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General ARMSTRONG. I will tell you our plan, which has the tentative approval of our G-1 Division; that is, we would take the number of reservists in the grades in which we are interested and break them down by Army areas in relation to the number we have in that particular area. That Army area would be instructed to break them down by States in relation to the number in the States. The State and military instructor is to be instructed to call in the State medical society and the component county society and medical reserve organizations to sit down with that district commander and decide who can best be spared.
Now, if you have any suggestions as to a better way to do that, we would welcome them, because whatever we do will be most difficult. We are going to have unhappy people. We are hoping to get some responsibility on the part of the Iocal profession to help us decide.
Mr. SIKES. Can you tell me how many people have received training and have served, and can you tell me how many people have received partial training and have not served!
General ARMSTRONG. I would rather insert that. (The information requested is as follows:)
Medical personnel receiving training under the Army specialized training program
Dropped for academic or other reasons..
2,000 Dropped at end of program.
4,500 The trainees dropped at the end of the program represent students in various stages of training. Data are not available as to the number of these students completing their training. Of those completing their training it is possible that a few have volunteered for service.
TRANSPORTATION SERVICE, ARMY
COL. R. C. MILTON, TRANSPORTATION COMPTROLLER
Mr. Mahon. We will now take up the Office of the Chief of Transportation.
Colonel MILTON. The Transportation Service, Army, estimates presented for your consideration are for the procurement of rail and marine equipment; for increased ocean transportation support the United States Army and United States Air Force; for ocean transportation of bulk POL to Japan for issue to the United States Navy; for increased port activity in the Far East and in the United States; for the replacement of military personnel with civilians wherever feasible; and for increased United States Army transportation activities in the continental United States.
In order to provide transportation for the task-force activities and for the other increased activities of the United States Army, and for the United States Air Force and United States Navy where the Army has responsibility, it is estimated that 258.8 million dollars will be required over the amount of 289.9 million dollars as reported by the Senate Appropriations Committee. The funds required by major project are:
For “Procurement and production" an additional 68.4 million dollars is estimated, of which about 90 percent represents task-force requirements. · Of the total, 45.3 million dollars is for marine equipment (LCM's, barges, freight and passenger boats, patrol boats, tugs, floating cranes) and 23.1 million dollars is for rail equipment (locomotives, tank cars, flat cars, box cars, etc.). It is essential that procurement of most of the items required be initiated immediately.
Most of the supplemental funds required are for transportation operations. Of the total supplemental, funds estimated for operations amount to 190.2 million dollars, of which 97 percent is in support of the task force, with the balance to be used for increased activities in the United States. The estimates are based on projected workloads and may or may not be adequate depending on the rate of shipment of ammunition, supplies, equipment, and troops to the Far East. More than half of the funds included in these estimates will be made available to the Military Sea Transportation Service for the purpose of providing ocean transportation. The balance covers commercial freight transportation, increased port operations, replacement of military personnel with civilians, and other increases in transportation activities.
The $270,000 included for training activities provides for the replacement of military personnel with civilians at the transportation school.
The suppplemental request as presented represents the best transportation estimates that can be made at this time. The exceedingly long supply line in support of the task-force operations will place a continuing increasing burden on the transportation system. It is essential that adequate transportation funds be provided so as to permit a rapid acceleration in the flow of matériel and personnel. to the Far East and to other areas as may be
necessary. Mr. SIKES. Colonel Milton, is the Army going back into the business of operating boats?
Colonel Milton. No; the Army is not going back into the business of operating oceangoing vessels, but I believe there will be some additional craft that will be broken out by the Navy. However, a large part of the ocean transportation requirements will be by commercial
Mr. SIKES. In other words, we had understood that the Army was going to operate land transportation, and the Navy was going to operate water transportation. That is still the picture!
Colonel Milton. That is correct, but although the Navy will operate water transportation it will still be required that the Army contribute funds for such operation.
Mr. ENGEL. You will have to ship, I imagine, tanks and materials by steamer and rail.
Colonel MILTON. Yes.
Mr. ENGEL. How long does it take for the average steamer to make the trip from here to Korea and back?
Colonel MILTON. I would estimate that from San Francisco to Korea would require from 12 to 13 days. It is a little farther from San Francisco and Seattle to Korea than it is to Yokohama, and the steaming time to Yokohama is approximately 11 days, or a little more.
Mr. ENGEL. Do you mean of a freighter?
Now, going into the straight-cargo vessels, it would take a period of time I would estimate from 14 to 17 days.
Mr. ENGEL. And it would be twice that number of days for a round trip, including loading and unloading?
Colonel Milton. No, sir; just the steaming time.
Mr. ENGEL. It would take the same amount of time coming back as going over?
Colonel MILTON. Yes.
Mr. ENGEL. Then you would have your unloading time and the other time taken out. It would take 45 days to 2 months for a complete trip?
Colonel MILTON. I do not believe that you could figure a complete round trip, including the unloading time, at less than 45 days.
