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53 For this corruptible Bodr must put on 53 For, to make us capable of inheriting the kingdom of God, incorruption,'and this mortal Bodr must put this corruptible body must become incorruptible, not liable to dison immortality.
eases ; and this mortal body must become immortal, not liable to death. 51 Now, when this corruptible Bodr shall 54 Now, when this transformation of our corruptible and mortal have put on incorruption, and this mortal Bodr body into that which is incorruptible and immortal shall have taken shall have put on immortality, then shall hap- place, then shall happen the thing which is written, (Isa. xxv. 8.) pen the thing which is written, Death is swal- Death, who delivered the righteous to the grave to be swallowed up, lowed up for ever.' (See ver. 26.)
shall itself be swallowed up for ever by their resurrection to eternal life. 55 here, 0 death! is thy sting? Where, 55 Where, 0 death! is thy sting with which thou killedst the O grave! is (ox to vix) thy victory ?! saints? Where, O hades ! who hast led them captive, ia thy vitcury,
now that they are all brought out of thy dominions? 56 (A4, 105.) For the sting of death is sin ; 56 For the sting of death is sin ; and the deadly poiron of sin is and the strength of sin is the law.
the curse of the law, which, as well as sin, shall be abolislied after
the judgment. 57 Now thanks BE to God who giveth us the 57 Now thanks be to God who giveth us the victory over death victory,' through our Lord Jesus Christ. and the grave, and sin, and the curse of the law, through our Lord
Jesus Christ. 58 Wherefore, my beloved brethren, be ye 58 Wherefore, my beloved brethren, since the righteous are to be (822) stable, unmoved,' abounding in the raised from the dead, and are to enjoy unspeakable happiness in hea. work of the Lord at all times, knowing that ven for ever, be ye stable in the belief of these great events, and your labour in the Lord is not (x816) vain. unmoved in the profession of that belief, whatever sufferings it may
bring on you, and abounding in the work of the Lord at all times,
knowing that your labour in the work of the Lord is not fruitless. Ver. 53. For this corruptible body must (ovdurno921 192 ugrizu) (1.5 idov) in hell.'. The place where the spirits of the righteous put on incorruption. )- That wz, body, is rightly supplied here, see abide, the Jews called Paradise; the place where the wicked are ver. 12. note. The word stu52r9zo literally signifies, to go into a shut up, they called Tartarus, after the Greeks. There the rich place, and metaphorically, to put on, or go into clothes. But the me. man is said to have gone when he died. There also many of the saliaphorical ineaning must not be insisted on here as implying, that len angels are said to be now imprisoned, 2 Pet. ii. 4.--In this noble our corruptible body shall have one that is incorruptible put over it passage the apostle personifies death and the grave, and introduces for an outward covering. These ideas are incongruous, and there the righteous, after the resurrection, singing a song of victory over fore the meaning is, “This corruptible body must be changed into both. In this sublime song, death is represented as a terrible mon. one that is incorruptible,' as mentioned ver.51.-The righteous who ster, having a deadly sting, wherewith it had destroyed the bodies of are alive at the coining of Christ, instead of dying and rising again the whole human race, and the invisible world as an enemy who had iminortal, shall, by the power of Christ, have their corruptible mor imprisoned their spirits. But the sting being torn from death, and tal bodies changed in a moment into incorrupuble immortal bodies, the gates of the invisible world set open by Christ, the bodies of the and by that means be fitted for inheriting the kingdoin of God equal righteous shall rise from the grave, no more liable to be destroyed ly with those who are raised from the dead incorruptible.
by death, and their spirits being brought out of paradise, the place Ver. 54. Death is swallowed up for ever. )-So the original phrase of their abode, shall reanimate their bodies: and the first use of Hos vizos may be translated, being often used by the LXX. in that their newly recovered tongue will be to sing this song, in which they sense, as Whitby hath proved. This circumstance likewise shews, exult over death and hades, as enemies utterly destroyed; and that in his discourse concerning the resurrection, the apostle had praise God who hath given them the victory over these deadly foes the righteous chiefly in view. For it cannot be said of the wicked, through Jesus Christ. Milton hath made good use of the apostle's who are to suffer the second death, that death is swallowed up in personification of death, Book ii. 1. 666. "The other form, &c. any sense with respect to them, or that God hath given then the Ver. 57. Who giveth us the victory.)-The victory over death and victory over it, ver. 57. by the resurrection. Bp. Pearce in his note the grave the saints shall obtain, by their resurrection to an endless on this verse observes, that the LXX. translation of Isa. xxv. 8. life in the body; and the victory over sin, and over the curse of the here quoted, runs thus: K2527vé I*v*T05 65%u5R5, Death having law, will be given thein by their acquittal al ile judgment. For prevailed, hath swallowed up:' but that in Theodotian's version the their trial being then ended, there shall from that time forth, in the words are the same with the apostle's.
