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Significantly increase the number of Corps rangers possessing citation authority;
Significantly increase the number of citation training programs so that all personnel with citation authority have completed a minimum of 50 hours of such training; and
Significantly increase the issuance of citations and written warnings by a factor of at least two.
Objective 2-2: The Corps should significantly increase its environmental and resource protection public education program particularly in local school systems in close proximity to Corps lakes.
Standards of Service:
Increase number of special presentations by ranger personnel in schools;
Increase number of newspaper articles explaining Corps re-
Increase number of public educational presentations to civic and other community groups.
GOAL 3: PATROL--Visitors to Corps of Engineers lakes should
Discussion. The intent of this goal statement is to establish that regular and continuing patrol of a lake is necessary. At the present time during normal work hours, Corps personnel with citation authority will, in the course of their duties inspect most areas of a lake on a daily basis. There is some patrol after normal working hours at some lakes; however, our field visits have convinced us that these patrols are not as intensive as required.
Objective 3-1: Class A Corps of Engineer recreation-resource lakes will require a minimum of 16 hours per day of law enforcement patrol
coverage during periods of peak usage. Ranger personnel will supplement these services and provide patrol services during off-peak periods
Objective 3-2: Class B Corps of Engineer recreation-resource lakes will require a minimum of eight hours per day of law enforcement patrol coverage during periods of peak usage. Ranger personnel will supplement these services and provide patrol services during off-peak periods of usage.
Objective 3-3: Class C lakes will require that the Corps negotiate appropriate written agreements with agencies operating outgranted areas to provide visitor protection services. As a minimum, such agreements should provide for visitor protection services at least equal to those provided by the Corps at similar Corps-operated areas.
Objective 3-4: Class D lakes will require facility and resource protection by Corps or security personnel on a 24-hour-a-day basis. No regular patrol services will be required at these projects.
Standards of Service Relating to Objectives 1-4:
Class A lakes: All Corps developed areas of such lakes will
Class B lakes: All Corps developed areas will be inspected at least twice per twenty-four day by law enforcement officers. All portions of the lake will be inspected at least once per twenty-four hour day.
Class C lakes: Either the Class A or Class B standards of
Clas lakes: Twenty-four hour security protection of facilities required. Normal Corps activities sufficient for visitor and resource protection, providing, however, that each Class D project have at least one Corps personnel with citation authority.
lakes should be assured that if a crime is committed, officers with law enforcement authority will be available, and have the capability to apprehend the guilty party and present the individual(s) for adjudication to the appropriate judicial authority.
Discussion. Based on our field visits and questionnaire analysis, it is our judgment that the Corps should not develop an internal investigative capability. Existing federal agencies, such as, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Provost Marshal, the Drug Enforcement Administration provide high quality investigative services the Corps can draw upon when serious federal offenses occur. In addition, due to the Corps proprietorial management of project lands, state and county police organizations will generally provide investigative services related to state law violations when requested.
The Corps primary need is for individuals who can perform professional preliminary crime and accident investigations similar to those performed by capable patrol officers in state, county, and local organizations. In addition, those rangers with citation authority who have received training should be able to handle investigations related to Title 36 violations. However, in those areas of the nation where local law enforcement is undermanned, it may be necessary to provide for some form of contract investigative services from duly-constituted law enforcement agencies. The objectives specified below address these issues.
Objective 4-1: Officers with law enforcement authority at all class A and B Corps lakes, who provide patrol services, should be competent and trained to perform professionally acceptable preliminary investigations of reported crime, accidents, and traffic crashes.
Standards of Service: All preliminary investigations by law enforcement personnel at Corps class A and B lakes should be judged acceptable for follow-up investigative purposes by whatever agency provides such services. No court cases should be lost because of inadequate preliminary investigations.
Objective 4-2: The Corps of Engineers should develop appropriate written agreements with all federal, state, and local agencies whose jurisdiction encompasses Corps projects regarding the nature and scope of investigative services to be provided.
Standards of Service:
Existence of written agreements;
Clearance rates for reported crimes at Corps lakes where ex-
Existence of supplementary reports detailing the steps taken
Goal 5: COMMUNICATIONS-- Visitors to Corps of Engineers lakes
Discussion. Our site visits have convinced us that virtually none of the Corps recreation areas maintain adequate or, in some cases, any communications devices that would enable a visitor in either remote or attended areas to report an emergency situation without extensive delays. There are problems in implementing these objectives. One difficulty may be in developing a device that could stand up to vandalism, rough usage, or similar problems. In some park systems, telephone companies have installed pay phones, only to find out they are (1) not economically feasible or (2) broken into by thieves or destroyed by vandals. Nonetheless, visitor protection services are useless if they cannot be delivered at those times and places when they are needed. This is both a technical and operational problem that may cequire some form of subsidy to telephone companies, or the development of innovative, effective, and vandal proof communications devices for the public. Later sections of this report address this question in detail, but the objective set forth below is the operative statement on this problem.
Objective 5-1: All developed Corps recreation areas of class A and B Corps lakes should have a minimum of one device to enable the public to request law enforcement or other emergency devices.
Standards of Service:
No visitor to any developed recreation area at Corps lakes
Objective 5-2: The Corps of Engineers should negotiate written agreements with all state, local and federal agencies operating developed recreation areas at Corps lakes to assure that such agencies provide communications devices at their areas.
Standards of Service:
Same as Objective 5-1.
GOAL 6: COORDINATION--Visitors to Corps of Engineers lakes
Discussion. This is an extremely important goal to assure the development of an effective law enforcement and visitor protection program. Our site visits to Corps lakes revealed a wide diversity of interagency relations ranging from excellent at some sites to complete disunity at a number of others. In these locations where Corps-other criminal justice agency relationships were considered to be less than acceptable, the following issues were present: 1) confusion of jurisdictional authority and geographical boundaries; 2) inadequate provision of services, notably followup investigations to the lake by local agencies; 3) poor cooperation from U.S. magistrates with respect to the citation program; and 4) inadequate communication of Corps requirements for investigative services to appropriate federal enforcement agencies. The reasons these issues exist are many and complex but basically boil down to these: