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favouring his notions of predestination, election, witch- them. It is true, their translation was often corrected in craft, familiar spirits, &c. But these, it is probable, were the editions of the English Bible, which were published their own opinions as well as the king's.--5. That their from time to time. But the corrections were made chiefly translation is partial, speaking the language of, and giving in the phraseology. The alteration of the English lanauthority to one sect. But this, perhaps, was owing to the guage made it necessary, in every revisal of the translarestraint they were laid under by those who employed tion, to substitute modern words and phrases in place of them.-6. That where the original words and phrases ad- those which were becoming obsolete. But few alterations mitted of different translations, the worse translations, by were made in the sense, except in the passages which had plurality of voices, was put into the text, and the better a relation to the popish controversy, which, on that acwas often thrown into the margin.--7. That notwithstand- count, were considered with more care. Wherefore, each ing all the pains taken in correcting this and the former new edition being little different from the preceding one, editions of the English Bible, there still remain many pas none of them were esteemed new translations, as is plain sages inistranslated, either through negligence or want of from the public acts prohibiting the use of the English knowledge ; and that to other passages improper additions Bibles. For, in these acts, they are all called Tyndal are made, which pervert the sense ; as Matt. xx. 23. and Coverdale's Translation. where, by adding the words it shall be given, it is insi To conclude :-If Tyndal and Coverdale's translation nuated, that some other person than the Son will distribute was made from the Vulgate Latin, and if the subsequent rewards at the day of judgment.
English translations, as they have been called, were only Such are the objections which have been made to the corrected editions of their version, and if the corrections king's translation by the protestants. They are mentioned made from time to time in the different editions, respected here as historical facts. How far they are just lies with the language more than the sense, is it to be thought the reader to consider. The objections made by the pa strange, that many of the errors of that translation, espe. pists were the same with those which were made to the cially those copied from the Vulgate, have been continued former translations; and particularly, that several texts are ever since, in all the editions of the English Bible ? Even mistranslated, from the translators' aversion to the doc- that which is called the King's translation, though, in trines and usages of the church of Rome.
general, much better than the rest, being radically the If the reader desires more full information concerning same, is not a little faulty, as it was not thoroughly and the English translations of the Bible, he may consult impartially corrected by the revisers. It is, therefore, by Anthony Johnson's historical account, published at Lon no means such a just representation of the inspired origidon in 1730 ; also John Lewis's complete history of the nals as merits to be implicitly relied on for determining several translations of the Bible in English, 2d edit. pub- the controverted articles of the Christian faith, and for lished at London in 1739. From which treatises, most quieting the dissensions which have rent the church. of the facts relating to the English translations of the Bible mentioned in this section are taken.
Sect. III.—Of the Principles on which the Translation Since the commencement of the present century, seve
now offered to the Public is formed. ral English translations of the gospels and epistles have been published by private hands. But they are little dif The history of the ancient and modern versions of the ferent in the sense from the king's translation ; or, if they Scriptures, given in the preceding sections, must have differ, it is occasioned by their giving the sense of a few convinced every unprejudiced reader, that a translation of passages, not in a different translation, but in paraphrases the sacred writings, more agreeable to the original, and which do not truly express the meaning of the original. more intelligible and unambiguous than any hitherto exAnd even where the meaning is truly expressed, it cannot tant, is much wanted. In this persuasion, the author be said that the translation is improved by these para- formed the design of translating the apostolical epistles, phrases, at least in those instances, where the sense could although he was sensible the attempt would be attended have been represented with equal strength and perspicuity with great difficulties, and be liable to many objections. in a literal version.
But objections were made to Jerome's corrections of the From the foregoing account of the English translations Italic version of the New Testament. And in an age of the Bible, it appears, that they are not different trans much more enlightened, when the correction of the lations, but different editions of Tyndal and Coverdale's Bishops' Bible was proposed, there were some who did translation. appears likewise, that Tyndal and Cover- not approve of the design, fearing bad consequences would dale's translation, of which the rest are copies, was not follow the alteration of a book rendered sacred in the eyes made from the originals, but from the Vulgate Latin. For of the people by long use. On both occasions, however, as they did not say in the title pages that their translation these objections were justly disregarded, for the sake of was made from the originals, and as Coverdale, in par- the advantages expected from a translation of the inspired ticular, declared in his prefaces to Hollybushe’s New Tes- writings more consonant to the original. Wherefore, that tament, that he swerved as little as possible from his Latin the reader may be enabled to conjecture, whether, in the text, it is reasonable to think that Tyndal and he made following version of the apostolical epistles, the alterations their translation from that text. Besides, it did not suit that are made in the translation be of sufficient importance their purpose to translate from the originals. The Vul to justify the author in publishing it, he will now explain gate Latin text being the only word of God that was then the principles on which it is formed, in such a manner as known to the people, and even to many of the clergy, these to give a general idea of the number and nature of these translators knew, that the nearer their version approached alterations. At the same time, to remove such prejudices to the Latin Bible, they would be the less offensive; a as may remain in the minds of the serious against altering consideration which Coverdale acknowledges, in his pre- the common translation, he will mention a few of the faces, had great weight with him.
