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Mr. MAcLEISH. We have worked with them, but it puts a heavy burden on them. This is a continuing, full-time job. There are also, for intelligence purposes, all sorts of periodicals which are required, which a man must devote his time to, in keeping up with them and securing them, go CHAIRMAN. What is the value of this material to the war effort? Mr. MACLEISH. The material I speak of, including periodicals of various kinds, scientific and otherwise, have a very direct bearing, giving us information as to what the Axis countries are doing. The CHAIRMAN. All this material is comparatively quite old, is it not Mr. MACLEISH. No, sir; I am talking about current material, material some of which would be put on micro-film, which our people are in continuing need of in connection with the development of, scientific devices. Mr. JoHNoN of West Virginia. What countries do you propose to have these men visit? Mr. MACLEISH. We would like to send a man to Ankera. We would like to send a second man to Switzerland, which is the point through which you could get into other countries. We would like to have a person in the Middle East, and also send some one to Scandinavia, and we have also thought of the possiibility of sending a person to India, if that situation does not clear up. Mr. TABER. Would you be sending people out to places where no other agency of the Government is situated? Mr. MAcLEISH. No, sir. In most of those places there would be representatives of the State Department. Mr. TABER. How many of these folks would you send out? Mr. MACLEISH. We would send one only. Mr. TABER. But there would be a good many places. Mr. MACLEISH. In total I might send out as many as five people. Mr. TABER. They would go to one place and stay there, would they, or would they go to one place and travel from there to a number of other places? Mr. MACLEISH. I think, sir; the man in Portugal could cover the Iberian Peninsula. Then a man in Switzerland might stay there, and a man in the Middle East would travel throughout the Middle East. Mr. TABER. I am wondering how far you have gone into this. Do you mean to tell us that the ambassadors and consular agents are not able to get those things from magazines or periodicals? That is something that is beyond my comprehension. Mr. MACLEISH. They are able to do that, but we have had experience with various ones, and have worked this out with the State Department, and they are very kind and very generous. But this is something that requires the full time of a man who has knowledge of our needs and demands on us, a man who knows pretty much what we need and can pick out the things as they come in. Mr. TABER. Are you not able to inform the representatives of the ; Department as to what you will need so that they can do the job? Mr. MACLEISH. We can give them general lists; I can furnish you with a computation of what we have received in the past. In normal times, the Library of Congress secures from four countries of Continental Europe—Germany, France, Italy, and Spain—some 5,600 books and something under 5,000 documents in the course of a year. In addition, it places subscriptions in these same countries for slightly under 6,000 periodicals. Periodicals, documents, and books from Germany and Italy cannot be secured directly because of war restrictions but are available in certain quantities in neutral countries— particularly Switzerland and Portugal. Substantially all materials from France and Spain are similarly cut off by the war. Furthermore, lists of new books ordinarily published by the European book trade, and so forth, are suspended for the period of the war or are unobtainable, or incomplete. The result is that information regarding new publications in European countries can only be secured by having an agent on the spot. Many of the most important periodicals in wartime are shortlived and editions both of periodicals and of books are small, with the result that material can often be secured only if it is secured directly and by immediate contact with the publishers. The same thing is true in general of public documents. In normal times, editions of official documents are large and are secured automatically by international exchange. In wartime, international exchange does no operate, editions are small, and it is extremely difficult to learn on this side of the Atlantic what documents are being published. Unless this material is picked up shortly after its appearance, stocks are apt to be exhausted. Generally speaking, therefore, as regards all three types of new publications, it is impossible to prepare lists on this side of the Atlantic for the instruction of members of diplomatic missions abroad. The agent abroad, if he is to do the job successfully, must be a man familiar with the Library's needs and the needs of the agencies which use the Library, and must be able to decide for himself what the Library requires. He must also give his full time to the search for new materials as they appear and for the collection of information about forthcoming publications, and so forth. But the problem is to keep in touch with the book shops and get the material we need. Our lists of continuations from Europe are very extensive, and it will be impossible for a man doing a part-time job to have an idea of just what we need. Mr. Johnson of West Virginia. How was this work done before? Mr. MACLEISH. It was handled by our purchasing agents who had lists of what we needed. Mr. Johnson of West Virginia. Where are they now? Mr. MAcLEISH. The system of commercial interchange has completely broken down. Mr Johnson of West Virginia. Are they still there? Mr. MACLEISH. In some cases the agents are still there, but the means of shipment are gone. Mr. Johnson of West Virginia. If they are gone how are you going to ship them? Mr. MACLEISH. I can give you an example of that. In Moscow, General Faymonville, who is there representing lend-lease, has been able to secure shipments when shipments are supposed to be impossible. Mr. LUDLow. This personnel would not be permanently stationed at these places, would it? Mr. MACLEIs.H. Yes; we would send our own people there.
SALARY RECLASSIFICATION OF SALARY OF EMPLOYEES OF CARD INDEX
Mr. TABER. How much was the previous appropriation for the
Mr. MacLEISH. It was $209,910.
Mr. MACLEISH. There was no estimate. This is a reallocation as
Mr. Ludlow. There is no additional personnel provided for?
Mr. TABER. You mean that this $24,180 will be put into salaries?
Mr. MACLEISH. This is for the reclassification of the entire division.
Mr. LAMBERTSON. I do not quite understand what you mean by
Mr. MacLEISH. The Committee on Appropriations suggested that
Mr. LAMBERTSON. That does not mean the reclassifying of the
Mr. MacLEISH. No; it is simply a question of going through and
WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 23, 1942.