Mr. ENGEL. We talked about a freighter going over to Japan. We figured 3 months at one time. General REEDER. That was convoy. (Discussion off the record.)
LT. COL. JOHN J. HAYES, COMPTROLLER OF THE CHEMICAL CORPS
Mr. MAHON. Colonel Hayes, do you have a statement for the Chemical Corps
Colonel HAYES. Yes, Mr. Chairman.
Gentlemen, I am appearing before you today in the absence of General McAuliffe who has been on a mission to Europe where he participated in the dedication of the Bastogne Memorial in Belgium.
The military budget estimates of the Chemical Corps for the fiscal year 1951, which you have before you, total $69,153,278. This is an increase of $31,853,278 over the fiscal year 1951 estimates as reported by the Senate Committee on Appropriations. This additional amount has been made necessary by the expansion of the Army and for the task force coming to grips with communism in Korea. A small part of this increase_212 percent ($855,630)-is required for the payment of civilians to replace enlisted personnel engaged in administrative and clerical duties who are being transferred to tactical units in the expanding Army, to establish a new course for the training of Chemical Corps intelligence teams, and to accelerate the biological and radiological warfare training programs. To support the task force,
$20,234,207 is required for procurement, production, and delivery of supplies and materials to support Korea operations, and to cover the increased cost of maintenance and operation of active facilities due to the enlarged production program. These funds will provide for the procurement or production of the initial increment of critical items of ammunition and weapons required to support the combat operations in Korea.
In order to further expand the Army and to provide cross-service support for the Air Force requirements for incendiaries and other Chemical Corps ammunition items in combat operations, $10,763,441 additional will be required for the third increment. Further expansion of Chemical Corps industrial facilities with their attendant costs of maintenance and operation, add to the cost of providing ammunition and supplies either through renovation or repair of existing unserviceable stocks, or by now procurement of more modern up-to-date items.
Mr. MAHON. Any questions?
Mr. SIKES. Colonel Hayes, what is there in the Chemical Corps' estimate that costs $20,000,000 plus !
Colonel Hayes. The biggest requirement is for the production of ammunition and equipment, being requested by General MacArthur.
Mr. SIKES. Is it mortar ammunition, napalm, smoke, and so forth?
Colonel HAYES. Not mortar ammunition; that is furnished by the Ordnance Department. In the main, smoke pots, grenades, napalm, fuel for flame throwers, protective equipment, and items of that type are what is required.
Mr. SIKES. The remainder of the $31,000,000 represents a stepping up in training and preparation at home by the Chemical Corps for any emergency that might arise ?
Colonel HAYES. Yes sir, but I would say stepping up not so much of the training as in the productive capacity-the breaking out of certain of the industrial facilities which have been in stand-by condition under the industrial mobilization program in order to start making items in considerable quantity.
Mr. SIKES. Now off the record. (Off record discussion.)
Mr. MAHON. General Decker, a lot of this material is available here to us and can be considered later by the committee. It takes time to digest some of these tables.
Is there any further information that you have that you can supply to the committee, or do you have any further statement?
General DECKER. You have heard the testimony in connection with the larger of the appropriation requests. I will mention briefly the items that have not been touched upon previously,
Mr. MAHON. You are referring to other items in the book of justifications?
General DECKER. That is correct. Mr. MAHON. Containing several hundred pages? General DECKER. Yes; to which reference is made in the book. I will briefly mention and touch upon the items which have not been covered heretofore.
CONTINGENCIES OF THE ARMY First is contingencies of the Army. That is a fund which can be used for any purpose for which no other appropriation is available. For example, General MacArthur recently requested $5,000,000, which was transferred to him, and made available to him. That can be used by the Secretary of the Army for any purpose that he approves. That fund is only used on his specific approval.
There is no request for the next two items-special field exercises and inter-American relations.
You have already heard testimony on all the services down to the item of Army training.
For Army training there is an item of $2,667,000, which is explained at tab 19 of the justifications. It pertains mostly to replacing military instructors at schools with civilians in order to make military personnel available for use in tactical units.
The next item in the appropriation request is for the National Guard. That is to provide for some additional week end firing to permit individuals to qualify with arms, so that when they come to the summer camp the entire period can be devoted to tactical training.
Mr. MAHON. Would it be good for us to provide additional funds for the National Guard in order to provide a greater degree of readiness to the National Guard ?
General DECKER. The request of the Army has been limited to this amount at this time for the reason that definite plans for the National Guard are still under study.
Mr. Mahon. Do you think that the funds provided here for the National Guard are sufficient to take care of the situation in the light of the pending program?
General DECKER. The Army does feel that they are sufficient at this time.
Mr. Mahon. For the program that is now in the process of study? General DECKER. Probably not.
Mr. Mahon. And if any additional funds are required we can depend upon you to provide the necessary explanation?
General DECKER. Yes; the necessary justifications at that time.