many advantages which will be derived from a new transAs Tyndal and Coverdale made their translation from lation of the Scriptures, skilfully and faithfully executed. the Vulgate, they could hardly avoid adopting a number Sensible that the former translators have been misled by of its errors. Some that were palpable they corrected, es- copying those who went before them, the author, to avoid pecially when the sense of the passage suggested the cor the errors which that method leads to, hath made his rection. But in translating the more difficult texts which translation from the original itself. And that it might they did not understand, they implicitly followed the Vul- be a true image of the original, he hath, in making it, gate, as Luther, Erasmus, and others had done before observed the following rules :- 1. He hath translated
the Greek text as literally as the genius of the two lan. lation, dictated by the Spirit of God. Many, therefore, of guages would permit. And because the sense of particular these Hebrew forms of expression are retained in this passages sometimes depends on the order of the words in translation, because they run with a peculiar grace in our ihe original, the author, in his translation, hath placed the language, and are more expressive than if they were English words and clauses, where it could be done to ad turned into modern phrase ; besides, having long had a vantage, in the order which the corresponding words and place in our Bibles, they are well understood by the peoclauses hold in the original. By thus strictly adhering to ple.-Secondly, There are in Scripture some Hebraisms the Greek text, where it could be done consistently with quite remote from the ideas and phraseology of modern perspicuity, the emphasis of the sacred phraseology is pre- nations, which would not be understood if literally transserved, and the meaning of the inspired penman is better lated. Of these, the meaning only is given in this version. represented, than it can be in a free translation, (See p. – Thirdly, There is a kind of Hebraism, which consists in 11. note.) To these advantages add, that, in this literal the promiscuous use of the numbers of the nouns, and of method, the difficult passages being exhibited in their the tenses of the verbs. These the author hath translated genuine form, the unlearned have thereby an opportunity in the number and tense which the sense of the passages of exercising their own ingenuity in finding out their requires.-Fourthly, The inspired writers being Jews, meaning ; whereas, in a free translation, the words of the naturally used the Greek particles in all the latitude of inspired writer being concealed, no subject of examination signification proper to the corresponding particles in their is presented to the unlearned but the translator's sense of own language ; for which reason, they are, in this transthe passage, which may be very different from its true lation, interpreted in the same latitude. of the two last meaning.
mentioned kinds of Hebraism, many examples are given 2. As the Greek language admits an artificial order of in Prel. Ess. IV. the words of a sentence, or period, which the English 4. In St. Paul's epistles there are many elliptical senlanguage does not allow, in translating many passages of tences, which the persons to whom he wrole could easily the apostolical epistles it is necessary to place the words supply ; because they were familiar to them, and because in their proper connexion, without regarding the order the genders of the Greek words directed those who under. in which they stand in the original. This method the stood the language, to the particular word or words which author hath followed in his translations where it was ne are wanting to complete the sense. Wherefore, no transcessary, and thereby hath obtained a better sense of many lation of St. Paul's epistles, into a language which does passages* than that given in our English version, where not mark the genders by the termination of the words, will the translators have followed the order of the Greek be understood by the unlearned, unless the elliptical senwords, or have construed them improperly.
tences are completed. In this translation, therefore, the 3. With respect to the Hebraismst found in the Scrip author hath completed the defective passages; and the tures, it is to be observed, first, That as the Greek lan words which he hath added for that purpose, he hath printguage, in its classical purity, did not furnish phrases fit to ed in a different character,& that, from the sense of the convey just ideas of spiritual matters, these could only be passages, the reader may judge whether they are rightly expressed intelligibly in the language of the ancient reve. supplied.-On this head it is proper to mention, that, by a • The following are examples of the propriety of translating some
close attention to St. Paul's style, the author hath discopassages according to a just, though not an obvious construction of
vered that the words wanting to complete his sentences are the original words :-Matt, xix. 4 That he which made them at the commonly found, either in the clause which precedes, or beginning, made them male and female. In this translation our Lord's argument does not appear. But the original, óra ó 7.05725
which follows the elliptical expression. He hath, there47' up% 5 5ev xzo JALUETOIVOIV AUTOUs, rightly construed, stands fore, in his translation, for the most part, supplied the thus: broszoonozÇ KUTOU5, **'*6X45:TOMOS ETIV *** Srlv, which,
words that are wanting from the context itself. S literally translated, gives this meaning, That he who made them, at the beginning made a male and a female.' According to this In translating the apostolical epistles, the author having translation, our Lord's reasoning is clear and conclusive. At the carefully observed the four rules above mentioned, he beginning, God made only one male and one female of the human species, to show, that adultery and polygamy are contrary to his in.
hopes his translation hath thereby become, not only tention in creating man. See Mal. ij. 14, 15.-Matt. xxvii. 66. 6. do more accurate, but more intelligible, than the common πορευθέντες ασφαλισαντο τον ταφον, σφραγισαντες τον λιθον, μετα version ; and that the unlearned, who read the epistles in T15 *OUT TW&*5: 'So they going away, made the scpulchre sure with the watch, having sealed the stone.'-I Cor. xvi. 2. K&T* ji*v *6.