kingdom of God, be neither sin, nor law, with the penalty of death Ver. 5. Where, 0 death! is thy sting? Where, O grave! is thy annexed to it. victory ?)-The word dms, translated the grave, literally signifies Ver. 58. Unmoved.)-The Greek word auttaxovor literally sig. the invisible world, or the place where departed spirits, both good nifies unmoreable. But here it must be translated unmored, be. and bad, remain till the resurrection : Job xi. 8.; Psal. cxxxix. 8.; cause unmoveable is a quality not competent lo men in the present Isa. xiv. 9. and especially Psal. xvi. 10. “Thou wilt not leave my soul li se. See Rom. ii. 5. note.
View and Illustration of the Matters contained in this Chapter. Before the apostle concluded his letter to the Corin- take Macedonia in his way, ver. 5.-after staying at thians, he gave them directions for making the collection Ephesus till Pentecost, on account of the extraordinary for the saints in Judea. During his eighteen months' success with which he was preaching the gospel to the inabode at Corinth, he had exhorted the brethren to under. habitants of the province of Asia, who resorted to him take that good work, (as indeed he did the brethren in in that metropolis, ver. 8, 9.-In the mean time, to comall the Gentile churches), with a view to establish a cor pensate the loss which the Corinthians sustained by his dial union between the converted Jews and Gentiles every- delaying to visit them, he wrote to them this letter, in where. See 2 Cor. ix. 14, note. And so desirous were which he gave them the instructions which he would have the Corinthians of the proposed union, that, on the first delivered to them if he had come to them; and promised, niention of the collection, they agreed to make it. But when he came, to abide a considerable time, and perhaps the divisions in the church at Corinth, it seems, had to winter with them, ver. 5, 6.–And because he had sent hitherto hindered them from beginning it. The apostle, Timothy to Corinth some time before, he begged the Cotherefore, in this letter requested them to set about it im- rinthians to give him a good reception, if he came to them, mediately, and directed them how to do it, ver. 1-4. ver. 10, 11.-With respect to Apollos, whom, it seems,
At the time St. Paul wrote his first epistle to the Corin- the Corinthians wished to see, he told them, he had enthians, he had altered his resolution respecting his voyage treated him to go to them with the brethren, but that, to Corinth, of which he had formerly given them notice having no inclination to go to Corinth at that time, he by Timothy and Erastus, as mentioned 2 Cor. i. 15, 16. had deferred his visit till he should find a convenient seaFor he now informed them, that instead of sailing directly son. Perhaps the insolent behaviour of the faction, while from Ephesus to Corinth, as he had at first proposed, his Apollos was among them, had so disgusted him that he intention was, not to come to them immediately, but to did not choose to expose himself a second time to their
attempts. To his apology for Apollos the apostle sub- And to show his sincerity in the curse he was going to joined a few practical advices : Then desired them to pronounce on hypocritical professors of religion, he in the shew a particular regard to the members of the family of same handwriting added, “If any man love not the Lord Stephanas, because they were the first fruit of Achaia, Jesus Christ, let him be Anathema Maran-atha :' a de. and had employed themselves zealously in the ministry nunciation of punishment, which Locke supposes was into the saints, ver. 13-18.
tended against the false teacher, ver. 22.-Lastly, to The apostle, before finishing his letter, sent to the Co. comfort the sincere part of the church, he gave them in rinthians the salutations of the churches of the proconsu- particular his apostolical benediction, together with his lar Asia, and of the brethren at Ephesus who assisted him own love, that they might be the more confirmed in their in preaching the gospel, ver. 19, 20.—Then wrote his attachment to him, ver. 23, 24. particular salutation to them with his own hand, ver. 21, New TRANSLATION.
COMMENTARY. Chap. XVI.-1 Now, concerning the col. Char. XVI.—1 Now, concerning the collection which is for the lection which is for the saints, as I ordered' poor of the brethren who are in Judea, as I ordered the churches of the churches of Galatia, so also do ye.
