 7:50s ó 10$, being hired by giving them earnest-money, the apostle, in allusion is the same form of an oath with The Eternal libeth! that is, as cer to that custom, says God hath given us the earnest of the Spirit in tainly as the Eternal God liveth.
our hearts :' he hath hired us to be the apostles of his Son, by giving Ver. 19. And Silvanus. ]-This is he who in the Acts is called us the Spirit, or spiritual gifts, 1 Cor. xiv. 32. These gifts are called Silas. He was a chief man among the brethren at Jerusalem, and the earnest with which the apostles were hired, because they were one of the Christian prophets, Acts xv. 32.-After the council of to them a sure proof of those far greater blessings which God will be Jerusalein, he accompanied Paul in those journeys through the les. stow on them in the life to coine, as the wages of their faithful serser Asia and Greece, which he undertook for spreading the light vice. For the same reason, all believers are represented as having of the gospel.--Silas was so much esteemed by the apostle's the earnest of the Spirit given them, 2 Cor. v. 5. Eph. i. 14. nole 1. converts, that St. Paul inserted his name in the inscriptions of se Ver. 23. I call on God as a witness against my soul. This is a veral of his epistles. By him likewise, the apostle Peter sent his solemn imprecation of the vengeance of God upon himself, if he de. first epistle to the brethren of Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, parted from the truth in what he was about to write. With this and Bithynia, 1 Pet. v. 12.
imprecation the apostle begins his apology for altering his resolution Ver. 20. Were through him yea, and through him amen :}-were respecting his journey to Corinth. And as he continues it in the through his inspiration preached in one uniform manner, and as next chapter, tó ver. 5. either that chapter ought to have begun things absolutely certain. For if the Son of God was really mani. here, or this chapter should have ended there. fested in the flesh, and dwelt among us, if he wrought miracles, rose Ver. 24.--1. Not because we lord it over you through the faith.) from the dead, and ascended into heaven, and gave spiritual gifts to That this is a proper translation of the passage, is evident from the his disciples, there can be no doubt of the fulfilment of all the pro- position of the Greek article. For the apostle does not say, Our árs mises which he commissioned his apostles to preach to mankind in κυριευομεν της υμων πιςε ας, but ουκ ότι κυριευομεν υμων, της πιστως, God's name. Besides, the incarnation, miracles, resurrection, and Not because we lord it over you (supply for after unw, in this manascension of the Son of God, being things as great and strange as the ner, xuqoEvo u EU u pwodox Tas ti5605), ihrough the faith. Or we may things which God bath promised to us, the greatness and strangeness supply the word evexa before Tus 115805, and translate the clause of the things promised can be no impediment to our believing them. thus, on account of the faith, namely, which ye profess. One or Yea, uzo, was the word used by the Greeks for affirming any thing; other of these prepositions must be supplied in this clause, because Amen was the word used by the Hebrews for the same purpose. the apostle could not say with truth, that he and his brethren apos.
Ver. 21. Who hath anointed us.)-Priests and prophets, as well tles had not dominion over the faith of all who professed to believo as kings, were consecrated to their several offices by the ceremony the gospel. By the inspiration of the Spirit given them, they were of anointing. To anoint, therefore, is to set apart one to an office. authorized to judge, or rule, the twelve tribes of Israel, Matt. xix. The gifts of the Spirit are called an unction, i John ii. 27.
28.; that is, to direct the faith of all the people of God, the spiritual Ver. 22-1. Who hath also sealed us.)- Anciently seals were used Israel. But they had no dominion given them over the persons and for marking goods, as the property of the person who had put his goods of those who believed. The faith of the disciples was to be seal on them, that they might be distinguished from the goods of advanced only by exhortations and admonitions, and if fatherly others. Thus, all believers are said to be sealed with the Spirit chastisements were to be administered in a miraculous manner, it which was promised,' Eph. i. 13. iv. 30., because they were thereby could only be done, even by the apostles, according !o the sugges. marked as Christ's property. Thus, likewise, the servants of God tion of the Holy Ghost. For in that manner all their miraculous are said to be sealed in their foreheads,' for the same purpose, powers were exercised, 1 Cor. xii. 9. note 2. Rev. vii. 3. ix. 4. The apostles, therefore, being sealed of God, they 2. For by the faith ye stand. H-C E$***T, 10.) This clause may were thereby declared to be his servants, and the apostles of his be translated, 'In the faith (lbat is, in the gospel) ye stand free Son, and could not be suspected either of fraud or falsehood. See Your teachers have no dominion either over your persons or goods, another use of seals, Rom. iv, 11. note 1.
on account of your being Christians.
