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23 And that he might make known the 23 And what fault is there, if God hath long preserved these riches of his glory (sec Rom. i. 23. note 1.) vessels of wrath for this other purpose; that he might make known on the vessels of mercy,' which he had before the exceeding greatness of his goodness on the objects of his favour, prepared (ws) for glory : 2

whom, by his dealings with the Jews, he had before prepared for the

honour of becoming his people? 24 Even us whom hath called, not 24 Even 18 whom, instead of the Jews, he hath called his church only (es, 157.) among the Jews, but also (86) and people, not only among the Jews, but also among the Gentiles, among the Gentiles.

because we have believed the gospel. 25 Even as he saith by Hosea, (ii. 23.), I 25 This need not surprise the Jews: It is agreeable to what God will call that my people, which was not my saith by Hosea, 'I will have mercy on her that had not obtained people, and her beloved, who was not beloved.? mercy;' on the ten tribes whom I cast off for their idolatry : ' and

I will say to them which were not my people, Thou art my people ;'

I will call the Gentiles my people. 26 And (chap. i. 10.) it shall come to pass, 26 The calling of the Gentiles is foretold by Hosea still more in the place where it was said to them, Ye ARE plainly: And it shall come to pass, that in the countries where it not my people, there they shall be called the was said to the idolatrous Gentiles, Ye are not my people, there they sons of the living God.

shall be called the sons of the living God; the heirs of immortality,

by believing the gospel. See Rom. ix. 8. note. 27 ('Hours €, 104.) Besides, Isaiah crieth 27 Besides, the rejection of the Jews at this time is not more con(Uraz to lozaina) concerning Israel, Though trary to the promises, than the rejection of the ten tribes who were the number of the children of Israel be as the carried into captivity by the Assyrians, a rejection almost total; for sand of the sea, onlr a remnant shall be Isaiah lamenteth concerning Israel, that “though the number of the saved, (Isa. x. 22.)

children of Israel,' who are carried away captives, 'be as the sand of

the sea, only a remnant of them shall return.' 28 For, finishing and cutting short! (109ev) 28 For, as the same prophet adds, ver. 22. finishing and executing the work in righteousness,? (GTI) certainly the speedily this rejection, according to the righteous threatening of Lord will make it a speedy work upon the God, certainly the Lord will make their rejection a speedy work earth.3

upon the land of Israel. 29 And as Isaiah hath said before,' Unless 29 And as Isaiah hath said before, (chap. i. 9.), Unless the Lord the Lord of Hosts2 had left us a seed, we should of Hosts had left unto us a very small remnant of our nation, we have become as Sodom, and been made like to should have become as Sodom; and been made like to Gomorrha , Gomorrha.

we should have been utterly destroyed as a nation. figure of a potter's vessel dashed in pieces, is introduced to express amidst the manifold and great oppressions of the Babylonians, Per. the destruction of a nation. By assigning the same reason for God's sians, Grecians, and other heathen nations, notwithstanding they bearing the Jewish nation in his hand so long before he cast them had long merited to be destroyed for their repeated rebellions. from him, which God assigned for his upholding Pharaoh and the Ver. 24. Even us whoin he hath called, not only among the Jews, Egyptians, the apostle showed the Jews ihe absurdity of inferring, but also among the Gentiles. )In the expression, whom he hath that God would never cast off their nation because he had not done called, the apostle alludes to the phraseology of Hosea's prophecy it hitherto. He had preserved them for so long a time, notwith: concerning ihe conversion of the Gentiles, quoted in the following standing their manifold and great iniquities, that when he should verse. Beza does not construe this verse as I have done. He makes punish them, it might be with the severest judgments; whereby his Ta OXBum the antecedent to cus, because the relative may agree in power as well as his justice would be displayed the moreillustriously. gender, either with the antecedent or the consequent. According

4. Fitted for destruction. The word xztneToTv%, in the middle to this manner of construction, dus *&• 1**^sGivju's must be voice, may be translated, fitted 'themselves for destruction.' Or, translated, whom also he hath called,' namely, 'us, not only of the if it is in the passive voice, it means, that by their wickedness thé Jewe,' &c. Jews were fitted for destruction.--In ver. 3. a different phraseology Ver. 25.–1. Even as he saith by Hosea, I will call that my people is used concerning the vessels of mercy; for it is said of then, which was not my people. )-- In this passage it is foretold, that the 'Which he had before prepared for glory..

decrease of the people of God, by the rejection and dispersion of the Ver. 23.-1. On the vessels of mercy. --As the ressels of wrath ten tribes, should be abundantly supplied, by the calling of the Genare the whole Jewish nation continuing in unbelief, the vessels of tiles to be God's people, and by bestowing on the posterity of the ten mercy are all who believed in Jesus, whether they were Jews or tribes the mercy of ihe gospel. In the prophetic writings, to call or Gentiles; as is plain from ver. 21. where this explication of the name a thing, is to make it what it is called. For the power of God phrase, 'vessels of mercy,' is given. The believing Jews and Gen is such, that he makes all things to be what he calls them. Perhaps tiles are appositely called vessels of mercy, because the prophet Hosea alludes to Moses's history ofthe creation, where God is repreHosea, foretelling the conversion of the Gentiles, expressed it, chap. sented as calling things into being merely by saying, Let them be. ii. 23. by "God's having mercy on her that had not obtained mercy.' 2. And her beloved, who was not beloved.)-This is the apostle's

2 Which he had before prepared for glory: -This is not the glory interpretation of Hosea's words, 'I will sow her to me in the earth, of eternal life ; for the scripture never

speaks of that as to be bé. and I will have mercy on her that had not obtained mercy' The stowedon nations, or bodies oímen complexly, ver. 24. But it is the words of the apostle are different from those of the prophet, but glory of being made the church and people of God. This honour, as their meaning is the same. In the beginning of the chapter, Hosea, bestowed anciently on the Jews, might titly be named glory, because having described the idolatry of the Jews under the figure of rohorethey had 'the glory of the Lord,' or visible symbol of the divine pre dom, and their chastisement, by hedging up their way with thorns, sence, resident among them. And with equal propriety, the same he foretells their return to their first husband, who would speak honour, as enjoyed by them who believe in Chrisi, may be called comfortably to them, and betroth them a second time. Then adds, glory, because ine Christian church is still 'an habitation of God ver. 23. I will have inercy on her that had not obtained mercy;' through the Spirit,' Eph. ii. 22. who dwells in the hearts of the faith which the apostle very properly expresses by, 'I will call her bé. ful by his graces. God had been preparing Jews and Gentiles for loved, who was not beloved; I will pardon her, and restore her to becoming his church, by suffering the latter to remain under the her former place in my affection, and to her ancient relation to me, dispensation of the law of nature, and the former under the dispensa- by introducing her into the gospel church. In quoting this passage tion of the law of Moses, so long as to make them sensible of the from Hosea, the apostle begins with the conversion of the Gentiles, insufficiency of these dispensations for their justification. Gal. iv. because it was to happen first; but the prophet speaks first of the 4. note 1.

conversion of the Jews. In this verse, the apostle assigns a second reason for God's bearing Ver. 28.-1. For, finishing and cutting short the work. )-This is the vessels of wrath in his hand with much long suffering, before he the LXX. translation of Isa. x. 22, 2. wilh a small variation. Elsner dashed them in pieces: It was, that he might display the riches of and Wols have shown, that OUVTEL vwv signifies to cut short or ere. his goodness, in making the believing Jews and Gentiles his church cute speedily.-The best Greek authors use aogos for a matter, and people. In other words, the existence of the Jews as a nation work, or thing. See Ess. iv. 60. was necessary to the establishinent of the gospel dispensation. For, 2. In righteousness, or truth;}-that is, according to the truth of according to the ancient oracles of God, of which they were the his threatenings; a sense which righteousness hath, Dan, ix. 7. keepers, Christ was to come of them, and was to exercise his minis. 3. Will make it a speedy work upon the earth;}-that is, upon the try among them, and to be put to death by them; and the first land of Judea. For though in the LXX. it is orxou pirn onn, the whole preachers of the gospel were to carry the gospel or new law from world, the scope of the passage restricts the sense to the land of Zion, and they were to persuade both Jews and Gentiles to receive Judea. Besides coxovusra is used in this restricted sense, Luke ij. 1. it, by showing that in all points it agrees with the foriner revelations, Ver. 2.--1. And as Isaiah hath said before. -The apostle ineans, and that it had been foretold by all the holy prophets of Gol, since that Isaiah said this before he spake the passage last quoted from the world began. Wherefore the existence of the Jewish nation be. hiin. In this sense roosterxev is used Gal. i. 9. ing necessary for the preservation of the oracles of God, and for the 2. Unless the Lord of hosts. - In the original it is, Lord of Sabaestablishment of the gospel, God upheld them from perishing oth. But the Ilebrew word Sabaoth signifies Hosis; and is some.

30 What then do we say? That the Gen 30 IVhat then do we infer from these prophecies? Why this: tiles, who did not pursue righteousness,' have That the Gentiles, who being ignorant of the righteousness necessary laid hold on righteousness ; a righteousness, lo salvation, did not pursue righteousness, have obtained righteous. however, which is of faith.

ness by embracing the gospel : not that righteousness which consists

in a perfect obedience to law, but a righteousness of faith. 31 But Israel, who pursued the law of right 31 But the Jews, who endeavoured to obtain righteousness by eousness,' hath not attained to the law of right- obedience to the law, have not obtained righteousness by obedience eousness.

to law. 32 For what reason? Because not by faith, 32 For what reason have they not obtained it? Because not by but (us, 319.) verily by works of law ther obedience to the law of faith, but verily by obedience to the law of PURSUED IT; (from ver. 31.) for they Moses they pursued it; for they stumbled at the stumbling-alone, and stumbled' at the stone of stumbling.

