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to clear landscaping. Some general landscape practices to provide increased security and visitor protection are included in the following discussion, as well as practices specific to the control of littering, vandalism, improved visibility, and zoning.

General Landscape Practices

The following landscape practices are indicative of current techniques to improve visitor protection and security in general:

Using thorny shrubs to provide buffer barriers around windows, equipment and other facilities where intruders are not wanted. Other plant materials require little trimming and insect protection, have good root systems to retard erosion, and require little O&M.

Designing viewpoints and vistas to render an effect of one-way perspectives.

Placing shrubs or trees to provide screens for privacy, shade, wind protection, or direct movement, and still enable security surveillance (Sketch 10).

Thinning vegetation along walkways or trails so that other people may be seen, while landscape presence and texture is experienced.

Designing the layout of an area to facilitate convenient maintenance practices, such as litter cleanup.

Orienting doors and windows and the siting of buildings and other structures toward open access and views.

Controlling Litter

There are several effective landscape architectural approaches that can be used to control littering. The measures below reflect a

few:

Maintaining clean appearance. People appear more reluctant
to disregard litter in a clean area where it will be conspic-

Once litter starts, such as from overflowing trash receptacles, it tends to accumulate more rapidly.

uous.

Picking up litter during use activity appears to be an educational deterrent.

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Placing more trash cans convenient to place of use rather than place of convenient pickup. Carrying food into a picnic area or along a trail is a part of the expectation of the occasion. Carrying trash back out, even with a feeling of environmental consciousness, 18 a chore (Sketch 11).

Designing roadside areas to enable use of modern litter cleanup equipment, such as large vacuum systems, and the use of ORV systems to collect trash materials from interior use locations.

Exploring areas and equipment that would permit on-site disposal or temporary storage of waste material, such as compactors, incinerators, and recycling systems.

Providing larger capacity trash collection facilities at roadsides for automobile use. This may require modification of some of the "dumpster" systems to make them more attractive and accessible from car windows . For example, have a youth group, at the beginning of summer, paint the dumpsters with creative designs. Trash can capacities at automobile discharge points are invariably inadequate.

Developing positive reinforcement programs to promote litter prevention and cleanup.

Deterring Vandalism

The following landscape architectural practices will assist the Corps in deterring possible acts of vandalism at the lakes:

Replacing vandalized facilities promptly. Well maintained facilities can deter vandalism, while particularly damaged facilities may encourage further destruction.

Designing and constructing facilities that are resistant to vandalism or are inexpensive to replace. "Vandal-proofing" is already practiced in many instances by Corps design, construction, and maintenance procedures, such as using lucite windows, automatic shower turn-off faucets, and concrete picnic tables. One of the difficult problems is deciding whether it is more cost effective to replace damaged facilities with more damage resistant materials or to simply tolerate replacing with regular or cheaper materials.

Turning shower facilities over to concessionaires to manage and maintain as a revenue supporting service.

Returning to single toilet restrooms. Use more portable facilities that are taken away and stored when not needed during periods of low use. Providing simple water vault pit toilets to handle interim periods of low use.

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Placing parking lots in full view. As previously described, many incidents of larcency are associated with breaking into parked cars. Providing views to day use areas so that visitors may situate their activity at a point where they can observe their parked automobile may reduce this activity. Lighting parking areas at night would also be effective.

Improving Visibility

Improving visibility is an excellent landscaping measure which will assist law enforcement and improve visitor protection. Some of the practices are as follows:

Designing view perspectives to provide visibility while at the same time keeping landscape continuity, functionality and privacy where desired (Sketches 12 and 13).

Lighting to extend visibility into the night. Intensity, shades, and focuses of lighting may lessen the negative environmental impact of night lighting, such as typically felt in campgrounds (Sketch 14).

Lights on security patrol vehicles and flashlights should have a distinguishing characteristic by which visitors can identify patrol personnel.

Improving the application of landscape architectural practices to open up views of use areas and lake vistas would provide better surveillance, greater visitor appreciation, and deterrence to visitors cutting trees and vegetation on their own. The visitors desire to view the lake from picnic areas and campgrounds and other activity areas should be anticipated. Many such areas were observed where overviews of the lake were obliterated by vegetation. Contrary to the commonly expressed notion of environmental protection, selective trimming can enhance the quality of the environment from a human perspective.

Zoning

Zoning is a landscape and design technique which has not been used fully and could prove to be very effective. Zoning is a tool for both recreation management and law enforcement and visitor protection which may be applied to control the use of space and time. Consideration should be given to some of the following practices:

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