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“* * * producing and distributing educational media for the use of handicapped persons, their parents, their actual or potential employers, and other persons directly involved in work for the advancement of the handicapped “ ” “”
Commissioner Howe, in his prepared statement of March 2 on the bill, explained and justified this provision in the following way: The U.S. Office of Education may now support research regarding educational media. This is generally restricted to research concerning the effectiveness of existing media. With the exception of the specific authority under the Captioned Films for the Deaf program there is no authorization to enter into contracts for the development of new media. There is no authorization which would permit specialized training programs to train specialists in the use of such media nor is there any authorization which would permit involvement in the production of such materials or media except for that under the Captioned Films program. Although the Office of Education has no particular interest in the production and distribution of educational materials there are some instances where this can be important. For example, there is some value in the support of sheltered workshops for adolescent-aged retarded or otherwise handicapped youngsters. Such support would indirectly or directly require support for production of materials produced in the workshops. The support for the development of instructional media is particularly important at this time. Development costs run high, yet the future of education for the handicapped may well depend upon the availability of media not yet off the drawing boards. Although the #. of authority to the U.S. Office of Education to get into the business of producing and distributing educational materials is limited in this provision of the bill to the production of such materials for the handicapped, their parents, their employers and other persons involved, this authority strikes us as being unwise in itself and a bad precedent. Unlike the situation in some other countries, the U.S. Federal Government has not been responsible for the production and distribution of educational materials. This has been left to private enterprise and to some extent to nonprofit organizations and the result has been, I believe, better and more abundant educational materials than existin any other country. - As you well know, there have been many examples. This is a Benjamin Franklin done in large type by a man, Keith Jennison, who has really mobilized the private sector to accomplish this kind of thing. We do not think we are far apart in this respect, and we believe that there can be working appropriately prepared to enlist in this instance the resources of the private sector. May I just add one word in closing. I spent some 10 years of my life working in the S. public schools concerned with the programs for the handicapped. No comment here should interpret any less concern than most of you have for effective programs in this field. We are just anxious that you use the full resources of the education community, including the private sector in this respect, and we would both endorse, support, and try to find ways of implementing and disseminating this kind of research. - - It is only the question of entering directly into the publishing business. - Chairman PERKINs. Let me ask you one question. You R. ln the National School Boards Association and other witnesses all endorse the National Teachers Corps, the national recruiting and Office of Education? - Mr. LUND. That is a question for you.
Mr. ACKERMAN. Well, the comment we made in the statement was that we endorse the program as it is amended. We think it is one way. We think that it has created an environment, we don't think it is the only way, and we would like to see it kept on the pilot program.
Chairman PERKINS. How is it working in the city of Cleveland?
Mr. CALKINS. It is working very well. We have a small program with about 25 Corps members being trained at the University of Akron.
Chairman PERKINS. Twenty-five Corps members, teachers, besides your interns?
Mr. CALKINS. Twenty-five interns and only two or three teachers. It is very small, but it is working very well and we are pleased with it.
Chairman PERKINS. Can you evaluate the effectiveness thus far?
Mr. CALKINS. Yes, second-best program for recruiting inner-city teachers into inner-city schools.
Chairman PERKINS. Any other comments on it?
Mr. Lund. The plan I think is wonderful. I do not have the direct experience.
Chairman PERKINS. What about yourself? Do you favor the inner city?
Mr. WEBB. We feel it is one of the ways in which people can be attracted into teaching in the inner city in the problem areas where otherwise we might not be able to assign them for a variety of reasons. The business of bringing people who volunteer or present themselves for special training in this area—then we have some evidence.
Chairman PERKINS. Briefly tell us why you are able to recruit teachers from the National Teachers Corps when you are not otherwise able to recruit teachers for these disadvantaged areas. Some of the members of the House would like to have a concrete statement from the school board representatives.
Mr. WEBB. This would be my opinion, and I also would like to give Mr. Calkins a chance to expound on this, too, from the viewpoint of Cleveland.
I think there are a couple of factors. One is that the nature of the Corps itself is such that there is a charisma, a sense of mission, that can be generated with this kind of a program. When people are recruited into the program, given special skill and knowledge as to how best to teach in this area, then they have a sense of security and success that enables them to stay with that kind of teaching.
The second part that I was going to make is that it recruits from people who have not originally planned to go into teaching and entered it through another route.
Chairman PERKINS. Go ahead.