fell: they refused to believe on a crucified Messiah, and were broken. 33 As it is written, (Isa. viii, 14.), Behold 33 This happened according to what was foretold, Behold I place I place in Sion a stone of stumbling, and a in Sion a stone of stumbling, and a rock of offence : Yet whosoever rock of offence ;! Yet whosoever believeth on believeth on this crucified Christ, as a sure foundation of the temple him shall not be ashamed ; (Isa. xxviii. 16.) of God, and rests his hope of righteousness on that foundation, shall

not make haste out of the presence either of men or of God, as

ashamed of believing on him. times used to denote the sun, moon, and stars, and also the angels. who pursued the nghteousness of law, lath not attained it, because The Lord of Sabaoth, therefore, as one of the titles of the Deity, they pursued it by works of law, which they could not perfectly per. marks his supreme dominion over the universe ; and particularly form, and stumbled, &c. Others are of opinion, that as the word over the different orders of angels, who, on account of their multi. lar, when applied by the Ilebrews to a quality of the mind, denotes tude, and of their serving under the command of God, are named the reality, strength, and permanency of that quality, the law of Hosis, 1 Kings xxij. 19. The LXX., in the passages where this He. righteousness' may signify a real and permanent righteousness, just brew word occurs, commonly express it in Greek letters ; in which as the law of kindness, Prov. xxxi. 26. is a strong and permanent Paul has followed them. So also James, chap. v. 4. supposing that kindness; and 'the law of truth,' Mal. ií. 6. is a real and permanent it would be agreable to the ears of the Jews. Ainsworth, on Exod. truth. --By attaining the law of righteousness,' Locke understands iii. 13. tells us, that the Rabbins teach, when God judgeth his crea. their attaining the profession of that religion in which the righteoustures, he is called Elohim, when he sheweth them mercy, he is ness necessary to justification is exhibited. But the Jews could not called Jehovah, and when he warreth against the wicked, he is be said to pursue such a religion: They thought themselves in poscalled Sabaoth.

session of it already in the law. Ver. 30. The Gentiles, who did not pursue righteousness, have laid Ver. 32. They stumbled at the stone of stumbling.)-This is an hold on righteousness. )--Hammond observes, that the words in this allusion to one who, in running a race, stumbles on a stone in his and the following verse are properly agonistical, being those which way, and falling, loses the race. the Greeks used in speaking or the foot race in the Olympic garnes. Ver. 33. Behold, I place in Sion a stone of stumbling, and a rock They who ran together for the prize were said (Sowxtov) to pursue, of offence; yet whosoever, &c.}-Here two passages of Isaiah are and he who came first to the goal, and obtained it by the sentence joined in one quotation, because they relate to the same subject. of the judge, was said (x utance

je cevovy) to lay hold on the prize. The İsa. xxviii. 16. Behold, I lay in Sion for a foundation, a stone, a other word, o avev, to get before another, signifies to gain the race. tried precious corner-stone, a sure foundation,' namely, of the new The prize for which ihe Genuiles are said to have run, was righteous. temple or church which God was about to build - Isa. viii. 14. But tress or justification; which the Jews lost, because they did not pur. for a stone of stumbling, and a rock of offence.' Sce 1 Pet. ii. 8. sue the real prize, the righteousness of faith, but a legal righteous. note 1. Accordingly, those in Israel who expected Messiah to be a ness of works. Besides, in running, they stumbled at the rock of great temporal monarch, 'stuinbled at Jesus' when they found him offence, so as not to rise and continue the race. See ver. 32. note. nothing but a teacher of religion, and sell. They lost righteous.

Ver. 31. Israel, who pursued the law of righteousness, hath not al ness, together with all their privileges as the people of God. The tained to the law of righteousness.). -Estius and Beza think the law words in the original, us ó **FEUDY IT'XTW ou, may more literally of righteousness' is an hypallage for the righteousness of law,' as be translated, “No one who believeth on him shall be ashamed.' Heb. vii. 16. 'the law of a carnal commandment significs'the carnal For to use Grotius's note on this verse : Universalis vox, sequente commandment of the law;' and that the apostle's meaning is, Israel, negativa, apud Hebræos est pro negativa universali.'

CHAPTER X.

View and Nlustration of the Matters contained in this Chapter. In what follows, the apostle lays open the causes of the 5.; made, not for the purpose of justifying the Jews, but to unbelief of the Jews, and answers the two chief objections shew them the impossibility of their being justified by law, whereby they justified their opposition to the gospel. The that they might he obliged to go to Christ for that blessfirst objection was, that by teaching the justification of the ing, who was exhibited in the types of the law, ver. 4.Jews by faith without the works of the law, the expiations That the law required perfect obedience to all its precepts, of the law of Moses were rendered of no use in their justi. the apostle proved from Moses's description of the rightfication. The second was, that by admitting the Gentiles eousness which it enjoined, and the reward which it prointo the church and covenant of God without circum- nised. The former consisted in doing all the statutes cision, the covenant with Abraham was made void. and judgments of God, delivered in the law: The latter,

