Page images
PDF
EPUB

restrained by law from performing preventive patrol or surveillance. And too, many of these departments feel a primary responsibility to county residents who are in effect paying directly for their services. This is often a point of concern among these agencies who are caught between their obligation to community residents and their legal obligation to respond when called. But the basic problem under this situation is the fact that these agencies are not performing the level of preventive surveillance which is required in most instances; that is, the type of surveillance which is essential to the prevention of the significant number of potentially suppressible crimes which are presently being committed.

A similar situation holds true among state agencies that provide services but are frequently spread thin throughout the state and unable to receive additional finances for improving services specifically at Corps lakes. Federal agencies are available on call in particular situations, but provide no regular on-site duties and certainly no preventive law enforcement.

The proposals, as suggested in this alternative, involve providing required finances directly from the Corps to any one (or combination) of these agencies specifically for the purpose of ensuring adequate law enforcement at Corps projects. The specific sub-alternatives to be considered include:

[blocks in formation]

Each sub-alternative will be discussed separately in the remaining discussion,

Discussion

The first form in which this major alternative could be implemented would involve the subsidy of local law enforcement agencies (i.e., city and county) at each project location which have contiguous jurisdiction with the Corps. While this solution would serve to provide needed law enforcement services to the lake areas there are many problems involved in its implementation and the supervision of service delivery, as well as the basic quality of those services which are being purchased. The major as set of the approach, however, lies in the fact that it utilizes the services of established, trained, and equipped law enforcement agencies rather than requiring the Corps to establish its own duplicative organization. At the same time it leaves the function of recreation management to the Corps which is best equipped for this function.

Cost

Estimates for the costs to be incurred by local law enforcement vary considerably in urban and rural areas. The 1972 census found that the mean starting salary for patrolmen in cities over one million in population was $10,497. Table 11-1 shows ranges of police patrolman starting salaries expressed as percentage of this mean starting salary. For larger county police, Table 11-2 displays average total county expenditures (FY 71-72) on' police protection in states which contain a significant number of the Corps lakes. The full-time equivalent payroll and expenditures per employee are also detailed.

The information on these tables reflect the disparity in costs for police services between large western and northern cities and counties and small, rural areas. While the Corps lakes are typically spread throughout the nation, the discussion on analysis revealed that 70 percent of the A lakes were centrally located in the lower midwest and southern states. The police salaries in these states are generally below the average for the country. However, these local agency payrolls

Table 11-1

RELATIONSHIPS IN MUNICIPAL POLICE OFFICER
STARTING PAY TO THE WEIGHTED MEAN OF STARTING SALARIES
OF OFFICERS IN CITIES OVER 1,000,000 POPULATION

BY BROAD REGIONS AND BY CITY SIZE, 1972

[blocks in formation]

(Source:

International City Management Association, Municipal Yearbook, 1973.)

11

COUNTY POLICE PROTECTION EXPENDITURES AND FULL-TIME EQUIVALENT

PAYROLL BY SELECTED STATE TOTALS, and
AVERAGE EXPENDITURE PER FULL-TIME EQUIVALENT EMPLOYEE

County Police Protection
Total
Pull-Time

Expenditures
Expenditures Equivalent

Per Full-Time FY 71-72

Payroll

Equivalent (in thousands) (Oct., '72)

Employee Alabama $ 8,003

888

9,010 Arizona 10,276

1,038

9,900 Arkansas 4,030

547

7,370 California 178,906

12,493

14,320 Colorado

711

8,940 Connecticut1/

5,977

12,450 Georgia 20,854

2,032

10,260 Idaho 3,053

413

8,480 Illinois 26,154

2,419

10,810 Iowa 5,704

600

9,510 Kansas 5,758

680

8,470 Kentucky 9,785

932

10,500 Louisiana 26,948

2,583

10,430 Maine 1,009

123

8,200 Massachusetts

786

24

32,750 Michigan 32,249

2,217

14,550 Minnesota 13,361

1,179

11,560 Mississippi 5,623

589

9,550 Missouri 13,408

1,376

9,740 Nebraska 3,636

417

8, 720 New Hampshire

612

61

10,030 New York 132, 121

9,348

14,130 North Carolina 18,379

1,793

10,250 North Dakota 1,611

183

8,800 Ohio 24,638

2,420

10,180 Oklahoma 4,546

547

8,310 Oregon 11, 302

960

11,770 Pennsylvania 7,406

667

11,100 South Carolina 11,226

1,190

9,430 South Dakota 1,668

171

9,750 Tennessee

7,699

801

9,610 Texas 26,709

3,107

8,440 Vermont

16

2

8,000 Virginia 21,919

2,081

10,530 Washington 16,851

1,481

11,380 West Virginia 3,019

400

7,550 Wisconsin 21,357

1,903

11,220

[ocr errors][merged small]

(Source:

U.S. Bureau of Census, and LEAA, Expenditure and Employment Data for the Criminal Justice System, 1971-72, GPO, 1974.)

may be so deflated that in order to spare a patrolman for special detail, he would have to be purchased in total. Thus, even though the billing rates appear low, the added expenses may be extreme.

On the other hand, 60 percent of the Blakes are located in the northern and northwestern states. While the police costs in these areas would be higher, the amount of service necessary is lower than the A lakes.

Based on the field visits, in this study, and previous management studies with local law enforcement throughout the country, the project team was able to design a base upon which to estimate various law enforcement costs in relation to the manpower necessary to sufficiently meet the standard level of service established for Corps of Engineers lakes. The following table reflects these costs estimates:

[blocks in formation]

Icost
Cost estimates include 50 percent overhead factor plus administrative

costs and employee benefits.
2This class includes the unclassified lakes.
May have to pay expenses to retain patrol on a sufficient calls for
service basis. This is especially true in rural areas.

« PreviousContinue »