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This item here [indicating] is the replacement of military with civilians at posts, camps, and stations in the United States, to run telephone systems, radio stations, and allow the military personnel to go into combat organizations. That is 1,637 man-years.
In communications for the Army, it is likewise the same type of an increase.
In combat photography there is 120 more civilian personnel that we will need to process the combat footage coming in from the combat area.
In special field activities there is a slight increase. In other words, a total of 8,500 new persons over our existing strength of 12,571.
That, in a nutshell, is the increase in that $148,000,000.
INCREASES FOR MAJOR PROCUREMENT
Mr. MAHON. Either on or off the record, what are the large items of increase in your major procurement!
General LAWTON. It is radio equipment in this new family of sets for the Infantry, for the field artillery, and for the Army.
Then there is the new field wire, which is about 40 percent lighter than the field wire we used heretofore for the combat Infantry. It is in a small container and is paid out from the back.
ALASKA COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM
General LAWTON. Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, the regular Alaska Communication System estimates for fiscal year 1951 as reported to the Senate amounted to $5,877,920. Of this total, $3,000,000 covered maintenance and operation and $2,877,920 was included for construction.
This supplemental estimate contemplates an increase in the Alaska Communication System appropriation, fiscal year 1951 of $4,393,200. $3,317,000 will be required for technical construction and the balance of $676,200 will be required for the construction of buildings, utilities, and so forth.
The three principal bases in Alaska at which our defense forces are concentrated are Fort Richardson near Anchorage, Ladd Air Force Base at Fairbanks, and Eielson Air Force Base southeast of Fairbanks. The principal communication facility connecting Anchorage and Fairbanks is the telephone and telegraph pole line installed along the Alaska Railroad, a distance of 351 miles. The present capacity of this pole line is only 11 voice channels. The Commander in Chief, Alaska, indicates that even for current operations a minimum of 24 voice channels are required. In order to obtain access to this pole line, it is necessary to utilize the railroad. One bomb could easily disrupt both the railroad and the pole line. During the winter, interruptions are frequent due to heavy snowfalls.
In order to correct this situation, a detailed survey has been made by the American Telephone & Telegraph Co. under contract with a view of best providing the increased communication facilities required between Anchorage and Fairbanks. The recommended solution to this problem is the installation of an eight copper wire lead from Anchorage to Cathedral repeater station along the all-weather highway indicated in red on this chart together with carrier equipment installed in repeater or booster stations at Sheep Mountain and Gulkana; the installation of a J-carrier on the existing open wire line
along the Alcan Highway connecting Cathedral repeater station and Fairbanks as shown in green. The red dots on this map indicate the existing repeater stations; the black dots indicate new repeater stations which it will be necessary to construct. In the left hand of this map are indicated the new buildings and utilities it will be necessary to provide. The construction contemplated in this estimate is to provide 12 additional voice channels between the Anchorage and Fairbanks area. This is considered the minimum that should be installed at this time to provide reliable communications between the three main bases of defense in Alaska in view of the Korean situation.
This project is submitted at this time in order that this vital communication line in Alaska may be installed at the earliest practicable date.
The total revised estimate for the Alaska Communication System is $10,271,120. The Public Works construction involved was authorized by Public Law 414, Eighty-first Congress.
Mr. MAHON. Will you say something about the request in the budget for the Alaska communications system? General LAWTON. Yes, sir. There are two subjects.
One is the increase of $4,393,200. In Alaska at the present time we have from Fairbanks to Anchorage a telephone line going up along the railroad. Then, of course, there is radio between those two points.
If this railroad is bombed the wire lines go out. At the present time the commanding general does not have, even for the present existing period, enough circuits from Fairbanks to Anchorage. Therefore, we propose to build a telephone line not along the railroad, but along a highway which is open; and the Interior Department says they will keep it open all winter. It goes along up here [indicating] hitting the Alcan Highway here at this point here [indicating).
Then we will put repeaters on existing wire lines going from this point [indicating] up to Fairbanks. The 4.4 million dollars means building a pole line with eight wires, or four circuits, up to the Cathedral repeater station and installing four repeater_stations at Sheep Mountain, Gulkana, Johnson River, and Harding Lake.
This has been surveyed by the engineers of A. T. & T. and the estimate here is the result of that survey.
LESSONS FROM KOREAN OCCUPATION
Mr. Mahon. Do you anticipate learning any special lessons in the Korean operation in connection with Signal Corps equipment?
General LAWTON. We will. Our new combat equipment, which has not been war tested yet, will be there shortly. Some of it already has.
Mr. SIKES. General, since it is as far to the Alcan Highway as it would be directly to Fairbanks, what is your reason for following the highway right-of-way instead of the railroad right-of-way?
General LAWTON. On account of the vulnerability of the railroad to being bombed, and throwing everything you have out. If this does go out there is no highway, and you have to get a train to go up on the railroad to repair your wives. Here we have an ordinary highway. We can put a truck out with a lineman and repair the wire.
Mr. MAHON. In the event it is bombed?
General LAWTON. That is correct. There are snowslides that put the railroad out for a week or 10 days at a time.
Mr. ENGEL. That is the railroad from Anchorage to Fairbanks? General LAWTON. That is right.
Mr. ENGEL. That is where they have the snowslides and are closed up in the wintertime and cannot get over it at all for weeks and weeks, because of tunnels?
General LAWTON. That is right.
COMPARISON OF REQUESTS
You state in the opening paragraph of your general statement that the regular signal service fiscal year 1951 estimates were $158,000,000. You say it is necessary to increase these estimates in order to support the Korean operation by $148,000,000.