His answer to the first of these objections, the apostle in a long and happy life in Canaan. But an obedience began with telling the Jews his desire and prayer to God of this kind is impossible, and its reward of no great was, that they might be saved, ver. 1.-Because he knew value, ver. 5.- Whereas the righteousness enjoined by they had a great zeal in matters of religion, though it was the gospel, and the reward which it promises, are very not directed by knowledge, ver. 2.—Wherefore, being ig- different. It enjoins a righteousness of faith, which is norant of the kind of righteousness which God requires easy to be attained; and promises eternal life, a reward from sinners, and mistaking the nature of the law of nowhere promised in the law. For, saith the apostle, Moses, they sought to become righteous by observing its the gospel, which requires the righteousness of faith, 10 precepts; and where they failed, by having recourse to shew that that righteousness may easily be attained, thus its expiations. So that, vainly endeavouring to establish speaketh to all mankind to whom it is now preached :-a righteousness of their own, they had not submitted to Do not oliject to the method of justification revealed in the righteousness of God's appointment, now fully re the gospel, that Christ the object of thy faith is removed vealed in the gospel, ver. 3.—But in all this they coun far from thee, and there is no person to bring him down teracted the true end of the law of Moses, which, though from heaven since his resurrection and ascension, that thou a political law, being given by God, and requiring a per. mayest see and believe on him, ver. 6.-Neither object fect obedience to all its precepts under the penalty of to his being the promised seed, in whom all the families death, was in fact a republication of the original law of of the earth are to be blessed, that he was put to death, works; (see Gal. iii. 10. note 2.); Rom. vii. Illust. ver. and there is no person to bring him up from the grav

that thou mayest see him crowned with glory and honour ver. 16.-However, granting that faith in the true God by the miracle of his resurrection, ver. 7.— For the gos- cometh by hearing, and hearing by the word of God pel tells thee, the object as well as the duty of faith is preached, it will not follow, that the Gentiles could not brought nigh thee; it is explained and proved to thee in believe on the true God, ver. 17.-For though ye say the clearest manner, and is easy to be performed, as it they have not heard concerning him, so as to be able to hath its seat in the mouth and in the heart, being the doc- believe on him and worship him, I must tell you, Yes, trine concerning Christ, which we preach by inspiration, verily they have heard; for, from the beginning of the and confirm by miracles, ver. 8.—namely, That if thou world, God hath preached to all men his own being, perwilt confess with thy mouth before the world, that Jesus fections, and worship, by that grand exhibition of himself is Lord and Christ, and wilt believe in thine heart that which he hath made in the works of creation, as is plain God raised him from the dead, and thereby declared him from Psalm xix. 4. •Their sound bath gone through all to be both Lord and Christ, thou shalt be saved ; a reward the earth, and their words to the end of the world. All which the law does not promise to any one, ver. 9.–For mankind, therefore, may know and worship the true God, with the heart we believe, so as to obtain righteousness; and be saved, agreeably to Joel's declaration above-menand with the mouth confession of our faith is made, so as tioned, ver. 18.-- But ye will say, Is it not a great objecto have assurance of our salvation, ver. 10.— The right- tion to this doctrine, that Israel, to whom the oracles of eousness of faith, therefore, enjoined in the gospel, is, in God were intrusted, is ignorant of the salvation of the its nature and in its reward, entirely different from the Gentiles through faith, and of their reception into the righteousness enjoined in the law.

church and covenant of God equally with the Jews? I To the second objection, that the admission of the Gen- answer, If the Jews are ignorant of these things, it is their tiles into the church and covenant of God without cir own fault. For Moses foretold them in the law, ver. 19. cumcision, is contrary to the covenant with Abraham, -and Isaiah yet more plainly, ver. 20.—who insinuated, the apostle replied, that the prophets have taught the sal- that the calling of the Gentiles to be the people of God vation of the Gentiles by faith; particularly Isaiah, in by the preaching of the gospel, would provoke the Jews these words, “Whosoever believeth on him shall not be exceedingly, and harden them in their infidelity ; insoashamed,' ver. 11.–And to shew that the expression nuch, that though Christ in person, and by his apostles, whosoever does not mean whosoever of the Jews only, should long and earnestly endeavour to persuade them, but whosoever of the Gentiles also, the apostle observed, they would not believe on him, ver. 21. that in bestowing salvation God makes no distinction be In this manner did the apostle lay open the true causes tween Jew and Greek; but, being equally related to all, is of the unbelief of his countrymen. They rejected the rich in goodness towards all who call upon him, ver. 12. gospel, because it reprobated that meritorious righteous—Besides, Joel hath expressly declared, ch. ii. 32. “That ness which they endeavoured to attain by performing the whosoever shall call on the name of the Lord shall be sacrifices and ceremonies of the law of Moses ; and because saved,' ver. 13.—But perhaps ye will reply, that Joel does it required them to seek salvation by believing on Jesus, not speak of the Gentiles, because it cannot be said that as Lord and Christ, and offered salvation to all the Genthey believe on the true God, and worship him, since he tiles who believed. But the Jews were greatly to blame was never preached to them by any messengers divinely in rejecting the gospel upon these grounds, seeing their commissioned, ver. 14.-although such messengers ought own prophets had taught, that whosoever believeth on the to have been sent to them long ago, according to Isaiah, true God, and worshippeth him sincerely, shall be saved, who insinuates that they would have been received with although he be preached to them no otherwise than by joy, namely, in that passage where he says, 'How beau- the works of creation. To conclude, the same prophets tiful are the feet of them,' &c. ver. 15.—But to this I an- having expressly foretold that the Jews, by the calling of swer, that in the passage last mentioned, Isaiah declares the Gentiles, would be provoked to reject the gospel, and what ought to have happened, and not what would have for that sin should themselves be cast off, the apostle rehappened, if the true God had been preached to the Gen- presented these things to them, in the hope that such tiles. For he foresaw, that even the Jews, who were well among them as were candid, when they observed the acquainted with the true God, would not believe the re events to correspond with the predictions, would acquiport of the preachers of the gospel concerning the Christ, esce in the appointment of God concerning the Gentiles; notwithstanding it ought to have been as acceptable to sensible that it was proper to preach him to all the nations them as the preaching of the true God to the Gentiles, of the earth, in whom all nations were to be blessed.