his translation, will understand them better than by readGaτων εκαστος υμων παε εαυτώ τιθετο θησαυριζαν ότι αν ευοδοται, construed will stand thus: Kατα μιας σας και των εκστος ιμαν τι9ιτω Concerning the manner of printing the words that are supplied TO **' s xuto (sup. ***') & owodwTv, 920 augrue, 'On the first to complete the sentences, the reader is desired to take notice, that day of every week, let each of you lay somewhat by itself, accord. the words supplied by our translators are in this printed in Roman ing as he inay have prospered, putting it into the treasury, that capitals, to show that they belong to the version in common use. when I come there may be no collections.'-NIcb, xi. 3. 'So that But if the words supplied belong to the new translation, they are things which are seen were not made of things which do appear.' printed in capitals of the Italic form. Farther, it is to be observed, Here our translators have followed Beza. But the original, rightly ihat all the words and clauses of the new translation which are construed, stands thus: E.5 TO T*0257944***, 7190viv • !* **** diflerent from the common English version are printed in Italic Oven, 'So that the things which are seen were made of things characters, that the reader may at once see in what particulars the which did not appear;' that is, were made of nothing. See more translations agree, and in what they differ. examples, p. 4.
$ Of the author's method of supplying the elliptical sentences in Modern critics contend, that in a translation of the Scriptures St. Paul's epistles, the following are a few examples, by which the the Hebraisons should not be rendered literally, but that wouls and reader may julge of the rest.- Rom. ii. 27. By supplying the words phrases, expressive of their meaning, should be substituted in their thonigh a Jeir from the beginning of ver. 28. the translation will places. This, it must be acknowledged, is a proper method of trans run thus: Judge thee a transgressor of the law, though a Jew by lating such Hebraisms as are not understood by the vulgar, if the the literal circumcision. 28. For he is not a Jer uho, &c.-Rom. learned are agreed as to their signification. For example, because it iv. 13. By supplying the word righteousness from the end of the is universally acknowledged, that Rev. ii. 23. 'I ain he who search. verse, the translation will be, Nou not through a righteousness of eth the reins and the heart,' signifies, 'I am he who searcheth the lau, was the promise to Abraham and to his seed.--Rom, v. 16. inward thoughts and dispositions, the passage may with propriety By supplying the word sentence from the second clause of the be so translated But when the meaning of an Hebraism is disa verse, the translation of the first clause will be, Also, not as the puted, and its literal sense is made the foundation of a controverted sentence, through the one who sinned, is the free gift: for rerily doctrine, such as Rom. ix. 18. 'wborn he will, he hardeneth;' what the sentence, &c.-Rom. vii. 21. O, uretched man ihat I am, tcho the translator supposes to be the meaning of the expression should shall delirer me from the body of this death? 25. I thank God, who by no means be substituted in the translation. For candour re delivers me, through Jesus Christ our Lord. ----James ii. 13. Judg. quires, that in such cases the translator should keep close to the ment, without mercy, will be to him ucho showed no mercy: but words of the original, if they can be literally translated in an intelli mercy will erult over judgment. This latter clause is evidently in. gible manner, and should leave it to theolgoians to settle the mean complete, and must be supplied from the former, thus: But mercy ing of the Hebraism, by fair reasoning from the context, and from will eruli orer judgment, to him who shewed merey. In complei. other passages relative to the same subject; because, in this ing inconsequent sentences, the sense likewise directs a translamelhod, its meaning will at length be successfully established. tor. See examples, Rom. v. 12. 2 Pet. ii. 1-6.