Galatia to do in that matter, so also do ye. 2 On the first day of every week' let each 2 On the first day of every week, let each of you lay somewhat by of you lay somewhat by itself;? ACCORDING itself, suitable to the gains of the preceding week, putting it into as he may have prospered, putting it into the the appointed treasury, that when I come to Corinth to receive your treasury, that when I come there may be then alms, there may be then no collections ; every one having given what no collections.
he intended to give. 3 And, when I come, whomsoever ye shall 3 And when I come to Corinth, whomsoever ye shall authorize by approve by letters,' them I will send to carry letters to the brethren in Judea, them will I send to carry your gifts your (xagov, grace) sift to Jerusalem.
to Jerusalem, that they may present it to the church there in your 4 (14, 108.) Or, if it be proper that even I 4 Or if it be thought proper that even I should go to Jerusalem, should go,' they shall go with me.
your messengers shall go
to witness the delivery of your gift. 5 (de, 103.) Now I will come to you, when 5 Now, I will come to you after I have passed through MaceI have passed through Macedonia : (For I do donia : ( For I am to pass through Macedonia in my way, that I may pass through Macedonia.)
visit the churches there, and receive their collections.) 6 And perhaps I shall abide, and even win 6 And perhaps I shall contin!le some time, and even winter with ter with you, that ye may send me forward, you, that ye may help me forward, by accompanying me a little way wbithersoever I may go.
in my journey, (see Tit. iii. 13.), by whatever road I may go to Je
rusalem. y For I will not now see you in passing, but 7 For, having delayed my visit so long, when I come I will not I hope to remain with you some time, if the then see you in passing ; but I hope to have it in my power to reLord permit.!
main with you some time if the Lord permit. 8 Ilowever, I shall remain («v, 173.) at 8 However, being much occupied here at present, I propose to Ephesus until Pentecost :
remain at Ephesus until Pentecost: 9 For a great and effectual door is opened 9 For a great and effectual opportunity of making converts in to me;' (x4, 211.) yet TUERE ARE many op- this city is granted to me by God. Yet there are many violent posers.
opposers of the gospel in Ephesus, and its neighbourhood.
Ver. 1. As I ordered the churches of Galatia. -The apostle, I in use to assemble on the first day of the week for the purpose of suppose, gave these orders to the churches of Galatia, when he went worshipping God. And as the apostle gave the same order to the throughout Phrygia, and the region of Galatia, establishing the Galatians, they likewise must have held their religious assemblies churches, as mentioned Acts xvi. 6. And the collections made by on the first day of the week. See Whitby's note on this passage. the churches of Galatia he may have received, when, in his way to Ver. 3. Whomsoever (oxiuxonte) ye shall approve by letters Ephesus, where he now was, he went through all the churches of Grotius's translation of this verse is, 'Whomsoever ye shall approve, Galatia and Phrygia in order, Acts xviii. 23.
them I will send (si 270502 v) with letters, to carry your gin. That Ver. 2.-1. On the first day of every week.)–KxTx Nov 56x7ww. learned critic thought there was no occasion for the Corinthians to The llebrews used the nuneral for the ordinal numbers, Gen. i. 5. signify by letters to the apostle their approbation of their own mes. "The evening and the morning were one day ;' that is, the first day. sengers, as the apostle was to be present at their appointment; and Also thiry used the word sabbath to denote the week, Luke xviii. 12. in support of his translation he quotes Rom. xiv. 20. as an example I fastirice (Tou 256xTow) in the reek. Whercforex 0256xrW or siz used to signify inilh. But sceing the apostle was to take these is the first day of the week. Sce Mark xvi. 2. And as x452 TOA OY sig: inessengers with him to Jerusalem, iney certainly had no need of nities coery city, and ***x, every month; and, Acts xiv. 33. any letters from him. I therefore ihink, the letters of which the Xerexhmoxy, in every church: so xits doiv czö8x1wv signifies apostle speaks, were neither to nor from himself, but from the Co. the first day of every werk.