New Translation.

COMMENTARY. Chap. X.- Brethren, indeed my heart's Chap. X.-1 Brethren, knowing the punishment which they shall desire and prayer which is to God for Israel suffer who reject Jesus, iny earnest desire and prayer to God for is, that they may be saved.

Israel is, that they may be saved from the sin of unbelief. See

chap. xi, 26. 2 For I bear them witness, that they have 2 For I bear them witness, that they have a great zea? in matters (Annoy Ots) a great seal, but not according to of religion : (see examples, Acts xxi. 27-31. ch. xxii. 3.) But their knowledge.

zeal not being directed by knowledge, hath misled them. 3 ([ag, 93.) Wherefore, being ignorant of 3 Wherefore, being ignorant of the righteousness which God apthe righteousness of God, (see ver. 10. note pointed at the fall, as the righteousness of sinners; and seeking 10 1.), and seeking to establish their own right- establish their own righteousness, by observing the sacrifices, and eousness, (Phil. iü. 9.), they have not submit- ceremonies, and other duties enjoined in the law of Moses, they have led to the righteousness of God:

not submitted to the righteousness of God's appointment by faith: 4 (rag, 98.) Although Christ is the end! 4 Although the believing on Christ as the Messiah is the end for of the law for righteousness to every one who which the law was given, that righteousness might be counted to believeth.

every Jew who believeth.

Ver. 1. That they may be saved. )--Israel, or the whole body of the Jewish nation who were ignorant of the righteousness of God, being the subject of his wish, sared must inean their coming to the knowledge and belief of the gospel;' a sense in which the word is used, 1 Tiin. ii. 4. Who willeih all men to be saved, and to come to the knowledge of the truth.' Also Rom. xj. 26. 'And so all Israel

shall be saved.' Farther, if the vessels of wrath fitted for destruc. tion, mentioned ch. ix. 22. were the unbelieving Jews, and if that description implied that they were under God's curse of reproba. Lion, the apostle would not here have prayed for their salvation at all.

Ver. 4. Christ is the end of the law for righteousness. |--Estius and Elsner are of opinion, that by TÀ, vouou is ibeant the fultilling or

But in my

5 For Moses (Lev. xviii. 5.) describeth the 5 For Moses thus describeth the righteousness which is by the law, righteousness which is by the law, That the That the man who doth its statutes shall live by them. Now, that man who doth these things shall livel in them. kind of righteousness being impossible, the law obliges all to have

recourse to Christ for righteousness; ver. 4. 6 But the righteousness by faith thus speak 6 But the gospel, which enjoins the righteousness which is by faith, eth,' (Deut. xxx. 12–14.), Say not in thine to shew that it is attainable, thus speaketh, Say not in thine heart, heart, who shall ascend into heaven ? that is, who shall ascend into heaven ? that is, to bring downl Christ to to bring down Christ.?

take possession of the kingdom, as if that were necessary to one's be

lieving on him. 7 Or who shall descend into the deep? that 7 Or who shall descend into the deep? that is, to bring again is, to bring again Christ (sx, 157.) from Christ from among the dead, raised to life, as if the crucifixion of among the dead.'

Jesus had proved him an impostor. 8 But what does it say? (To grues, 60.) The 8 But what does it say farther ? why this, The matter required of matter is nigh thee,' in thy mouth, and in thy thee by the gospel is nigh thee, and hath its seat in thy month, and heart : that is, the matter of faith which we in thy heart: that is, the matter of fuith which we preach, as the preach? 15 NIGH THEE.

righteousness appointed by God, is nigh thee; is easily understood

and attained. 9 That if thou wilt confess with thy mouth 9 For we preach, that if, notwithstanding the danger accompanythe Lord Jesus,' and wilt believe with thine ing it, thou wilt before the world confess with thy mouth the Lord heart that God hath raised him from the dead, 2 Jesus, as the seed in whom all nations are blessed, and, as the ground thou shalt be saved.3

of that confession, wilt sincerely believe that God hath raised him

from the dead, thou shalt be saved. 10 For with the heart (T10 TEUITSL U SAXlb 10 For with the heart we believe, so as to attain righteousness, cuen) we believe unto righteousness,' and with and with the mouth we confess our belief in Christ, so as to have in the mouth we confess unto salvation.2

ourselves a strong assurance of salvation. the law :' both because T1205 is used in that sense, Luke xxii. 37. said to be nigh, Rom. vii. 18.21. Orthis latter character was the mat"These things which are predicted of me (16.05 6%) are fulfilled;' ter or duty of faith, as the apostle observes in the following clause, and because in giving an account of what our Lord said when he ex.