ing them in their ordinary Bible. Farther, though he or even a part of a sentence is paraphrased, the meaning hath often deviated from the beaten road, the diversity of of the text very probably will be altered, if not entirely his translation will not be offensive, because, throughout lost; consequently the version, in these passages, can the whole, he hath endeavoured to preserve that beauti. have no authority. ful simplicity of style for which the Scriptures are so It is time now to inform the reader, that this translajustly admired, together with those allusions to ancient tion of the apostolical epistles differs not a little from the manners and historical facts, implied in the phraseology former versions, because therein meanings are affixed to a by which the age and nation of the authors of these writ- number of Greek words and phrases diverse from those ings are known. In short, by observing the rules men. given to them in the same passages by other translators. tioned, the author hath endeavoured to make his transla- Yet the translation of these passages is not the less literal tion as exact an image of the original as he could; not on that account. Persons conversant in the language only because, in that method, it acquires the authority know, that many Greek words have more meanings than which a translation of writings divinely inspired ought to one, all of them equally literal, though not equally comhave, but because, by a faithful exhibition of the Scrip- mon; and that the skill of a translator is shown in his tures in their original dress, there arises such a strong choosing from among these different literal significations, internal proof of their antiquity and authenticity, as far the one that best suits the scope of the passage where it is overbalances any inconveniences resulting from a few found. And if he chooses judiciously, his translation will pleonasms, uncouth expressions, and grammatical ano be more truly literal than those in which the more ordinamalies, all common in ancient writings, and retained in ry significations of the Greek words have been adopted, if this translation of the apostolical epistles, for the purpose these significations do not accord so well with the writer's of shewing the Scriptures in their unadorned simplicity. design. The truth of this remark will appear, especially in Yet many modern translators, disregarding that advan- those passages of the new translation, where the Greek tage, and aiming at an imaginary elegance of style, have particles have meanings affixed to them different from departed from the words and phrases of the original, in those given them in other versions, but agreealıly to their such a manner as to convert their translations of particu- acknowledged use elsewhere in Scripture. For, however lar passages into paraphrases, which exhibit a meaning much it hath been overlooked hitherto, it is certain that, often different from that of the inspired writers; a fault in a version of St. Paul's epistles, the connexion and profrom which our translators of the Bible are not altogether priety of his reasonings will either appear, or be lost, acfree.-It must be acknowledged, however, that there are cording to the manner in which the particles, which concome sentences in these invaluable writings which cannot nect the different parts of his discourse, are translated. be literally translated ; and therefore, to represent their The author, therefore, to lay a firm foundation for the just true meaning, recourse must be had to the paraphrastic translation of the Scriptures, hath been at great pains, in method. But these are the only passages, in books divinely Prelim. Ess. IV. to establish the uncommon significations inspired, which should be paraphrased in the translation. which, in some passages, he hath affixed to the Greek
Among the free translators of the Scripture, Sebastian words and phrases, by examples brought from the ScripCastalio, some time professor of the Greek language at tures themselves, or from approved Greek writers. In the Basil, is the most eminent. But whatever praise he may same essay he hath offered some grammatical remarks, by deserve for the general propriety and conciseness of his which the peculiarities of style observable in the writings of translation of the New Testament, and for the purity of the Jews are illustrated. But what hath been one of the his Latin, it is certain that, by aiming at a classical and chief objects of his attention in that essay was, by examples polished style, he hath often lost sight of the original, and taken from the Scriptures themselves, to explain the meanhath given what he imagined to be its meaning, in words ing and powers of the Greek particles, as used by the sanot at all corresponding to the Greek text ; so that his cred writers. Some of these examples, at first sight, may translation of a number of passages hath little relation to perhaps appear inconclusive ; because the word, for the the original, consequently is often erroneous.* Where- sake of which the example is produced, may, in that pasfore, neither his nor Erasmus's, nor any other free trans sage, be taken in its ordinary acceptation. Yet the other lation of the Scriptures, can be relied on; because if examples, in which it can have no meaning but that which a material word in the original is omitted in the transla- the author hath given it, and which is acknowledged by tion, or if a word not in the original is added, without marking it as added, or if words not corresponding to ly; Rom. ii. 19. A.850*62.05 Tom: Doctorem imperitorum : A the original are used,t much more if a whole sentence,
teacher of the unskilful. This translation of the clause Erasmus
gave, on the pretence that no one teaches babes. But he had for. • Or Castalio's free translation of the Scriptures, wherein he hath gotten that the Jews gave to the Gentiles that appellation, with the misrepresented their meaning, all those passages are examples, in
others mentioned by the apostle, to shew their contempt of them; which he hath translated the word sygio. by genii, and the word and did not know, I suppose, that the apostle, by introducing these 62750** by laro, and ExTTITux by lotio, and szigo by respublica, contemptuous names in this passage, intended to paint the intole. and surzy wg zo by collegia, and 9005 Heb. i. 8. applied to the Son, by rable arrogance of the Jews in a lively manner.
This example Dirus, and popatre, Rom. xii. 6. by dirinatio, and so was by deas. shows, that every translation of the Scriptures ought to be as lit11 0s.--Other examples of more importance are, Luke vii. 35. Kz. eral as possible : because those who afterwards study them with
TAV TOKYOV XUTMS; Ita suis omnibus aliena care, inay find proprieties in the original expressions, altogether et sapientia.-Rom. i. 17. A1xiuturnyre SEOU SV CUTW & TOXHAUTE overlooked by the free translator. T8T26 :X TITT 5115 TIT.9. Nam per il divina justitia ereitur per.