rinthians to the brethren in Jerusalem, informing them, that the 2. Let each of you lay somewhat by itself,&c.)-12RS UTW T13553 persons who presented these letters were appointed by them to a:θησαυριζουν και τι αν ευοδωTκι, In this passage, if I mistake not, óra iend the apostle when he delivered the collections ai Jerusalcı, is not the neuter of the indefinite pronoun of , as some suppose, This meaning will be clearly conveyed, if éus !*v doxepx017. del but two words, which must be thus construed and supplied: TATIT 67150wv is translated Whomsoever ye shall authorize by letters.' TIEM IRU (sup. xz5) 6 xv 100$ w52 Snoxuposuv, vz, &c. A similar Ver. 4. Or, if it be proper that even I should go, they, &c. - Here inverted order of the pronoun we have Rom. xi. 27. ; 1 Cor. xv. 36. the apostle insinuated his inclination to have the collections comThe apostle's meaning is, that every first day of the week each of mitted to his care. However, that the churches, and even the saints the Corinthians was to separate, fiom the gains of the preceding in Judea, might be certain that no part of the inoney which he re. weck, such a sum as he could spare, and put it into the treasury; ceived was withheld, but that the whole was delivered with the that there inight be no occasion to make collections when the após greatest fidelity, he proposed to all the churches that messengers tle came. By this inethod the Corinthians, without inconveniency, should be deputed by them to attend him, that they might witness Inight bestow a greater gilt, than if they had given it all at once. the delivery of their collections in Jerusalem. Some of these mes. The cominon translation of to36TWT*' xUTW 525xug. wv, viz. 'lay sengers are mentioned 2 Cor. viii. 23. ix. 4. by him in store,' is inconsistent with the last part of the verse, 'that Ver. 7. If the Lord permit.}
This manner of speaking concerning there may be no gatherings when I come :' for, according to that their future actions, ihe apostles recommendedl, James iv. 15. and translation, the collections would still have been to make at the the first Christians practised, because it expressed how deeply they apostle's coming.
were affected with a sense that all events are directed by God. 3. Patting it into the treasury. }So Intxup: ww may be translated. Ver. 9. For a great and effcctual door is opened to me.)-The door The apostle means the treasury of the church, or soine chest placed of a house being the passage into it, the opening of a door, in the at the door of the church to receive their gifts. For although the eastern phrase, signified the affording a person an opportunity or Corinthians had separated a sum weekly for the saints, yet if they doing a thing. The phrase occurs in other passages of scripture. kept it in their own possession, the collections, as was observed in See Col. iv. 3. note ; 1Iosea ii. 15.—The apostle's long abode at Ephe: the preceding notc, innst still have been to make when the apostle sus was owing to his great success in converting the Ephesians, and caine, contrary to his intention.
such strangers as had occasion to resort to that metropolis. But Froin this passage it is evident, that thc Corinthian brethren werc about the time this letter was written, his success was greater than
10 Now, if Timothy be come, take care that 10 Now, if Timothy be come, whom I sometime ago sent to you, he be among you without fear;! for he work- (chap. iv. 17.), take care, hy shewing your affection and obedience, cth, even us I do, the work of the Lord. that he be among you without fear : For he worketh, even as I do,
the work of the Lord faithfully. 11 Wherefore, let no one despise him ; but 11 Being such a person, let no man despise him, on account of his send him forward in peace, that he may come youth, or of his attachment to me: but send him forward in safety, to me : for I expect him with the brethren.' that he may return to me: for I expect him to come with the brethren.
12 And with relation to our brother Apollos, 12 (115go dt, 279.) And with relation to our fellow-labourer Apollos, I entreated him much to go to you with the I entreated him earnestly to visit you with the brethren, the bearers brethren : (nis) but his inclination was not at of this letter, in expectation that his presence might be useful to you: all to go now;' but he will go, when he shall But his inclination was not at all to visit you at this time. But he find a convenient season.
will visit you, when he shall find a convenient season for doing it. 13 Watch ye, stand fast in the faith, quit 13 Having for enemies false teachers, persecutors, and evil spirits, yourselves like men : be strong.
watch ye, stand fust in the faith, quit yourselves like full grown
spiritual men: be strong. 14 Let all your matters' be done with love. 14 Let all your matters, about which I have given you directions
in this letter, be transacted with love. 15 Ye know the family of Stephanas, that it 15 Ye know the family of Stephanas, that they were my first conis the first-fruit of Achaia, and that they have verts in Achaia, and that, from love to Christ and to his gospel, they devoted themselves to the ministry to the saints. have devoted themselves to the ministry to the saints, employing I entreat you, (dt, 106.) therefore, brethren, themselves in preaching the gospel, and in succouring the afflicted:
I entreat you, therefore, brethren, 16 That ye submit yourselves to such, and 16 That ye submit yourselves to the admonitions of such on acto every joint worker and labourer.
count of their fidelity, and to the instructions of every joint worker
and labourer in the gospel. 17 I am glad of the coming of Stephanas,' 17 I am glad of the coming of Stephanas, and Fortunatus, and and Fortunatus, and Achaicus: for they have Achaicus : For they have supplied what was wanting in your letter, supplied your deficiency :3
by the account they have given me of your affairs ; 18 (Tag, 97.) And have refreshed my spirit 18 And thereby have refreshed my spirit, and will refresh yours, and yours: wherefore, acknowledge ye such by informing you of my health. Wherefore, shew such persons the persone.