2. In thy mouth and in thy heart; that is, the matter of faith which pired, the evangelist John, chap. xix. 30. uses the derivative word in we preach.)-The apostle's meaning is that the duty of faith in that sense (Torin15x4, sup. 7uuta), 'All things are accomplished.' Christ which he preached, was nigh ihem, was easy to be performBeza thinks, that as the law was designed to justify them who obey. ed, because it was founded on the strongest evidence. The eye-wit. ed it perfectly, Christ may be called the end of the law, because by nesses, by testifying the resurrection of Christ from the dead, and his death he hath procured that justification for sinners through by confirining their testimony with miracles, gave all men more full faith, which the law proposed to bestow through works.

assurance of his resurrection, than if he had shewn himself alive opinion, the end of the law' is neither of these, but the end or after his resurrection to all the world. For such an appearance purpose for which the law was given, namely, to lead the Jews to would have been no proof of his resurrection to any but to those believe in Christ. Accordingly, its types were intended to preserve who had known him in his lifetime, and had seep himn expire on the among the Jews the expectation of that atonement for sin which cross. Or if it is thought, that such an appearance would have conChrist was to make by his death, and its curse, to make thein sensi vinced those who never had seen Jesus before, I ask, How could ble that they could not be justified by obeying the law, but must they know that the person who called himself 'Jesus risen from the come to Christ for righteousness, that is, to the gospel concerning dead,' was really he, except by the testimony of those who knew Christ which was preached to Abraham in the covenant made with him in his lifetime, and had seen himn die ? So then, even this loudly him, Gal. ini. 8. Hence the law is called, 'a pedagogue to bring the demanded proof of Christ's resurrection, resolves itself into the Jews to Christ,' Gal. iii. 21.

very evidence which we now possess; namely, the testimony of the Ver. 5. The inan who doth these things shall live in them.)-This persons who conversed with himn fainiliarly during his lifetiine, and is taken from Lev. xviii. 5. and is generally thought to be a proinise saw him die, and who gained testimony to the credit which they of cternal life to those who obeyed the law of Moses perfectly. But bare to his resurrection, by working iniracles in support of it. Far. any one who reads that chapter throughout will be sensible, that iber, by preaching that the deliverance which the Christ was to though the doing of these things' means a erfect obedience to the work for the Jews, wa not a deliverance frein the dominion of the whole law, and more especially to the statutes and judgments writ Gentiles, but from the dominion and punishment of sin, called, rer. ten in that chapter, the life promised to the Israelites, as a reward 9. salration, the apostles made the Jews sensible, that to work ihis of that general obedience, is only their living long and happily as a kind of salvation, there is no occasion for the Christ's coming down nation in Canaan. See Lev. xviii. 26-29.

froin heaven, in a visible pompous manner, to take to himself a Ver.6.-1. But the righteousness which is by faith thus speaketh.) temporal kingdom. The duty therefore of faith, which the apostles --Here the apostle personifies the gospel, and makes it say of its preached as necessary to salvation, was both plain and easy, and doctrines and precepts, what Moses said concerning his command. was to be performed with the mouth and with the heart, in the ment or law, Deut. xxx. 11-14, though in a sense somewhat differ. manner explained ver. 9. ent.

We have a personification of the same kind in Plato's Apol. Ver. 9.-1. That if thou wilt confess with thy mouth the Lord Socrat, where the laws of Athens are introduced addressing Socrates Jesus, &c.)-The duty of faith, which we apostles preach as neces. in a long speech, to dissuade him from escaping out of prison, as his sary to salvation, is this: 'That if thou will confess with thy mouth friend Crito proposed, who had bribed the jailer for that purpose. the Lord Jesus;' that is, will openly conless Jesus to be Lord and

2. Who shall ascend into heaven ? that is, to bring down Christ. } Christ. This interpretation the apostle Peter hathi tanglit us, Acts The Jews, it would seem, thought it not reasonable to believe on ii. 36. "Therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly, that Jesus as the Christ, unless he was brought from heaven in a visible God hath inade that same Jesus whom ye have crucified, both Lord manner, to take possession of the kingdom. For they expected and Christ,' that is, ruler over all, and ihe promised Messiah, Psal. Messiali to appear in that manner, and called it 'the sign from hea. ii. 2. 6. ven,' Matt. xvi. 1.

2. And wilt believe with thine heart that God hath raised him from Ver. 7. Or who shall descendinto (TMV Burtov) the deep? that is, the dead. }—The apostle inentions the resurrection of Jesus froin to bring again Christ froin among the dead. )-The Jews expected the dead, as the principal article to be believed in order to salvation; that Messiah would abide with them for ever, John xii. 31. Where. because by that miracle God demonstrated Jesus to be his Son, es. fore, when the disciples saw Jesus expire on the cross, they gave up tablished his authority as a lawgiver, and rendered all the things all hope of his being the Christ : Luke xxiv. 21. We trusted that it which he taught and promised indubitable. had been he who should have redeemed Israel.' It is true, the ob. 3. Thou shalt be saved. Thou shall obtain that deliverance from jection taken from Christ's death was fully removed by his resur. sin and punishinent, which the Christ was to accomplish by liis rection. But the Jews pretending not to have sufficient proof of that appearing on earth; because, as the apostle observes in the next miracle, insisted that Jesus should appear in person among them, to verse, this faith shall be counted to thee for righteousness. convince them that he was really risen. This they expressed by one's Ver. 10.-1. For with the heart we believe umio righteousness.) descending into the abyss to bring Christ up from the dead. The To believe with the heart, is to believe in such a nanner as to en. abyss here signifies the receptacle for deparied souls, called llades, gage the affections, and influence the actions. This sincere faith because it is an invisible place; see 1 Cor. xv. 55. note; and the abyss carrying the believer to obey God and Christ, as far as he is able, it or deep, because the Jews supposed it to be as far below the surface is called the obedience of faith,' and the righteousness of faith,' of the earth, as heaven was thought to be above it, Psal. cxxxix. 8. Also, because God for the sake of Christ will count this kind of faith