1 of the influence which the right translation of the Greek parpetuumula fide.-Rom. vii. 5. Τα παθήματα των αμαρτιών, τα δια του ticles hath to render the apostle's reasonings clear and conclusive, ops: Peccatorum perturbationes a lege orientes.--Roin. xiv. 1. Tov take lær for an example. This particle sometimes signifies for, δε ασθενουντα τη επιστο και προσλαμβανύσε, μη εις διακρίσεις διαλογι. sometimes wherefore. Now, if it is translated in the former sense, ww: Si quis autem imbecilla fide esi, huic, nulla cum animi, dubi. where it hath the latter, the scheme of the apostle's discourse will tatione, opilulemini.--2 Cor. i. 24. Ouz. Óti Xuervo Meow who y Tug On
be reversed; because that will be a reason, which was meant as 1015 m). Az ouesegus, 554454 TMS %*6*5 jawv: Non quod vobis fidu an inference. (Compare the common English version of Rom. ciam deroge mus, sed consulimus vestro gaudio.- 2 Cor. vi. 12. Ou iv. 2, 3. Heb. vi 1. 11. 18. with the new translation of these pasστενοχωρεισε 5ν ημιν, στενοχωρισθο δε εν τοις σπλαχνοις υμων: sages.) In like manner, the other Greek particles having different Si ros estis angusti, non erga nos estis angusti, sed erga hominem significations, is, in a translation of the epistles the same sense is cui esiis intimi.-1 Thess. i. 11. Kto name on T759eudox **v *y*30. uniforinly given to the same particle, or if one of its senses is subcum, ** regsu TITTS ev Qurales: Perficiatque ut bonitulem, et stituted for another, it will render the translation erroneous. Of fidei opus, et libentissime, el fortiter persequuinini, atque absolva. this, Rom. viji. 4. “That the righteousness of the law may be fultis. Acts v. 12.-4.* de TWFzewy Twv 706TOWY, 75VT! On sex, filled (sv) in us,' is a remarkable example. For this translation re**1 TIPUT*, *VT Å ** 701A%Apostolorum autem operâ, multa presents men as absolutely passive in fulfilling the righteousness vulgo monstrosè, prodigiosque fiebant. This strange translation of the law. Whereas the true literal translation is, That the conveys a most improper idea of the apostle's miracles.
righteousness of the law may be fulfilled (sv) by us, who walk not † The following is an example from Erasmus's version, where the according to the flesh.' Many other examples might be given meaning of a passage is perverted by translating a single word free. but these may suffice,
our translators to be its meaning in these passages, make it will be of great use in guarding the unlearned against probable that, in the first mentioned examples likewise, it errors, which have a tendency to perplex their minds, hath the uncommon signification contended for, especially and make them careless of the duties of morality. (See if, so understood, it agrees better with the context.-Tnere Rom. vii. 12. to the end; and 2 Cor. iii. 5. new transare, however, two or three instances of uncommon signifi- lation.)—4. A just translation of the Scriptures, by excations given to words, for which the author can produce hibiting the doctrines of the gospel in their genuine simno authority. But he contends that the context leads to plicity, will effectually show the futility of the cavils of these significations of the words; and that, in giving them infidels, which, for the most part, are founded on wrong such signification, he is supported by critics and dictionary views of the doctrines of revelation. These certainly are writers, who prove the uncommon significations which objects, which all who have the interests of Christianity they affix to some words, only by producing a single at heart must wish to see attained ; objects of far greater passage from an approved author, in which it cannot be importance to the welfare of the world than those which otherwise understood. See examples, 2 Pet. i. 20. note. engross the attention of a frivolous age.
Many of the alterations introduced into this new trans The text of the Greek New Testament followed in this lation of the epistles may perhaps be thought needless, translation, is the one in common use ; which, because as making but little difference in the sense of the passages. it was settled according to the opinion of learned men in Yet it is a sufficient justification of these alterations, that different countries, who compared a great number of they render the language of the translation more gram MSS., and fixed on the readings which appeared to them matical and modern, and that they approach nearer to the best supported, the author hath not attempted to alter. words of the original than the translation in our English Only because the oldest MSS. are written without any Bible. A number of them, however, on a nearer inspec- distinction of the words by intervening spaces, and of the tion, will be found to preserve the emphasis of the origi- sentences by commas and colons, and without the spirits nal expressions, and to show the propriety of the reason. and accents,f the author hath altered the accenting and ing, and even to convey important meanings which are pointing of the common edition in a few instances, in or. lost in the common version.*
der to obtain a better and more perspicuous sense of the By bringing the translation of the Scriptures as close passages, than that which arises from the common pointto the original as the idiom of the language will allow, ing.–Farther, although by the care with which other many advantages will be obtained, of which the follow. MSS. and versions have been collated, since the text of ing are the chief :-1. A translation which exhibits, not the New Testament was settled, more various readings the glosses of commentators, but the very words of the have been procured, none of these readings are followed original, as nearly as can be done in a different language, in this translation, except the few which our English will afford the unlearned the greatest satisfaction, by Bible hath adopted, and which shall be mentioned in the making them see with their own eyes the heavenly light notes. The author's attachment to the common text of truth, and will give the translation that authority which hath not proceeded from an implicit acquiescence in the a translation of the word of God ought to have with all opinion of the learned men who settled it, but from a who read it.—2. By a just literal translation, which ex. persuasion that the readings which they adopted are, for presses the true meaning of the sacred writings, those the most part, better supported by MSS. and agree betcontroversies concerning the articles of our faith, which ter with the context, than either the readings which they have arisen from a wrong translation and application of rejected, or than those which have been obtained since particular texts, will be cut up by the roots; and the their time. Soine of the rejected readings, indeed, disciples of Christ, discerning the truth, will be led into a more liberal way of thinking in religious matters than
† Although the distinction of words in MSS. by spaces, and of
sentences by points, was known in Cicero's time, it was not much formerly, and, of course, will entertain charity towards
used, except by the Roman lawyers in public instruments. (Clerici those who differ from them, the want of which hath oc Ar. Crit. p. min. sect. 1. c. x. 7. 9.) In MS. copies of the Scriptures casioned numberless evils in the church.-3. An accurate,
these distinctions were not used at all, till Jerome first attempted
them in his translations of the books of the Old Testament (ibid. perspicuous, unambiguous translation of the Scriptures, No. 5. 7.