respect which is due to them, ver. 16. 19 The churches of Asia salute you. Aquila 19 The churches of Asia, especially those of Ephesus and its and Priscilla' salute you much in the Lord, neighbourhood, wish you all felicity. Aquila and Priscilla, formerly with the church which is in their house. (See members of your church, (Acts xviii
. 2. 18.), but who at present aro Rom. xvi. 5. note 1.)
with me, salute you with much Christian affection, as do all the
Christians in their house. 20 All the brethren' salute you. Salute one 20 All the brethren who labour with me in the gospel, desire me another with an holy kiss. (See Rom. xvi. 16. to mention their affection to you. Shew ye your good will towards note 1.)
one another, by kissing one another with a pure affection. 21 The salutation of Paul with mine own 21 The salutation of Paul is sent you, written with mine own hand.
hand. See 2 Thess. iii. 17. Col. iv. 18. 22 If any one love not the Lord Jesus Christ, 22 If any one professing the gospel, love not the Lord Jesus he shall be Anathema, Maran-atha.!
Christ, I with mine own hand write this greatest curse against him,
He shall be Anathema, Maran-atha. For many who used curious arts, the arts of magic and Ver. 17.-1. I am glad of the coming of Stephanas.)-Stephanas divination, were converted, and burned their books containing the is supposed by many to have been the son of Stephanas, mentioned secrets of these arts, Acts xix. 17-20. This so enraged the idola ver. 15. He, with Fortunatus and Achaicus, I suppose, were the ters at Ephesus, but especially the craftsmen, that they raised the messengers sent by the sincere part of the Corinthian church, with great turnult described Acts xíx. 23–41.
the letter mentioned chap. vii. 1. See the Preface to this Epistle, Ver. 10. That he be among you without fear.)
At this time, Ti. sect. 6. mothy being young, and extremely attached to the apostle, there 2. Fortunatus. )--Doddridge thinks "this worthy person survived was some reason to fear that the faction would treat him ill; more St. Paul a considerable time, as it appears from Clement's epistle to especially if he reproved them for their disorderly practices. The the Corinthians, $59. that he was the messenger from the church at apostle therefore recommended it to the sincere part of the church, Rome to the church at Corinth, by whom Clement sent that invato defend him froin any injury which the faction might attempt to luable epistle." do hiin, either in his character or his person.
3. Have supplied your deficiency. -To if wwüstenpr. This by Ver. 11. I expect him with the brethren;}--namely, Erastus, who some is translated your want, by which they understand the aposhad been sent with Timothy to Corinth, Acts xix. 22. and Tilus, tle's want of the presence of the Corinthians. But that translation who carried this letter, and another brother whose name is not men makes no difference in the sense. tioned, (see 2 Cor. xii. 17, 18.); perhaps also, some of the Corinthian Ver. 19. Aquila and Priscilla salute you.)-These worthy persons brethren, whom the apostle had desired Titus to bring with him to lived in Corinth all the time the apostle was there. And when he Ephesus, having need of their assistance there.
departed, they accompanied lim to Ephesus, Acts xviii. 18. whero 'Ver. 12.-1. Isis inclination was not at all to go now.).—The Latin they reinained after he left Ephesus to go to Jerusalem. For when coinmentatorsare of opinion, that Apollos, displeased with the be. he returned to Ephesus he found them there, as is plain from their haviour of the faction, had left then as incorrigible, and had re. salutation sent to the Corinthians in this letter, which was written turned to Ephesus, from whence he had been recommended to the from Ephesus. But they seemn to have left Ephesus about the time brethren of Achaia, Acts xviii. 24. 27. xix. 1. But the messengers the apostle departed to go into Macedonia. For in the letter which from Corinth arriving with a letter to the apostle full of respeci, he he wrote to the Romans from Corinth, they are saluted as then reanswered it by Titus, and requested Apollos to accompany him, in siding in Rome. the hope that he might be useful in assisting Titus to settle the dis Ver. 20. All the brethren salute you.)-The word brother often turbances in that church. But Apollos refused to go, knowing the signifies one who employed himself in preaching the gospel, 1 Cor. violent teipper of the faction.