General, do you mean literally that because of the operation in Korea we have to double the funds for the Signal Service?
General LAWTON. The greater portion of that will go for the Korean operation, and replacing in the United States the equipment we are no wtaking and sending to Korea, which will probably be shot up; or else to take care of this third increment here, as indicated here [indicating).
Mr. SIKES. I just want to be sure that is the situation. It is hard for me to comprehend that you are going to need as much money now for the Korean operation alone as you had anticipated you would need all year in support of the entire establishment.
General LAWTON. But you must remember what we asked for in 1951. The $158,000,000 included the equipment of some five divisions here in the United States with new modern equipment. This goes beyond that.
In other words, we are not going to lose $148,000,000 worth of equipment in the Korean fight. We are going to lose part of that in the Korean fight.
The other amount is to equip this third increment of the Army which will be in the United States ready to go either there or some other place.
Mr. Mahon. It is for a greater degree of readiness?
Mr. SIKES. How many additional divisions will be equipped with new equipment as a result of this money you are now requesting?
General LAWTON. This will be six additional divisions. Mr. SIKES. Then, you anticipate all of the regular Army divisions will be equipped with first-line communications?
General LAWTON. Yes, sir; with our latest modernized equipment. Mr. Sikes. All right. That is different from using it all for Korea. General LAWTON. No, sir; it will not all go to Korea.
EQUIPMENT FOR TANKS
Mr. ENGEL. Does the Signal Corps provide the radio equipment for these new tanks?
General LAWTON. Yes, sir; we do. It is in this budget.
Mr. ENGEL. In other words, you provide for this number of light tanks and medium tanks and these combat cars?
General LAWTON. Yes, sir.
Mr. ENGEL. All the radio equipment for these cars we are buying now?
General LAWTON. You are buying out of that $148,000,000.
Mr. ENGEL. All this new equipment we are buying for ordnance is here, including the conversion of tanks, if any?
General LAWTON. That is right.
General LAWTON. In this $148,000,000; yes, sir. Our program goes along in step with the ordnance.
Mr. ENGEL. That is all, Mr. Chairman.
General LAWTON. I have one other item, sir. I think Mr. Rabaut will remember this.
In the regular Alaska budget you reduced the construction of quarters and buildings up there from $3,000,000 to $1,000,000 because at that time we did not have a firm cost in Alaska. Since that time Mr. Johnson, Secretary of Defense, set a committee up, with which you are familiar, and we went over to the Senate with that evidence, and that evidence indicated that the Johnson committee said we should build not a set of quarters for a noncom of $1,080 square feet but of 976 square feet, and the unit price would be $14,772.
Mr. RABAUT. As compared to what before?
General LAWTON. Well, this does not state what it was before, but it was considerably more.
Now that this is firm, and the Senate has approved our request, we would like to have it approved. I can tell you in dollars what it saved. It saved $122,080. It reduced our estimate by $122,080.
Mr. MAHON. That will be considered in conference between the House and Senate.
General LAWTON. Yes. I just raise that for your consideration. The figure is firm now, as a result of that, and the Senate has approved it. Mr. RABAUT. Is there any additional request for housing in here?
General LAWTON. No. There is a request in here for buildings for repeater stations, but not quarters for people to live at these four spots.
Mr. MAHON. Thank you very much.
ENGINEER SERVICE, ARMY
BRIG. GEN. J. S. BRAGDON, DEPUTY CHIEF OF ENGINEERS
Mr. MAHON. We will consider at this time the supplemental request for "Engineer service, Army."
We are happy to have with us at this time Brigadier General Bragdon, the Deputy Chief of Engineers.
General BRAGDON. Gentlemen, the supplemental fiscal year 1951 estimate for the appropriation, "Engineer service, Army,” amounts to $329,115,182. Of this amount, $69,080,465 is for the expanded Army; $188,094,117 is for task force; and $71,490,600 is for the third increment.
These funds are necessary to meet the minimum requirements for activities and functions financed from this appropriation for the expanded Army and support of troops in the theater of operation.
$262,997,422 is being requested for procurement of engineer military supplies and equipment; maintenance, repair, and rehabilitation of equipment; replacement of equipment due to operational losses; and for depot operations. $49,004,200 is required for repair and utility activities, including the opening of necessary stations and activation of spaces in existing stations to accommodate the expanding Army; maintenance, operation, alteration, and rehabilitation of reactivated stations and expanded operations at depots, arsensals, ports, and other necessary establishments. These funds will also provide for the employment of civilians to replace enlisted personnel. Real-estate activities will require $12,229,900 to finance the leasing of facilities due to increased recruiting requirements; overnight lodgings of recruits; expansion of procurement offices, special storage, closed storage, warehouses, building, and office space. $4,883,660 is being requested in the supplemental estimate for increased training of engineer troops required for the expanded Army, and to process, publish, and transmit to the theater of operation, horizontal control data necessary for artillery, typographic maps at all scales, engineer intelligence data, and terrain relief models.
The second sheet I passed around was a breakdown for the engineer of the line of the consolidation sheet which you have for all the appropriations.
It shows that the heaviest amount we request is under 120, “Procurement of engineer military supplies and equipment.” You will notice there we asked for $44,000,000 in our original 1951 budget, and in this supplement it is $250,000,000.
Under “Army repairs and utilities,” while our regular appropriation was $190,000,000, we are here requesting about $49,000,000.
For “Real-estate activities” we are requesting about $12,000,000, and our regular appropriation request was about $12,000,000.
Under "Maintenance and repair of engineer military equipment” we are asking about $6,000,000 in addition to the $20,000,000.