) The MSS. of the Scriptures now remaining, the oldest of
which are more than 300 years later than Jerome's time, show, that * The following are examples of small alterations, made in the new eren then the separation of the words by spaces, and the distinction translation, which greatly improve the sense of the passages where ofthe sentences by points were not commonly used. It is evident, they are introduced, and which, at the same time, are perfectly lite. therefore, that the transcribers, who first attempted to accent and ral.-1 Cor. iii. 2. Other foundation can no man lay, than that is point the Greek New Testament, having no ancient MSS to guide laid, which is Jesus Christ.' In the original it is, és error lov58 ihem, must have been directed merely by their own opinion of the Xpertos, 'which is Jesus the Christ. For the doctrine that Jesus is meaning of the passages. The editors also who published the first tte Christ, promised in the law and the prophets, is the great founda printed copies, must have followed the same rule in accenting and tion on which the Christian church, the temple of God, is built.- pointing their editions. Wherefore, to alter the accents and points Rom. ix. 5. “From whom (6 Xerror) the Christ descended.'- Ephes. of the commonly received text, is not to alter the text of the Greek hii. 6. «That the Gentiles should be fellow heirs, and of the same Testament, but rather to restore it to its primitive truth, and ought body, and partakers of his promise in Christ. In the original it is, to be admitted, if thereby a better and inore perspicuous sense ofihe ειναι τα εθνη συγκληeoνομα, και συστημα, και συμμετοχα της εταγ passages is obtained. See examples, Rom. ii. 8, 9. vii. 25. viii
. 20, 21. gonda, 'That the Gentiles should be joint heirs, and a joint body, 2 Cor. ix. 10. xii. 11. xiii. 23. new translation. and joint partakers of his promise in Christ ;' namely, with the Jews. 1 On the revival of learning in Europe, some of the most eminent For the apostle's meaning is, thal, under the gospel, the Gentiles are men of the age employed themselves in collating all the MSS. of the equally entitled with the Jews to all its privileges, and to all the pro. Greek New Testainent which they could find, for the purpose of mises of God.-1 Thess. iv. 16. With the voice of the archangel.' obtaining a correct text of these invaluable writings. This translation implies, that there is but one archangel; whereas in Among those who applied themselves to that important work, Car. the original it is, sv tav* a&xxyyraov, 'with the voice of an archan. dinal Francis Ximenes, archbishop of Toledo, and his three learned gel.'--Rom. iv. 3. For the promise that he should be the heir of the assistants, whom he had inade professors in the university of Alcaworld was not to Abraham--through the law. This translation leads la for that very purpose, were most eminent, and deserve to be first the reader to think, that Abrahain was under the law of Moses; mentioned; because they set about the work early, though the fruit whereas the expression in the original is, &o* vomov, through lau; of their labours was not communicated to the public till a number that is, through the works of any law whatever.--1 Cor. xv. 36. The of years after their edition was finished. The copy which they made last enemy that shall be destroyed is death.' This implies, that there their text was a MS, sent to them from the Vatican library, by Pope are some enemies who shall not be destroyed; whereas in the Greek Leo X. with orders not to depart from it in the least. Accordingly, it is, TX*T05,1%9808, **T*Y GITuo • Savzros, 'Death, the last ene excepting a few alterations, ihry transcribed the whole faithfully; my, shall be destroyed,.'- James iii. 8. ' But the tongue no man can namely, the Septuagint version of the Old Testament, and the Greek tame;' as if it were impossible for men to govern their own tongues ; New Testament, to the Revelation, which is wanting in the Vatican whereas in the Greek it is, Tudogorruv oudsus duvat*• -V36*** copy. This transcript they compared with a number of MSS. como & tu*72., but 'the tongue of men no one can subdue.'-1 Pet. iv. 15. of ihem furnished by the pope, and others by the cardinal himsell; "To him that is ready to judge the quick and the dead.' This trans perticularly a very ancient MS. of the epistles, seni to Ximenes from latin represents the judgment of the world as at hand when St. Rhodes; and at the saine time they marked the readings of all those Peter wrote; but in the original it is stoves izauto, who is prepared MSS. which were different from the Vatican copy. The New Tes. to judge, &c. namely, by the conmission and power which the Fa tament being finished, was printed in the year 1615. But Ximenes ther heth bestowed on him for thåt purpose.
did not choose to publish it separately from the rest of the Bille,
stand on an equal, or perhaps on a better authority than found, to have adopted them would have been to change those in the received text. But as they make no mate the received text for no purpose. The rejected readings, rial alteration in the sense of the passages where they are which alter the sense of the passages, especially those which was not completed till the year 1517, and he dying, his Bible lated the text with the king's MSS. and with the Complutensian was not given to the public till about the year 15:24.