View and Nlustration of the Subjects in this Chapter. The apostle's apology for delaying his visit to the his first letter, he told them that he wrote it in the deepest Corinthians, which was begun in the preceding chapter, affliction ; not to make them sorry, but to shew the is continued in this. Earnestly desirous of their repent- greatness of his love to them, ver. 4. ance, he bad delayed to come, having determined with On receiving the apostle's former letter, the sincere himself not to come among them with sorrow, by punish- part of the Corinthian church, which was much more ing the guilty, if he could by any means avoid it, ver. 1, numerous than the faction, immediately excommunicated 2.-And therefore, instead of coming to punish them, the incestuous person, in the manner they had been dihe had written to them, that he might have joy from their rected. And he appears to have been so affected with repentance, ver. 3.-And, in excuse for the severity of his punishment, that in a little time he dismissed luis
father's wife, and became a sincere penitent. Of these all opposition, ver. 3, 14.-The idea of riding in triumph things the apostle had been informed by Titus, who I with Christ, naturally led the apostle to describe the suppose was present at his excommunication. The apostle eflects of his preaching, both upon believers and unbetherefore, in this letter, told the Corinthians, that the lievers, hy images taken from the triumphal processions punishment they had inflicted on their faulty brother have of the Greeks and Romans, ver. 15, 16.- This beautiful ing induced him to repent of his crime, they were now passage he concluded with a solemn affirmation, that he to forgive him, by taking him again into the church; and did not, like some others, corrupt the word of God with cven to confirm their love to him, by behaving towards foreign mixtures; but always preached it sincerely and him in a kind and friendly manner, lest Satan should disinterestedly, as in the sight of God, ver. 17.-"By thus drive him to despair, ver. 5–12.-Farther, to make the speaking, he plainly enough insinuated, first, that the Corinthians sensible how much he loved them, the apostle false teacher, on whom the Corinthians doated, had cordescribed the distress he was in at Troas, when he did rupted the word of God from worldly motives; and, senot find Titus there, from whom he expected an account condly, that his own success was owing, in a great meaof their affairs. (See Preface, sect. 1. page 210.) For sure, to the faithfulness with which he preached the although he had the prospect of much success at Troas, doctrines and precepts of the gospel, however contrary he was so uneasy in his mind that he could not remain they might be to the prejudices and passions of mankind : there, but went forward to Macedonia, in expectation of owing likewise to the disinterestedness of his conduct, meeting Titus. In Macedonia his distress was somewhat which being evident to all with whom he conversed, no alleviated, by the success with which his preaching was one could suspect, that in preaching the gospel he proattended. For in Macedonia God caused him to ride posed to acquire either riches, or fame, or worldly power, in triumph with Christ, having enabled him to overcome among his disciples.
COMMENTARY. Chap. II.-1 (As, 104.) Besides, I deter Caap. II.—1 Besides, I allowed the disobedient time to repent, mined this with myself, not to come again' to because I determined this with myself, not to make my second visit you with sorrow.
to you, so as to occasion sorrow to you. 2 For if I should make you sorry, (xsu, 218.) 2 For if I should make you sorry, by punishing your disobedient verily who is it that could make me glad, un- brethren, who is it that could give me joy, unless the very same who less the samel who is made sorry by me? is made sorry by me? After thus making you sorry, I could not ex
pect that pleasure from your company which I should otherwise have
enjoyed. 3 (K-2) Wherefore I wrote to you this very 3 Wherefore I wrote to you this very thing, to excommunicate the thing,' that coming, I might not have sorrow incestuous person, and to forsake your evil practices, (1 Cor. iii. 3. FROM THEM by whom I ought to rejoice, be- vi. 8, 9. x. 6–10.), that coming again to Corinth as I proposed, 1 ing firmly persuadel concerning you all, that might not have sorrow from the punishment of them by whose remy joy is THE JOY of you all.?