EMERGENCY RUBBER PROJECT
STATEMENT OF C. M. GRANGER, ASSISTANT CHIEF, FOREST
SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, ACCOMPANIED BY
Sixth Supplemental National Defense Appropriation Act $4,200,000, and the President allocated an additional $600,000 on April 21, 1942. The Second Deficiency Act carried $8,235,000. So you have had up to this time a total of $13,035,000. If this additional $19,000,000 suggested in this estimate is provided you will then have had a total of $32,035,000.
I recall when this project first came before us I was rather dubious about it until my friend from Kentucky, Mr. O'Neal, suggested that the years 1942 and 1943 will some day be spoken of as the first years of the war, and it begins to look as if he might be right about it.
What results are you getting? Will you give us a general outline of what you have done up to this time, what disposition you have made of the money already given to you, and what you propose to do with the $19,000,000.
BACKGROUND AND TRAINING OF C. M. GRANGER
Mr. JoHNson of West Virginia. May we know who this gentleman represents, or what department he represents? The CHAIRMAN. Mr. Granger is at this time Assistant Chief of the Forest Service. Will you give us some of your background, Mr. Granger? Mr. GRANGER. I am Assistant Chief of the Forest Service in charge of the Branch of National Forest Administration, which has conducted a good deal of work in this particular field, especially in connection with the establishment of nurseries and the growing of plants. Mr. JoHNsoN of West Virginia. Are you an expert on rubber? Mr. GRANGER. No; but when this project was established it was decided that the Forest Service had had so much experience in operating nurseries, field planting, and organizing large projects that the Secretary of Agriculture assigned the operation to the Forest Service and it was assigned to my branch. Mr. JoHNson of West Virginia. You are the head of it? Mr. GRANGER. Yes, sir. Mr. Johnson of West Virginia. How long have you been with the Government? Mr. GRANGER. Thirty-five years.
ACCOMPLISHMENTS UNDER CURRENT APPROPRIATION
The CHAIRMAN. Will you give us a statement of what has been accomplished?
Mr. GRANGER. Mr. Chairman, the principal accomplishments to date with the money previously appropriated consist of the purchase of the Intercontinental Rubber Co. properties, including all the seed there was, and the establishment of a 530-acre nursery; the planting of about 900 acres of field plantings; the care of some old plantings which we purchased from the company; the collection of a vast quantity of seed around which this proposed expansion of the project revolves; the establishment of nearly 100 test plantings throughout the guayule territory in the Southwest; the exploration of the probable areas in which guayule might successfully be grown; the detailed examination of areas in which land might be leased for the plantings which will be undertaken early this winter; and various incidental activities which go along with those major things.
We have spent or obligated up until the present time approximately $4,500,000 for the purchase of the Intercontinental Rubber Co. lands and structures, and the operations part of the program, and a few thousand more for the necessary investigation of planting opportunities, and so forth. So the grand total amount of obligations as of today is approximately $4,677,000. It would not have been necessary to come before you for additional money for the operation of the guayule portion of the program, as far as we could see now, for the current fiscal year, had it not been for this opportunity to expand the project on the basis of an unexpected large seed harvest. The CHAIRMAN. You think the expenditure is justified by the results secured up to this time? Mr. GRANGER. We think so. We have studied the matter in the greatest possible detail. However, there is no large commercial planting record behind us to make it certain that the results we have forecast are obtainable. The CHAIRMAN. To that extent the whole project is experimental? Mr. GRANGER. Yes, it is, in that we cannot guarantee that a certain process carried on on a certain scale will give us a certain amount of rubber, but it is a gamble which we think is warranted in being taken.
DISCUSSION OF RECOMMENDATIONS MADE IN REPORT OF SPECIAL COMMITTEE TO STUDY THE RUBBER SITUATION
The CHAIRMAN. The President's special committee under the chairmanship of Mr. Baruch made some special reference to this project which appears on pages 40 and 41 of House Document No. 836, Seventy-seventh Congress, second session, and without objection, that portion of the report will be placed in the hearing.
(There was no objection.)
(The portion of the report referred to is as follows:)
9. AGRICULTURAL PROGRAM
Various plants which can be grown in the United States have been suggested as sources of rubber. Thomas Edison's experiments with goldenrod are an example. Kok-Saghyz, a Russian dandelion, is considered promising in the Union of Soviet Socialist #. as an auxiliary source of rubber, and seeds have been sent to the United States for test planting. However, the two agricultural possibilities which show most promise for the United States are guayule and cryptostegia. Guayule is a shrub which grows freely in Mexico and the American Southwest. It contains a high percentage of rubber which is extracted from the entire plant. Best yields are obtained after 4 years' growth, but the shrub can be harvested any time after 2 years. The Department of Agriculture has undertaken a large program of guayule cultivation in California, based on an initial independent planting of 500 acres in 1930. . With seeds on hand and the expected harvest this month, there will be 66 tons of seed available for further planting. The seeds must be planted in a nursery and after 1 year transplanted to the field. The plans call for planting an acreage increasing to about 180,000 acres by the end of 1944. If this program is carried through, it is anticipated by the Department that there will be crude rubber available from this domestic guyaule rising from 600 short tons in 1942 to about 33,000 in the fall of 1944, about 47,000 tons in the fall of 1945, and increasing thereafter. The Committee believes that these estimates are over-optimistic but that the project is inherently sound and should be supported. The Committee therefore recommends that this program be given every possible support as the principal Source of crude rubber which could not be lost to us short of conquest of American territory. In order to proceed with this program, however, certain things must