Bible, he had admitted those readings only which were supported The next person of note who attempted to restore the true read by the greatest number of the best copies. But Mill thinks he esings of the Greek New Testament, was Erasmus, of Rotterdam. teemed those the best which agreed best with the Complutensian He, by collating five Greek MSS. and some Latin copies, amended Bible.-The MSS. which Stephen collated were 15 in number. both the Greek text and the Vulgate version, and published both, These he marked by the leuers of the Greek alphabet. Mill bath with large notes, at Basil, in the year 1516. This was the first copy given a full account of them all in his Proleg. No. 1159, &c. of the Greek New Testament that was published from the press.
In the year 1519, R. Stephen published his second Greek TestaMill tells us, that, exclusive of typographical errors, it contains ment, in the same volume with the former, and with the same above 500 wrong readings, and about 100 genuine ones.
types and preface, In this, the nuinber of the pages, and even the In the year 1518, a Greek
Testament was published at Venice by lines in every page, are exactly the same with those in his first Andreas Asulanus, Aldus's son-in-law; Aldus himself having died edition. The text also is the same, except 67 readings, of which about two years before. Certain learned men corrected this edi Mill thinks four are dubious, and of the rest he supposes 26 10 be tion, by collating it with some very ancient MSS. But its text is
genuine, which are taken, partly from the last editious, partly from similar to that of Erasmus, which was published a little before. MSS., and partly from the Complutensian Bible. Both editions have the same apparatus, and, with a few exceptions, In the year 1550, Stephen published his third Greek Testament, the same errors. Yet on the authority of the above-mentioned Mss.
printed in a large volume with great types. When he undertook the Aldin edition differs from the Erasmean in not a few places. this edition, he had 16 MSS., which some time before he had col.
In the year 1519, Erasmus published his second edition, with a lated with the Greek text twice, and did the same now a third time. translation from the Greek, and the notes greatly enlarged; printed To the gospels he prefixed that account of the lives of the evangeby Froben. It has also an index of the solecisins and other faults lists which Erasmus had inserted in his Latin translations, and 10 of the Vulgate version, which exposed Erasmus to much censure, the Acts of the Apostles, some excerpts from Euthalius's prologues and created him many enemies. Mill says the text of this edition is to the epistles, concerning St. Paul's preaching and martyrdom. much more correct than that of the former.
He also inserted the contents of each epistle; and on the margin, In the year 1521, a Greek New Testament was published at Ha marked the principal various readings of the 16 MSS. which he had genau, in which the editor professes to have followed the editions
so carefully collated.-Morinus tells us, that Beza, when forining of Aldus and Froben. Bui Mill tells us, that, on examining it, he his copy of the New Testament, borrowed these 16 MSS. and mark. found the editor had followed Erasmus's first Greek Testament even ed some readings omitted in Stephen's edition as too minute, in those readings which were corrected in the second publication. though in reality they are of use in ascertaining the text. In this
In the year 1522, Erasmus's third edition came out, printed at copy, Stephen hath departed from the text of both his former edi. Basil by Froben, in which he followed the text of his second Greek tions in 281 instances; of which Mill thinks 71 are genuine.
'The Testament, except in 118 readings, which he took from the Aldin rest are of doubtful authority, or consist of ininutiæ, concerning edition and some new MSS. which he had collated or examined: which nothing certain can be determined. Mill adds, that Stephen's And on the margin he marked about 19 readings, taken from Aldus. regard for the Complutensian Bible had now become so great, that The text in this is somewhat more correct than that in his second he resumed in this edition 31 of its readings which formerly he edition. And the famous text, 1 John v. 7. concerning the testi. had rejected; and that he adopted 27 of them on its single authority, mony of the Father, the Word, and the Spiril, is inserted in it in
contrary to the other MSS. Dr. Symonds, in his useful observa Greek. Erasmus says, he took it from a copy which he calls the tions on the expediency of revising our present English Bible, page British, and that be inserted it that there might be no handle for 136. tells us, that this is the text which King James's translators calumniating him.
chiefly used. At length, in the year 1524, the Complutensian, or Ximenes's In the year 1551, Stephen published his fourth Greek Testament Bible, was published in six vols. folio: a noble work, every way in a smaller volume, with the Vulgate version on the inward side worthy of the cardinal at whose expense it was executed, and of of the page, and Erasmus's translation on the outward.