pentance 1 ought to rejoice. This joy I still expect, being firmly per
suaded concerning you all, that my joy is the joy of you all. 4 For out of much affliction and distress' of 4 To this do not object the sharpness of my former letter. For heart, I wrote to you (dose, 119.) with many out of much affliction and distress of heart, on account of your tears; not that ye might be made sorry, but misbehaviour, I wrote to you in the manner ye think severe, with that ye might know the love which I have most many tears; not to afflict you, but that ye might know the exceedabundantly (29.) towards you.
ing great love which I have to you, by my earnestness to procure the
amendment of the disobedient. 5 Now, if a certain person' hath grieved 5 Now, if the incestuous person hath grieved me, by persuading me, he hath not grieved me, except by a part so many to countenance him, he hath not grieved me, except by misof rou,2 that I may not lay a load on you all. leading a part of you. This I mention, that I may not lay a load
of accusation on you all indiscriminately, as having encouraged him
in his crime. 6 Sufficient for such an one is this punish 6 And seeing he is now penitent, sufficient for such a person, both ment, which was INFLICTED by the greater in degree and continuance, is this punishment which was inflicted umber.
on him by the greater number. 7 (952) So that, on the other hand, ye ought 7 So that, on the other hand, ye ought more willingly to forgive more willingLr to forgive and comfort and comfort this penitent sinner, by receiving him again into the him, lest such a one? should be swallowed up church, lest he be driven to despair by the excessive grief which the by excessive grief.
continuance of your sentence may occasion. 8 (40) Wherefore, I beseech you publicly 8 Wherefore I beseech you publicly to confirm to him your love, to confirm to him your love.
by relaxing him from the sentence, and shewing him affection.
Ver. 1. Not to come again to you with sorrow.)-As the apostle Ver. 4. And distress of heart.)-The word curomus, distress, de did not come to thein at the first with sorrow, the word *hov, here notes the pain which a person feels who is pressed on every side, translated again, seems to be used in the sense given in the com without any possibility of disengaging himself, Luke xxi. 27. mcntary; unless the apostle had in his eye the distress he was in Ver. 5.-1. Now, if a certain person hath grieved me.)-The aposwhen he first came to Corinth, and which he has described, 1 Cor. tle with great delicacy avoided mentioning the name of the inces. ii. 3.
tuous person, and even his crime, lest it might have afflicted him Ver. 2. Unless the same who is made sorry by me ?)-The apostle, too much. knowing that the sincere part of the church would be made sorry 2. IIe hath not grieved me, except by a part of you.}-In this and by his punishing their disobedient brethren, wished not to distress the following verses, the apostle gave a remarkable proof of that his friends by punishing his enemies.
Jove which in ver. 4. he had expressed towards the Corinthians. Ver. 3.-1. I wrote to you (TOUTO KUTO) this very thing. This ex For, first, he made a distinction between the guilty and the innopression is different from that in ver. 9. I wrote (15 TOUTO) for this cent: next, he forgave the incestuous person, who it appears had end also.'. The former denotes the thing written; the latter, the repented of his crimes, ver. 6. In the ihird place, he ordered the end for which it was written. Locke makes the thing written to be church likewise to forgive him, and confirm their love to him, that the cominand to excomninunicate the incestuous person. I under. he might not be swallowed up by excessive grief, ver. 7. sland it more generally, as in the commentary. See chap. xii
. 21. Ver. 7.-1. Ye ought more willingly to forgive;łthat is, ye ought 2. That my joy is the joy of you all. 3–Either the apostle is speak to forgive more willingly than ye punished. ing of the sincere part of the Corinthian church, or the word all 2. Lest such a one. ]-The apostle's delicacy, in not mentioning the must be laken in a qualified sense.
name of the incestuous person, was remarked in the note on ver. 6.