Mr. CALKINS. The quality of courses in education given at many American colleges is so bad that many of the ablest students going to college do not take them. Instead, they take history, government, economics, mathematics, science, and a variety of other things that they think are better taught, have more content and will do them more good in whatever occupation they wish to enter. If they then decide to be teachers, they are confronted with certification requirements which say they cannot teach and they are confronted with adminis
trators in school systems who essentially say, “We don't care how good a teacher you will be, you have got to have had the certification requirements before we will let you into the classroom.”
What they need is some kind of a transition program that gets them into the classroom with courses of sufficient quality that they don't feel repelled by the course that they have to take.
The Teacher Corps is one of the devices that will do that. Another device that does it is the master in arts in teaching program. When I said the Teacher Corps was our second best program, what I meant was that our best was a master of arts in teaching program, but they are both good programs, and they are both j }. essentially the same reason. They are a high quality, attractive means by which the able college graduate who does not have his certification behind him can get into the classroom and get his certification requirements and become a teacher.
Chairman PERRINs. Thank you very much.
Mr. LUND. Thank you.
(Mr. Lund's full statement follows:)
STATEMENT BY KENNETH. W. LUND ON BEHALF OR THE AMERICAN TExTBOOK PUBLISHERS INSTITUTE AND THE AMERICAN BOOK PUBLISHERS CouncIL
My name is Kenneth W. Lund, Senior Vice President of Scott, Foresman & Company, book publishers, of Glenview, Illinois. I am appearing today on behalf of the American Textbook Publishers Institute and the American Book Publishers Council, the two major professional associations of book publishers, the members of which produce more than 95% of the books of all kinds published in the United States. I have with me Mr. Robert W. Frase, Director of the Joint Washington Office of the Institute and the Council. The 125 members of the American Textbook Publishers are publishers of elementary, secondary and college textbooks, subscription reference books such as encyclopedias, educational tests and maps. The 192 members of the American Book Publishers Council publish all other types of books such as adult general (or trade) books, juvenile books, scientific, medical and professional books, religious books, university press books, book club books and paperback books of all descriptions. Many of the major publishers are, of course, members of both associations. My own firm is primarily a publisher of elementary, secondary and college textbooks, but more recently we have also gotten into the field of children's books and adult general books,
We are delighted to have this opportunity of expressing our views on the bill before you and hope these comments may be of help to your Committee in amending and revising the measure when you get into executive session. Our remarks divide themselves into six specific topics, but before getting into this detail let me say that we support the bill as a whole and its general purpose of amending and extending existing legislation “by extending authority for allocation of funds to be used for education of Indian children and children in overseas dependent schools of the Department of Defense, by extending and amending the National Teacher Corps program, by providing assistance for comprehensive educational planning, and by improving programs of education for the handicapped; to improve programs of vocational education; to improve authority for assistance to schools in federally impacted areas and areas suffering a major disaster.”
TIMELY extENSION OF ExISTING LEGISLATION
We were very glad to see in President Johnson's health and education message of February 28 the emphasis on a better educational timetable. This has two aspects—early renewal of appropriation authorizations for education and library programs, and early action on the annual appropriation bills for these programs. The bill before you provides for some extensions of elementary, secondary and vocational programs, but we were rather disappointed to find that some of the major programs for elementary and secondary education—namely, Titles I, II and III of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 which now expire on June 30, 1968, are not proposed to be extended this year. We have had a good deal of experience as publishers with these ESEA titles because substantial quantities of books and other instructional materials have been purchased with these funds. We know from experience that there is a great deal of waste and inefficiency involved when these Federal funds do not become available until well into the academic year which starts in September, rather than when the normal educational planning, budgeting and ordering of supplies is done in the spring. We would be concerned, therefore, that if extensions of Titles I, II and III of ESEA are postponed for Congressional consideration to 1968, the authorizations, and subsequently the appropriations which must be based on them, would delay the availability of funds well beyond July 1, as was the case in 1966. We would hope, therefore, that your Committee would seriously consider the desirability of extending the authorizations of the ESEA titles in the bill before you in 1967 rather than waiting until 1968.
EARLY action on appropriation bills
The President's education message contained the following statement:
“I urge that the Congress enact education appropriations early enough to allow the Nation's schools and colleges to plan effectively. I have directed the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare to work with the Congress toward this end.”
