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and 8,500 engines (2910-XCIV). France was unwilling to perform this agreement (67, 226). Only two planes were delivered under this contract, which was superseded by contract of May 3, 1918 (2910– XCIV).
The question of how America could best aid the aircraft program was considered, including the question as to whether it could best be done by the shipment of materials or by the manufacture of parts for French or English machines, or by the completed manufacture of American machines, to be finally assembled in Europe. A compromise of these methods was eventually adopted, under which the American program included the complete manufacture of some engines and machines and the partial manufacture of others in the Ünited States, and furnishing materials and mechanics for European construction.
The Bolling Commission dissembled about the 15th of August, 1917, part of its members returning to the United States and part remaining with the American Expeditionary Forces.
Congress made ample appropriations for the Aircraft Service during the war, the aggregate amount of which, with about $15,000,000 appropriated during the year preceding the war, aggregated $1,700,000,000. On account of the termination of the war, appropriations were revoked prior to June 30, 1919, aggregating $487,000,000. The aggregate expenditures and obligations to June 30, 1919, were $1,055,652,147.66.
Prior to June 30, 1918, total expenditures were about $273,000,000, of which approximately $165,000,000 was for training fields and training and operating purposes. Up to that time about $208,000,000 had been spent for the following items: 8,488 airplanes, 12,626 engines, 411 balloons, 115,655 instruments of various kinds, 2,717 hangars, 379 squadron equipments, 317,353 items of aviator's clothing, 33,909 items of motor transport.
Öf the above items the airplanes and spare parts cost $56,007,609.06; the engines and spare parts cost $61,809,618.40; and experim al purposes cost $1,426,493.38 (p. 555-g). This left a balance out of the original $640,000,000 appropriation of approximately $267,000,000 (pp. 3557, 3561).
The expenditures overseas up to June 30, 1919, amounted to $63,345,941.77. Of the oversea payments to May 31, 1919, $11,664,004.45 was for planes and spares; $10,320,510 was for engines and spares; $572,883.34 was for balloons and spares (553).
The sum appropriated to carry out a program of this extent was not out of line with the expense of conducting the war, and particularly of developing aircraft programs as experienced by ourselves and our allies during the war.
In the early part of the war, the English authorities cabled the United States, estimating that it would cost America $1,000,000,000 to place 1,000 flyers on the line. During the months of July, August, and September 1917, France spent over $50,000,000 per month, or at the rate of $600,000,000 per year on aviation for material alone (2910-XII-I).
The shipping problem as well as the lack of contact with service conditions greatly increased the expense and confused the aviation problem for America.
Trained pilots and service planes on the battle line are the ultimate purposes of an aviation program, but preceding that is the necessity of vast expenditures and tireless, skillful effort. Like every other effort, in aviation it is particularly true that the effort and expense of to-day do not bear fruit until to-morrow. No just nor patriotic criticism will condemn the effort of to-day because, fortunately, the preparation wisely made was not needed on the morrow.
Prior to November 11, 1918, approximately $285,000,000 had been appropriated for naval áviation, of which appropriation $97,000,000 has been revoked on account of the unexpectedly early termination of the war, leaving a balance of approximately $188,000,000 of appropriations, of which over $143,000,000 had been expended (3551).
TRAINING FIELDS IN UNITED STATES
In December 1913 the Signal Corps announced the establishment of the first school for theoretical and practical instruction in aviation, to be located at San Diego. For about three years prior to that time, this location had been used as a training station by the Army and Navy and several civilians.
Among the first requirements of the aviation program for war was the establishment of additional training fields for flyers in the United States. The progress of this work is indicated by the number of fields, as follows: April 1917, 2; June, 4; July, 5; August, 6; September, 8; November, 9; December, 18; Ápril 1918, 20; May, 25.
Balloon schools: April 1917, 1; October, 2; December, 3; April 1918, 2.
Two photo schools were established in · November 1917. Four were used from January 1918. The number of mechanics’ schools were as follows: November 1917, 6; December, 7; January 1918, 15; February, 26; March, 28. Thirteen were closed in April, leaving 15 to continue from that time on.
