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Establish formal procedure for the administration of internal discipline.

Implement procedures to facilitate the making of a complaint alleging employee misconduct, whether that complaint is initiated internally or externally.

Establish physical fitness standards for initial and continuing employment.

Develop, as a sub-system of its communications system, a telephone communications component designed to reduce crime through rapid and accurate communications with the public.

Immediately install a 24 hour two-way radio capability providing continuous communications capability between a communications center and field units.

Assure that delay time from receipt of an emergency call to
dispatch of field unit does not exceed two minutes; and six
minutes in the case of a non-emergency call.

Have the capability by 1975 to retrieve statewide criminal information and provide it to field personnel within three minutes for manual systems and 30 seconds for computerized systems.

Insulate the police department from inappropriate pressures including such pressures from inside the organization.

Insulate the police department from pressures to deal with matters in an unlawful or unconstitutional manner.

Insulate the police administor from inappropriate interference with the internal administration of his department.

These standards are all good and appropriate ones and must be adhered to if an effective police organization is to be created.

In our research on standards, we have discovered that the National Park Service has developed activity standards to govern the conduct and operations of its enforcement personnel in recreation and park areas under its control. The primary standards used by this organization are discussed below. In reviewing these standards, it must be remembered that the NPS maintains a full-time, armed, full-police power law enforcement agency. The NPS standards are:

order is maintained and preserved.

Law enforcement activities are formulated and executed in consonance with the fundamental purpose of the National Park Service.

Park regulations consistently meet changing needs to assure relevancy.

Law enforcement officers are familiar with the laws and regulations covering the area to which they are assigned.

An effective working relationship is maintained with the
Solicitors' Office, U.S. Magistrates, U.S. Attorneys; and
Federal, state and local law enforcement and investigative

Law enforcement problems are analyzed with a view toward seeking solutions other than enforcement actions.

Inspection systems have been implemented which evaluate the effectiveness, record findings, and make recommendations for improvement of law enforcement activities.

Investigations are made and appropriate action is taken of all alleged breaches of enforcement integrity, complaints against law enforcement officers, and reports of discontent of law enforcement actions.

The law enforcement activity uses information and education as a primary means of gaining voluntary compliance with laws, rules and regulations.

Enforcement actions are exercised with that degree of professionalism which does not impair the quality of the park experience the public rightfully expects.

Regulation and applicable laws are applied uniformly with regard for the particular circumstances involved in each violation.

Actions are commensurate with the acts of persons who deliberately, maliciously, or criminally violate the law, or who place the safety of others in jeopardy.

Pursuit is confined to areas of jurisdiction except for a felonious offense.

Officers clearly identify themselves when making an arrest or issuing a citation.

Violations have been clear.y identified ard explained to the person or persons arrested, cited or warned.

Persons arrested are properly warned of their constitutional rights to remain silent and to be represented by counsel, and all rights or the accused persons are fully perserved.

All persons arrested are taken before the appropriate court without unnecessary delay.

An NPS law enforcement officer knows that he is allowed to use any necessary force, including deadly force, to protect himself or other persons from death or serious injury. In such cases, it is immaterial whether the attacker has committed a serious felony, a misdemeanor or any crime at all.

Chemical mace and/or batons are used only to capture or sub due dangerous violators of the law, or persons who present a danger to themselves or others.

Handcuffs are used only on adult felony suspects, or persons who present a danger to themselves, the arresting officer or others.

Reports are submitted promptly by the officer involved, of the use and the circumstances requiring the use, of defensive equipment (firearms, mace, batons, etc.), and an immediate investigation is made to determine justification of such action.

Patrols are deployed so as to eliminate or reduce the opportunity for crime and misconduct, to prevent accidents, and to increase the likelihood of apprehending violators.

Patrols are conducted in a random manner so the patrolmen cannot be expected at a certain place at a certain time.

Patrols are emphasized in high accident and crime hazard areas.

A plan is implemented to check the security of physical facilities and equipment.

Discretion is properly exercised as to the type and amount of force necessary in making and maintaining an arrest.

Conditions that are conducive to crime, accidents, and misconduct, or which in other ways may be hazardous to the public are reported and remedial action is taken.

Patrol time is at least equal to the amount of time spent in investigating, reporting, testifying and otherwise providing service to the public.

when they are dispatched to public assistance calls, with due regard for traffic, weather and road conditions.

Every known criminal action is investigated to identify, detect, and apprehend the offender, and when applicable, recover stolen property.

The purpose of accident investigation is to find the causes and circumstances and to determine if enforcement measures or other remedial actions are required.

Preventing future accidents is the motivating factor in accident investigations.

Accident reports are prepared and submitted on all accidents.

Only properly trained and qualified personnel are used for law enforcement purposes.

Law enforcement officers are instructed and trained in progressive law enforcement procedures and practices to the extent necessary to exercise enforcement authority in accord with service standards.

No new employees are assigned to law enforcement duties until they successfully complete the NPS Basic Law Enforcement Training Course.

Present employees assigned to law enforcement duties have completed the NPS Basic Law Enforcement Training Course or equivalent training as approved by the Chief, Division of Law Enforcement, in the Washington Office.

Every law enforcement officer receives at least 40 hours of in-service law enforcement training each year.

Every law enforcement supervisor, including those who supervise seasonals, has successfully completed an NPS Supervisory Course, and every law enforcement supervisor receives at least 40 hours of in-service law enforcement training each year.

Everyone in a law enforcement management position, including Superintendents, has successfully completed the NPS Law Enforcement Management Seminar.

Every law enforcement officer is equipped with an IACP Police Reference Notebook.

Park areas are capable of receiving requests for law enforcement services, recording the basic data, and promptly dispatching a unit to render service.

A base station has two-way radio communications with all officers who are on patrol.

The law enforcement radio system is used for emergency transmissions only when the system will allow radio contact with neighboring police agencies.

Back-up systems are available in the event the base radio station malfunctions.

Voice actuated recording devices record all radio transmissions.

Patrolmen have access to the information in the National Crime Information Center.

Plans are formulated to handle:

The loss of utility service (electric, telephone, etc.).
Accidents involving radioactive materials.
The removal of bombs or other explosive devices or
Natural disasters; i.e., flooding conditions, storms,
The loss of normal water supplies.
Disorders that are beyond the capacity of the park staff.
Emergency medical care for large numbers of people.
Evacuation of the park.
Forest, building, or vehicle fires.
Visits of the President, foreign heads of state, or other
important persons.

All incidents, whether observed or reported, and whether of a serious or minor nature are promptly recorded on official forms.

Officers convey to persons who report incidents that they are dealing with an alert, interested, capable and efficient public service organization.

Reports are factual, accurate, complete, self-explanatory and tell of the action taken, current status of the incident, and anticipated actions, if any.

The Division of Law Enforcement in the Washington Office keeps abreast of current conditions and issues guidelines and directives as necessary to achieve uniformity of procedures.

The annual report from each area contains not only statistical data, but a written analysis of the means needed to upgrade law enforcement activities.

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