This problem has become a matter of increasing concern to everyone involved with education in the United States, including members of this Committee as was brought out in the hearings last fall conducted by Mrs. Green on the operation of Office of Education programs. Ten if not scores of bills have been introduced in the House of Representatives this year urging that the appropriation bills for education programs be passed by May 1 of each year in order to provide for orderly education planning and budgeting. We would not presume to advise your Committee or the Congress as to how this problem can be met as a matter of technical legislative procedure. We only want to add our voice to the recommendation that it be solved in some way. There is problably no other single legislative action which could be taken that would so much increase the efficiency of the educattion and library legislation now on the statute books.
statistic AL on Education AL materials
It would be helpful to the book publishing industry—and in turn the separate industry which actually manufacturers our books, the printers and binders— to have reasonably good statistics from the U.S. Office of Education on what kinds of published materials, and in what quantities, are being purchased under the major Federal education and library programs. With a good historical base on what has happened, it would then be possible for the U.S. Office to project these figures into the future as part of the five year forecasts which are to form an integral part of the new Programmed Budgeting System. Book purchases under the new Federal education and library programs of the last few years are not a large factor in total book sales—possibly on the order of 5% of the total in 1966; but they may be quite significant for certain specific types of books and could in the short run result in a squeeze on stocks and manufacturing capacity if there should not be sufficient time for advance planning. The Book Manufacturers' Institute, which is made up of the specialized printers and binders of books, passed the following resolution at their annual meeting last November, which was forwarded to Secretary Gardner and Commissioner Howe:
“Resolved: That the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare and the U.S. Office of Education be urged to provide continuing information on the use of books and other printed materials under the Federal education and library programs, including past expenditures and estimates of future expenditures, which will enable publishers and manufacturers of printed educational materials and their materials suppliers to plan better for adequate production and distribution of the required educational materials; AND, be it further resolved: That the Book Manufacturers' Institute stand ready to confer jointly with representatives of the publishers' associations and the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare to develop the details of the
information required for appropriate private industry planning in order that the most effective implementation of Federal educattion programs may be assured."
We have had some subsequent discussions on this matter with officials at the U.S. Office and we hope to be able to work out with them a statistical program which will be beneficial to both the educational institutions which are consumers of our product and to the producers and suppliers of these materials in the private sector of the economy.
DELAYED PAYMENTS UNDER FEDERAL PROGRAMS We should like to mention a problem which has arisen, not so much for publishers but for specialized book wholesalers who supply schools and libraries, of the great delay in many cases in payment for materials, particulalry school library books, purchased under Federal programs. This situation is putting a considerable financial strain on the smaller book wholesalers and if it continues would impair their ability to perform efficiently their important function in the distribution chain of getting books from the publishers to these institutional consumers. Part of the problem is the lack of administrative personnel available in local school districts to handle the details of the numerous new federally funded programs and some relief can be expected as additional administrative funds are made available either from Federal or local sources. The problem arises in other cases because of the inexperience of some school districts in ordering books for school libraries where no such libraries have heretofore existed. We have been working with the professional association of school business officials to suggest ways in which ordering and payment procedures can be simplified and streamlined. We mention the problem here because it may be of interest to the Committee and also because through the printed record of these hearings, or some mention in the Committee report on the bill, the nature and seriousness of the problem can be brought to the attention of the educational community.
AUTHORIZATION OF CONTRACTS WITH PRIVATE PROFIT-MAKING ORGANIZATIONS There are several provisions in the bill which would authorize contracts with private profit-making agencies as opposed to the present general limitation on the Office of Education to letting these contracts only to nonprofit agencies. One of these provisions is on page 30 of the bill, lines 15 and 16, which would permit the Commissioner to make contracts with "public and private agencies, institutions or organizations" for special projects in the field of comprehensive educational planning, especially on an interstate basis. Another is on page 34 of the bill, lines 22 and 23, which would permit the Commissioner to contract with “public or private agencies or institutions” for projects in the fields of recruiting personnel for service to the handicapped and to improve the dissemination of information on educational opportunities for the handicapped. We believe that these are important steps in the right direction and should be extended to all the grant and contract programs of the U.S. Office. This would improve the quality of educational research and dissemination by making available the skill and experience of private enterprise, including the publishing industry, as well as nonprofit institutions.
AUTHORIZATION FOR THE PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF EDUCATIONAL MEDIA
I come now to a provision of the bill which frankly disturbs us—this is the language on page 38, lines 15 through 19, which reads as follows: "(2) producing and distributing educational media for the use of handicapped persons, their parents, their actual or potential employers, and other persons directly involved in work for the advancement of the handicapped". Commissioner Howe, in his prepared statement of March 2 on the bill, explained and justified this provision in the following way:
"The U.S. Office fo Education may now support research regarding educational inedia. This is generally restricted to research concerning the effectiveness of existing media. With the exception of the specific authority under the Captioned Films for the Deaf program there is no authorization to enter into contracts for the development of new media. There is no authorization which would permit specialized training programs to train specialists in the use of such media nor is there any authorization which would permit involvement in the production of