Ver. 8.-1. The matter is nigh thee. Toena, here translated the to the believer for righteousness, it is called 'the righteousness of malter,answers to a Hebrew word which signifies not only a speech, God;' the righteousness which God hath appointed for sinners, and doctrine, command, duty, &c. but any matter or thing whatever, which he will accept and reward. Ess. iv. 60. Thus Luke i: 37. 'For with God (Tev prex) nothing shall 2. And with the mouth we consess unto salvation - In the first be impossible.' Here it signifies the duty of faith, as is plain from ages, the spreading of the gospel depended, in a great measure, on the latter clause, where we have to pare se TMS 715605, the matter of Christ's disciples confessing him openly before the world, and on faith. Things obscure and difficult, were said by the Hebrews to their sealing iheir confession with their blood. Hence Christ re. he far off; but things easily understood, and easily attained, were quired it in the most express terms, and threatened to deny th:03e

upon him.

11 For the Scripture saith, (Isa. xxviii. 16.), 11 That all who believe on Christ, and confess him, shall be Whosoever believeth on him shall not be saved, is certain : for the Scripture saith, IVhosoever believeth on the ashamed. See chap. ix. 33.

precious corner-stone, shall not make haste out of the presence of

God or men, as ashamed. 12 (Tag, 94.) Indeed there is no distinction 12 Indeed, in the salvation of mankind, there is no distinction of (Ts) either of Jew (x-4) or of Greek; for the Jew or Gentile ; For the same Lord of all is rich in mercy towards same Lord of all is rich towards all who call all who call upon him. He will save not those only who believe on

Jesus, but all in every nation who sincerely worship the true God. 13 For whosoever will call' on the name 13 For so the prophet Joel hath declared, chap. ii. 32. Whosoof the Lord, shall be saved.

ever will worship the true God sincerely, shall be saved. 14 JEW. (Ouv, 264.) But how shall they 14 But in the passage just now quoted, Joel cannot be supposed call on him in whom they have not believed? to speak of the Gentiles. For how shall they worship the true God, And how shall they believe IN HIM of whom in whom they have not believed? and how shall they believe in him, they have not heard ? And how shall they of whom they have never heard ? and how shall they hear of him, hear without a preacher ?

without a preacher to declare him ? 15 And how shall they preach unless they 15 And how shall they preach God to the Gentiles, unless they be be sent ? as it is written, How beautiful are the sent by him ? which ought to have been done long ago, because such feet' of them who bring good tidings of peace, preachers would have been well received, as Isaiah insinuates, chap. of them who bring good tidings of good things! lii. 7. saying, How beautiful are the feet of him that bringeth good

tidings, that publisheth peace, that bringeth good tidings of good! 16 APOSTLE. (And, 81.) Nevertheless, 16 Nevertheless, that the preaching of the true God would have all have not obeyed the good tidings; for been acceptable toethe Gentiles in former times, is not certain ; since Isaiah saith, Lord, who hath believed (T» Axon, all of the Jews, to whom the preaching of the Messiah ought to have 46.) our report?

been acceptable, have not obeyed the good tiding's ; for Isaiuh saith,

Lord, who hath believed our report? 17 Jew. (Ag4, 89.) So then (T151) belief 17 So then you acknowledge, that belief in the true God cometh COMETI from hearing, and (*) this hearing by from hearing concerning him ; and this hearing, by the word or the word of God.'

speech concerning God, uttered in some intelligible manner. 18 APOSTLE. But (aze, 55.) I ask, Have 18 Be it so. But I ask, Have the Gentiles not heard concerning they not heard ?! Yes, verily; their sound the true God ? Yes, verily, they have all heard. For the Psalmist hath gone out to all the earth, and their words says, “The heavens declare the glory of the Lord, &c. Their line to the ends of the world.

is gone out through all the earth, and their words to the end of the

world. 19 Jew. But (1974, 55.) I object, Israel 19 But to the salvation of the Gentiles I object, that Israel, God's hath not known.'-APOSTLE. First, Moses God's ancient church, hath not known anything of that matter. saith (Deut. xxxi. 21.) I will provoke you —APOSTLE. If they are ignorant, it is their own fault. For, first, to jealousy? by THAT WHICH IS no nation; Moses saith, I will move you to jealousy by those who are not a by a foolish nation I will enrage you.3 people of God; by a foolish nation I will enrage you ; namely, by

granting salvation to the Gentiles.