During the early months of the war, only elementary training courses were given in the United States. Final courses in training service planes were necessarily completed in Europe (2910-XXVII). In final training in Europe, the flyers used the types of machines they were to operate on the front (2910-LXIV).
In August 1918, the American fields were giving advanced training courses.
TRAINING IN EUROPE
Early arrangements were made to train a limited number of men in the schools of our allies in Europe where there was room for that purpose. It was intended to give earlier preparation, early training while our fields were being prepared, and under the advantage of being near practical operations. The Allies were unable to accommodate the number expected and some of the men so sent to Europe did not receive training as soon as men who had remained in America for that purpose.
Later, American training flying fields were established in France where final training could be given practically under battle conditions. The first of these American fields established was at Issoudun, which subsequently became the largest flying school in the world (2910-XXVIII).
Sixteen schools were established in France under American control. A total of 22 schools were used for American training purposes (2910–XCIX, 225). Lands for this purpose were leased. In some instances the school sites had buildings which had been used for these purposes by our allies, and they were taken over and the capacity increased. In all other cases the buildings and equipment had to be provided. Part of the lumber came from the United States. Some was purchased in France. Some was shipped from the Scandinavian Peninsula, and finally an amplified supply was furnished from the forests of France by our forestry troops (2910-XXVII).
Wagon roads were required to be constructed at all of these schools, and a railroad 7 miles in length was constructed to Issoudun.
The first instructors were procured from the French flying service. Subsequently the instructors were selected from among our best trained flyers.
Mechanical instructors were secured by putting Americans in the French factories to learn different types of construction and equipment. Some Americans were sent to French mechanical schools. Finally the mechanics were trained by qualified American mechanics at the schools (2910–XCIX).
Some elementary training was given our cadets in Europe, but the general practice was to give the elementary training in the United States, and the final training in Europe (225).
The total cost of establishing and maintaining Issoudun, the principal one of these schools, was $27,045,395.53 (XLVII).
Five hundred and forty-two men took' training courses in the flying schools of England. Of this number 216 went from the English schools into the royal air forces; 96 went directly into the American forces. The 216 went into the British forces on account of the shortage of pilots on the British front. Most of them eventually entered the American service (2910-XXXV-1).
The schools in Italy were prepared to accommodate 500 Americans. Four hundred and six pilots graduated from the preliminary course, of whom 121 subsequently graduated from the Italian bombardment corps. Fifty-two took the Italian aero gunnery course. Sixty-five of the pilots
saw service on the Italian front, and 60 were maintained at the Italian front. They represented over 20 per cent of the available piloting force on that front.
The total number of Americans graduated in Europe as fully trained pilots was 1,674 and 851 observers. Of these, 1,402 pilots and 769 observers went to the front (2910-XXXV-I).
On the 30th of April, 1917, the United States adopted the British ground school system in vogue in Canada. The purpose of these schools was to give prospective fliers an elementary training. It
involved military training and theoretical instruction in aviation. For this purpose seven universities in this country were selected, where instructions were given as to airplane engines and other relevant subjects.
After the 27th of August, 1917, applicants for commissions in the Signal Officers Reserve Corps, Aviation Section, were required to have "at least a high school education."
Twenty-two thousand six hundred and eighty-nine cadets entered these schools during the war, of which 17,540 graduated. Five thousand one hundred and forty-nine were dismissed without graduating. One thousand seven hundred and ninety-one were sent directly overseas for training. Fifteen thousand six hundred and twenty-seven were sent to the United States flying fields, and 122 were discharged immediately upon graduation at the armistice.
In addition to the above, men were entered and graduated from three schools of military aeronautics, as follows: Eight hundred and fifty-two graduated as supply officers out of 963 entered; 726 graduated as engineer officers out of 964 entered; 789 graduated as adjutants out of 887 entered; and 206 graduated as balloonists out of 219 entered.