1. 1. 2 Cor. i. 1. 11.13. Now, as in this passage the brethren are dis2. But he will go wben he shall find a convenient scason.)- Jerome tinguished froin the church, or common people, it is probable the says, Apollos actually went to Corinth, after the disturbances had apostle meant his fellow-labourers in the gospel. ceased. But whether in this Jerome delivered his own opinion only, Ver. 22. He shall be Anathema, Maran-atha. )--In the Greek it is, or some ancient tradition, is uncertain.
Let him be. But the imperative is here put for the future. See Ver. 14. Let all your matters be done with love ;)-namely, your Ess. iv. 9. Anathema, Maran-atha, were the words with which the differences about worldly affairs, mentioned chap. vi. your disputes Jews began their greatest excommunications, wherebythey not only concerning marriage and a single state, chap. vii. your eating things excluded sinners from their society, but delivered them to the di. sacrificed to idols, chapters viii. x. your eating the Lord's supper, vine Cherem or Anathema ; that is, io eternal perdition. This form chap. xi. and your method of exercising your gifts, chapters xii. xiv. they used, because Enoch's prophecy concerning the coming of God In all these ye ought to have a regard to the good of your neigh. to judge and punish the wicked began with these words, as we learn bours, that ye may not occasion each other to sin.
from Jude, who quotes the first sentence of that prophecy, ver. 14.
23 Tho grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be
23 May the favour and assistance of our Lord Jesus Christ be
with you who love him. 24 My love' re with you all in Christ Je 24 My love be with you all who love Christ Jesus. And in tessus. Ainen. (See Eph. vi. 24. note 2.) timony of my sincerity in this, and in all the things I have written, I
say Amen. Wherefore, since the apostle denounced this corse against the man, And B. Pearce supposes he is right in that conjecture, becanse in who, while he professed subjection to Christ, was secretly alienated the conclusion of the second epistle it is, á 727W TOU 0:00 pusta, from him in his heart, it is as if he had said, Though such a person's the love of God be with you.' But alterations in the sacred text, wickedness cannot be discovered and punished by the church, yet without the authority of ancient MSS. are never to be admitted. De the Lord at his coming will find it out, and punish him with eternal sides, there is a great propriety and beauty in this manner of ending perdition. This terrible curse the apostle wrote in his epistle to the an epistle, in which the apostle had so sharply reproved the Corin. Corinthians, because many of the faction, but especially their leader, thians. By assuring them of his love, he convinced them that all had shewn great alienation of mind from Christ. And he wrote it the severe things he had written proceeded from his anxiety for with his own hand, to shew how serious he was in the denunciation. their eternal welfare, and thereby removed the prejudices which Estius says, from this example, and from the Anathemas pro his reproofs might otherwise have raised in their minds.-Le Clerc's nounced Gal. i. 8, 9. arose the practice of the ancient general coun conjecture, mentioned above, that the transcribers of the New cils, of adding to their decisions, or definitions of doctrines, Ana Testament have in this passage, by mistake, written MOT for EOY, themas against them who denied these doctrines. See Buxtorff's is one of the many instances which might be produced, of conjec. Loxie. Chaldaicum, p. 827. 1243.
tural emendations of the sacred text, proposed by bold critics, Ver. 24. My love be with you all. 1-Le Clerc suspects that mor which, instead of improving, really inar the sense and beauty of is a unistako of the transcriber for oor, the abbreviation of sor. the passages into which they would have them introduced.
part in their attachment to him, and to separate the rest
from the false teacher who had led them so far astray. Sect. I.— Of St. Paul's Design in writing his Second To understand this epistle rightly, the reader must reEpistle to the Corinthians.