The text Pope Leo X. &ho patronized it. The Old Testament consists of does not differ from that of his third copy, except in one word; four vols. having three columns in each page. In the first is the but it is, for the first time, divided into those verses which are now LXX. translation, according to the Vaticar copy, with an interlined commonly used. On the outward margin, the parallel places are Latin version. In the second column is the Vulgate, or Jerome's marked, together with Osiander's harmony. From this edition, or translation, corrected by the best MSS. In the third column is the rather from the preceding one, the Greek text of the New TestaHebrew text; and below are placed, in two columns, a Chaldaic ment now in common use seems to have been taken, and therefore translation, and a Latin version of that translation.—The New Tes Mill calls it Stephanica nostra, tament is in one volume: the Greek text, according to the Vatican In the year 1564, Theodore Beza published his Greek Testament, copy, in one column; and the Vulgate, or Jeroine's translation, in an with a Latin translation and notes. He tells us, that he compared other. The sixth and last volume contains a dictionary of the He the text, not only with the ancient Greek MSS., but with the Syriac brew language. There are also a variety of prologues interspersed version, and with the writings of the Greek and Latin fathers. In through the whole, of which it is needless to give an account. his dedication to Queen Elizabeth, he says, that while he was em
After the publication of the Complutensian Bible, Erasmus, in ployed in this work, Henry Stephen, Roberi's son, gave him a copy the year 1327, set forth his fourth Greek New Testainent; in form
of his father's noble edition, published in 1550, on which were ing which, he says, he made use of the Complutensian Bible. It marked the readings of about 25 MSS., and of alınost all the printed has three columns in each page. In the first is the Greek text; in copies. But Mill affirms, that the use which Beza made of these the second is Erasmus's own translation ; and in the third is the readings was not ascertain the text, but chicfly 10 give such a Vulgate version. With respect to the Greek text of this edition, turn to the Scriptures as established his own tenets; and of ibis be Erasmus professes to have followed that of the Complutensian gives various examples, (No. 139.) He adds, that Beza, in his notes, Bible. Accordingly, although the text is, in general, agreeable to adopts the expositions of the Latin, preferably to those of the that of his third edition, Frasmus thought proper to depart from it Greek fathers, because they accorded belter with his system of in 106 instances; and, instead of its readings, to substitute those of theology. the Complutensian Bible.
In the year 1569, Robert, the son of Robert Stephen, published a In the year 1531, Simon Colinæns, a Parisian printer, published Greek New Testament, in the same volume, and with the same his Greek Testament, without any preface informing the reader in kind of types wherewith his father's first and second editions were what manner he had formed his text. So that it is uncertain whe
printed, and added such of the readings of his father's third puh. ther he followed the text of any of the former printed editions, or lication as seemed to the learned of greatest importance. The text any particular M3.; or whether he chose what he judged the best is the same with that in his father's first and second copies, except readings of all the manuscript and printed copies he had examined. that he hath pted seven readings of the third. Mill tells us, that he found in it more than 150 readings, in which it In the year 1581, Beza published another edition of his Greek differs from all the former editions; and that most of them are Testament, in which he altered one or two of the erroneous readauthorized by MSS. At the same time he observes, that, from the ings which he had formerly adopted, and added some readings love of novelty, or to make the text more clear, Colinæus, upon from two MSS. of great antiquity, namely, a MS, of the Four Gosthe authority of one or two MSS. only, had sometimes departed pels and of the Acts, with the Italic translation, before it was cor. from the common readings, notwithstanding they are much better rected by Jerome. The other is the Clermont MS. of St. Paul's supported than those he hath adopted. Of this Mill gives many ex Epistles in Greek and Latin. of these MSS. Mill hath
given a full amples; and adds, that this New Testament abounds in various account in his Prolegomena. Le Clerc, in his Ars Crit. part iii. readings, and that, although a considerable number of them are sect. I. c. 16. tells us, that in the place where Beza's MB of the unsupported, yet he found 180, which, in his opinion, exhibit the Gospels differs from others, the alterations are evidently made to genuine Greek text.
render the style more agreeable to the Greek idiom; on which ac. In the year 1535, Erasmus published his fifth and last Greek count its authority is the less. His MS, of the Gospels Beza gifted Testament; the text of which is the saine with that in the former,
to the university of Cambridge, where it now remains. except in four places, where Mill thinks it exhibits the genuine read. In the year 1622, Elzevir at Leyden published a Greek New Teg. ings. In this, Erasmus apologizes for the errors of his former edi tament in a small volume, in which the text is printed with great tions.
care, agreeably to the readings of the King's MSS. and of the MSS. In the year 1546, Robert
Stephen, printer to the king of France, of the best authority-Two years after this, Elzevir published on. published his first Greek Testament in decimo sexto, with a pre. other Greek Testament, corrected, as Beza informs us, by not a few face, in which he tells us he had procured from the king's library persons eminent for learning and piety. Mill says it is elegantly some Mss, of adınirable antiquity; that from them he had formed printed, and very correct; and that, except in twelve instances, his text, in such a manner as not to have admitted a letter which the text is entirely formed on Stephen's edition of 1550. From this was not supported by the best MSS. ; that among other helps he it appears, that the learned pious men above mentioned approved had used the Complutensian Bible, whose readings he found to of the Stephanie text. agree wonderfully with the king's MSS.; in short, that having col. In the year 1658, Stephen Curcellæus, a learned unitarian, pub