The ground schools were conducted by universities, under a contract with the United States, by which the universities furnished the necessary buildings and equipment, except of a special nature, such as airplanes, motors, machine guns, etc. The universities furnished the instructors. The Government paid a tuition for each man of $10 per week for the first four weeks, and $5 per week thereafter. The Ground Schools Branch operated the schools of military aeronautics (2910–XXII-XX5, 3880, 3561).
The total number of fliers in the Air Service at the beginning of the war, trained according to the standards at that time, was 139. On the 30th of June, 1918, there were 3,944_flying officers in the United States and 2,840 in the American Expeditionary Force, making a total of 6,784 trained in elementary flying. On the 11th of November, 1918, there were 7,118 flying officers in the United States and 4,307 in Europe, making a total of 11,425 at the time of the armistice (454). On the 11th of November, 1918, 1,674 had been completely trained as pilots and 851 had been completely trained as observers in the American Expeditionary Forces. The total of the flying personnel of all classes completely trained to November 29, 1918, was 2,768 (p. 183). There were 757 completely trained pilots and 481 completely trained observers at the front at the time of the armistice. Ten hundred and ninety-six of the fliers in Europe at the time of the armistice were capable of engaging in battle work. An additional 572 were observers and machine gunners qualified to engage in action. Twelve hundred and thirty-six of these men were engaged in actual combat in strictly American squadrons.
The American specialized flying schools had graduated 213 pursuit pilots, 338 bombing pilots, 1,195 Army Corps pilots, 415 bombers, and 907 aerial observers up to the time of the armistice who had not gone overseas where they would receive short final courses of training
Thirty-two squadrons, 810 pilots and observers, were equipped with French and British planes at the time of the armistice. Thirteen squadrons, 428 pilots and observers, were equipped with American-made planes (2495–2496).
The total personnel of the Air Service at the beginning of the war was approximately 1,300.
At the armistice there were approximately 20,000 officers and 149,000 men in the Air Service. Of these, 7,726 officers and 70,769 men were overseas, 6,816 officers and 51,229 men being in France.
The Navy and Marine Corps aviation personnel increased during the war from 48 officers and a total of 239 men to 3,117 officers and 45,632 men at the date of the armistice. Of this number, 1,324 officers and 10,137 men and 825 pilots were abroad at the time of the armistice, and 1,793 officers, 35,795 men, and 826 pilots were in the United States at the time of the armistice (3351).
In preliminary training a mortality occured in proportion to hours flown as follows: British, 1,993, French, 2,680, Italians, 949; United States in Italy, 5,853; in France, 2,887; in England, 1,614; in America in 1918, 2,973; in America in 1919, 1,309 (556A).
In advanced training among student pilots a fatality occurred in proportion to hours flown as follows: British, 573; Italian, 747; United States in Italy, 2,644; United States in France, 1,101; United States in England, 384; American Expeditionary Forces, 936; United States in America in 1918, 2,802 (p. 556-a).
American student pilots in preliminary training flew 362,706 hours in 1918.
Six hundred and twenty-eight American-built planes were sent to the front and used, or were in reserve ready for use, on the day of the armistice. Four hundred and seventeen American-built planes were used on the front during the war. The casualties in the use of these planes amounted to less than 15 per cent, including the wounded and prisoners, of the total aviation combat casualties of the United States. These machines were used for observation and bombing purposes, and protection from attack was afforded through formation flying and maneuverable gun defense.
Planes for the use of military forces naturally divided themselves into two great classes—training and service planes. Training planes are elementary and advanced. Service planes are divided into four classes-pursuit or combat, observation, day bombers, and night bombers. The experience of the United States prior to the war had been confined to the elementary training plane.
The training-plane problem was met in a satisfactory way. Within six months after the declaration of war we had sufficient elementary training planes to satisfactorily meet our needs (pp. 3556, 3536, 152, 153): Deliveries of training planes began in June 1917, in small numbers; 103 were delivered during the month of August, 193 in September, and 340 in October. Approximately 5,646 training planes were delivered prior to the armistice (pp. 516, 517).
These training planes were principally the SJ-1, of which a total of 1,600 were manufactured; the Penguin, of which only 300 were made; and the JN4-D, of which 3,746 were manufactured before