collect, that as Titus spent some time in Corinth after
delivering the apostle's first letter, he had an opportunity Walex the apostle sent his first letter to the church at to make himself acquainted, not only with the state of Corinth, he resolved to remain in Ephesus till the fol- the sincere part of the church, but with the temper and lowing Pentecost, (1 Cor. xvi. 8.), that Titus, who carried behaviour of the faction. Wherefore, when he gave the his letter, might have time to return, and bring him an apostle an account of the good disposition of the church, account of the manner in which it was received by the he no doubt at the same time informed him concerning Corinthians. But the riot of Demetrius happening soon the faction, that some of them still continued in their after it was sent away, the apostle found it necessary to opposition to him, and in their attachment to the falsc avoid the fury of the rioters and of the idolatrous rabble, teacher; and that that impostor was going on in his evil who were all greatly enraged against him, for having practices. Farther, Titus, by conversing with the faction, turned so many of the inhabitants of Asia from the esta- having learned the arguments and objections by which blished idolatry. Wherefore, leaving Ephesus, he went their leaders endeavoured to lessen the apostle's authorto Troas, a noted seaport town to the north of Ephesus, ity, logether with the scoffing speeches which they used where travellers, coming from Europe into Asia, comoon to bring him into contempt, we may believe that he rely landed. Here he proposed to employ himself in preach- hearsed all these matters to him. Being thus made acing the gospel of Christ, (2 Cor. ii. 12.), till Titus should quainted with the state of the Corinthian church, St. Paul arrive from Corinth. But Titus not coming at the time judged it fit to write to them this second letter. And appointed, St. Paul began to fear that the Corinthians that it might have the greater weight, he sent it to them had used him ill, and had disregarded the letter which by Titus, the bearer of his former cpistle, 2 Cor. viii. 17, he delivered to them. These fears so distressed the 18.—In this second letter, the apostle artfully introduced apostle, that notwithstanding his preaching at Troas was the arguments, objections, and scoffing speeches, by attended with uncommon success, he left that city and which the faction were endeavouring to bring him into went forward to Macedonia, expecting to find Titus. contempt; and not only confuted them by the most solid But in this expectation he was disappointed. Titus was reasoning, but even turned them against the false teacher not in Macedonia when the apostle arrived. He there. himself, and against the faction, in such a manner as to fore resolved to wait in that country, till Titus should render them ridiculous. In short, by the many delicate come and inform him how the Corinthians stood affected but pointed ironies with which this epistle abounds, the towards their spiritual father. It seems he judged it im- apostle covered his adversaries with shame, and shewed prudent to visit them till he knew their state.—In Ma- the Corinthians that he excelled in a talent which the cedonia St. Paul had many conflicts with the idolaters, Greeks greatly admired.—But while St. Paul thus point(2 Cor. vii. 5.), who were greatly enraged against him, edly derided the faction and its leaders, he bestowed just as all the other idolaters were, for opposing both the ob- commendations on the sincere part of the church, for jects and the rites of their worship. These fightings, their persevering in the doctrine he had taught them, and joined with his fears for Titus, and his uncertainty con- for their ready obedience to his orders concerning the cerning the disposition of the Corinthians, exceedingly incestuous person. And, to encourage them, he told distressed the apostle at this time. But his uneasiness them, that having boasted of them to Titus, he was glad was at length happily removed by the arrival of Titus, to find his boasting well founded in every particular. and by the agreeable accounts which he gave him of the The Corinthian church being composed of persons of obedience of the greatest part of the Corinthians, in ex such opposite characters, the apostle, in writing to them, communicating the incestuous person; at which solemn was under the necessity of suiting his discourse to them, action Titus may have been present. Much encouraged according to their different characters. And therefore, therefore by the good news, the apostle wrote to the Co. if we apply to the whole church of Corinth, the things winthian church this second letter, to confirm the sincere in the two epistles which apparently were directed to the
whole church, but which were intended only for a part of idolatrous feasts, in the temples of their gods, he hath it, we shall think these epistles full of inconsistency, if not shewed us the obligation Christians are under, in all their of contradiction. But if we understand these things ac- actions, not to regard their own interest and pleasure only, cording as the apostle really meant them, every appear- but to consult the good of their brethren also; and that ance of inconsistency and contradiction will be removed. they are at no time by their example, even in things For he himself hath directed us to distinguish the sincere indifferent, to lead their weak and scrupulous brethren part of the Corinthians from the faction, 2 Cor. i. 14. into sin.-In like manner, when he reproved the Corin* Ye have acknowledged us in part,' that is, a part of you thians for eating the Lord's supper in an improper manhave acknowledged that we are your boasting.'-Chap. ner, he gave such an account of that holy institution, as ii. 5. • Now if a certain person hath grieved me, he hath shews, not only its true nature and design, but the views not grieved me except by a part of you, that I may not also, and the dispositions, with which it ought to be perlay a load on you all.' It is therefore plain, that the mat- formed.--Finally, the arguments by which the apostle ters in the two epistles of the Corinthians which appear excited the Corinthians to make the collection for the inconsistent, are not really so; they belong to different saints in Judea, who, at the time these epistles were writpersons. For example, the many commendations be- ten, were in great distress, and the rules by which he wishstowed on the Corinthians in these epistles, belong only to ed them to direct themselves in making these collections, the sincere part of them. Whereas, the sharp reproofs, are of great and perpetual use for animating the disciples the pointed ironies, and the severe threatenings of pun- of Christ to perform works of charity with liberality and ishment found in the same epistles, are to be understood cheerfulness, as addressed to the faction, and more especially to the To the things above mentioned we may add, that the teacher who headed the faction. And thus by discrimi- epistles to the Corinthians, though suited to their peculiar nating the members of the Corinthian church according circumstances, may be read by the disciples of Christ in to their true characters, and by applying to each the pas- every age with the greatest profit, because they contain sages which belonged to them, every appearance of con matters of importance not to be found anywhere else in tradiction vanishes.