who denied him; Matt. x. 32, 33. ; 1 John iv. 15. The consessing fruit of the lips.' Pulse here signifies a speech or discourse of some Christ being so necessary, and at the same time so difficult a duly, length; as it does likewise, Matt. xxvi. 25. 1 Pet. i. 25. In this latter the apostle very properly connected the assurance of salvation text, enge se denotes the whole of the gospel.-The speech uttered by therewith ; because it was the best evidence wbich the disciple the works of creation may fitly be called 'the speech of God,' both of Christ could have of his own sincerity, and of his being willing because it is a speech concerning the being and perfections of to perform every other act of obedience required of him. There is God, and because it is a speech uttered by God himself. a difference between the profession and the confession of our faith. Ver. 18.-1. But I ask, Have they not heard ?}--In reasoning against To profess, is to declare a thing of our own accord; but to confess, the salvation of the Gentiles, the Jew proceeds on the supposition is to declare a thing when asked concerning it. This distinction that they could not know and worship the true God, unless he had Cicero mentions in his oration Pro Cecinna.

sent among them preachers to make himself known to them ; and Ver. 13. For whosoever will call on the name of the Lord. )--See insinuates, ver. 15. that this should have been done long ago, be1 Cor. i. 2. note 6. This text is quoted by the apostle, to prove that cause the preaching of the true God would have been acceptable the heathens who worship the true God sincerely will be saved; as to them. To this the apostle replies, If we are to judge of the matter is evident from the objection stated in the following verse. It is by the reception which the Jews gave to the preaching concerning true, Joel, after having foretold the effusion of the Spirit on the first the Christ, it is far from being certain that the preaching of the true disciples of Christ, adds the words quoted by the apostle. But it does God, by messengers divinely commissioned, would in very early not follow, that, according to Joel, those only are to be saved who times be acceptable to the Gentiles, ver. 16. The Jew replies, ver. called on the name of the Lord after the effision of the Spirit. The 17. So then you acknowledge, that belief cometh from hearing, and salvation which Joel speaks of is eternal salration, consequently it this hearing from the word of God preached; insinuating, that as the was not then to be bestowed. It was only foretold, that after the ef Gentiles had never heard the word of God, it cannot be thought fusion of the Spirit, salvation would be preached as a blessing to be that any of them have believed on him. This insinuation the apostle bestowed, at the general judgment, on all who, from the beginning to confutes by asking, ver. 18. 'Have they not heard ?' Then answers the end of the world, called on the name of the Lord;' that is, who his own question, 'Yes, verily, they have heard the true God sincerely worshipped the true God.--The publication of this great preached by the works of creation;' a preaching most ancient, event was extremely proper after the effusion of the Spirit, because universal, and loud: “Their sound hath gone out to all the earth, salvation had been procured for the sincere worshippers of God hy 2. Yes, verily, their sound hath gone out to all the earth. ]- That all what Christ had done in Zion and Jerusalem ; which I think the mankind have heard the word of God, the apostle proves from Psal. true import of the prophet's words, ver. 32. 'And it shall come to xix. 1. where it is affirmed that the works of creation, especially the pass, that whosoever shall call on the naine of Jehovah, shall be de heavens, that is, the luminaries placed in the heavens, by their conlivered; For in mount Zion and in Jerusalem shall be deliverance.' stant and regular motions, producing day and night, and the vicissiDeliverance shall be wrought for whosoever calleth on the name of tude of seasons, with all their beneficial consequences, preach the Jehovah; and that deliverance shall be preached to all with the true God to the Gentiles, in every age and country. This speech greatest assurance, through the gifts of the Spirit, beginning at Je. uttered by the works of creation, is as properly God's as the speech rusalem, according to Christ's command. Luke xxiv. 47.

uttered by the preachers of the gospel, and has always been so uniVer. 15. How beautiful are the feet of them who bring good tid. versal, and so intelligible, that isany of the Gentiles have not known ings of peace !)--This figurative idea was not peculiar to the He. and worshipped the true God, they are altogether inexcusable, as the brews. "Bos tells us, that Sophocles represents the hands and sect apostle atfirms, Rom. i. 20. - What the apostle calls their sound, is in of them who come on some kind errand, as beautiful in the eyes the Ilebrew their line. But Pocock, Miscel. c. 4. p. 46. hath shown of those who are profited thereby. The figure, as applied by Isaiah, that the llebrew word translated line signifies also a loud roice orcry. is extremely proper. The feet of those who travel through dirty or Ver. 19,-1. Israel hath not known. My oux igiw. The particle dusty roads are a sight naturally disagreeable. But when they are un, as placed in this sentence, is commonly the sign of a question. thus disfigured by iravelling a long journey, to bring good tidings But I have translated in oux as a double negation, which in the of peace and deliverance to those who have been oppressed by Greek language, renders the negation stronger. See Rom. viii

. 12. their enemios, they appear beautiful.

where, as in dis passage, the negative particle is out of its place.Ver. 17. And this hearing (8 5x enpatos) by the word of God. )--In That the thing Israel hath not known, was the salvation of the Gen. allusion, perhaps, to Isaiah lvii. 19. where faith is represented as the tiles, who lived without having any external revelation given them,

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