scripture. Such as the long account given in the first
epistle of the spiritual men, and of the nature, operation, Sect. II.—Of the Matters contained in the Epistles to and uses of their gifts, and of the way in which they ex
the Corinthians ; and of their Usefulness to the ercised their gifts for the confirmation of the gospel, and Church in every Age.
the building of the church ; whereby the rapid progress
of the gospel in the first and following ages, and the St. Paul's intention, in his Epistles to the Corinthians, growth of the Christian church to its present greatness, is being to break the faction which the false teacher had shewn to be, not the effect of natural causes, but the work formed in their church in opposition to him, and to con- of the Spirit of God.—The proof of the resurrection of fute the calumnies which that teacher and his adherents Christ from the dead, the great foundation of the faith were industriously propagating for discrediting him as and hope of Christians, is nowhere formally set forth in an apostle, many of the things contained in these epistles scripture, but in the xeth chapter of the first epistle to were necessarily personal to him and to the faction. Ne- the Corinthians, where many of the witnesses who saw vertheless, we are not on that account to think lightly of Christ after his resurrection are appealed to by name, and these writings, as fancying them of little use now to the the times and places of his appearing to them are particuchurch of Christ. The things in them which are mostlarly mentioned ; and their veracity is established by the personal and particular, occasioned the apostle to write grievous sufferings, sometimes ending in death, which instructions and precepts, which are of the greatest use they sustained for witnessing the resurrection of Christ.to the church in every age. For example, in answering In the same chapter, by the most logical reasoning, the the calumnies by which the faction endeavoured to dis- resurrection of all the dead at the last day, is shewn to credit him as an apostle, he was led to mention facts which be necessarily connected with Christ's resurrection ; so demonstrate him to have been an apostle, commissioned that if he hath been raised, they will be raised also.hy Christ to direct the faith and practice of all the mem There likewise the apostle hath given a circumstantial bers of the church :_Such as his having wrought miracles account of the resurrection of the righteous, and hath for converting the Corinthians, and his having imparted described the nature and properties of the body with to them spiritual gifts after they believed ; his having which they are to rise ; from which it appears, that by preached the gospel to them without receiving any reward the reunion of their spirits with their glorious bodies, from them-not even the small reward of maintenance their happiness will be rendered complete and everlasting. while he preached to them; his having endured innu. These great discoveries made in the first epistle to the merable hardships in the long journeys which he under- Corinthians, impressed the minds of the disciples of Christ took for the sake of spreading the gospel, and heavy per so strongly in the early ages, that they resolutely suffered secutions in every country from enemies and opposers; 1 the bitterest deaths with a rapturous joy, rather than reCor. iv. 11, 12.; 2 Cor. iv. 8. xi. 23. ; his rapture into nounce their Master, and their hope of a glorious immorthe third heaven ; with a variety of other facts and cir- tality.--And, to name no more instances, by the compacumstances respecting himself, which we should not have rison which the apostle hath instituted, in the ind chapter known, had it not been for the calumnies of the Corin- of the second epistle to the Corinthians, between the inthian faction, and of the Judaizing teachers, who infested spiration of the apostles the ministers of the gospel, and the church at Corinth, and other churches, (see Pref. to the inspiration of Moses the minister of the law, he hath Galat. Sect. 3.), but which, now that they are known, shewn, that the inspiration of the apostles was far more give us the fullest assurance of his apostleship, and add perfect than the inspiration of Moses ; so that, by this disthe greatest weight to his writings. Next, in reproving covery, the apostle hath admirably displayed the excellence the faction for their misdeeds, the apostle hath explained of the gospel revelation, and raised its authority to the the general principles of religion and morality, in such a highest pitch. manner, that they may be applied for regulating our con Before this section is concluded, it may be proper to duct in cases of the greatest importance ; and hath deli. observe, that from the epistles to the Corinthians, and vered rules and advices which, if followed, will have the from Paul's other epistles, we learn that he was the great happiest influence on our temper. For instance, when object of the hatred of all the false teachers in the first he rebuked the faction for joining the heathens in their age, but especially of the Judaizers. Nor is it any won.