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to non renewable resources, only in a static society; they argue that
science, "by making the resource base more homogeneous, erases the
restrictions once thought to reside in the lack of homogeneity". They
suggest that conservation of a resource, because it reduces research,
education and investment directed toward more complete utilization,
may diminish the total social vaiue of that resource.
University of Texas, 1968. Limitations of the earth: a compelling
focus for geoloay. Proceedings of a symposium held November 16-17, 1967, at the University of Texas at Austin. in Texas Quarterly, v.11, n.2, summer 1968, np.5-154; reprinted by Texas Bureau of Economic Geology, Austin.
In this small volume are packed many important statements about resource availability. There are eleven authors, representing a
considerable range of background and viewpoint. Of particular interest
are papers by Alvin Weinberg, Preston Cloud, Thomas Lovering, and William Pecora. Weinberg, who titled his presentation, "Raw Materials Unlimited", argued that the abundant, cheap energy which is just around the corner of breeder-reactor development, will indeed make
raw materials essentially unlimited, because we'll be able to mine
seawater and common rock.
Pecora exhorted his audience to have faith
in science and technology to solve resource problems.
Lovering presented the opposing view, the former pointing out that
mineral resources "share certain peculiarities that transcend economics
and limit technology" and the latter that unit costs of copper,
contrary to the cornucopian school of thought, have been rising for
35 years. Both Cloud and Lovering gave persuasive reasons for their
conviction that, even with chean energy, common rock would never be
National Petroleum Council, 1971, U.S. energy outlook, an initial
appraisal, 1971-1985. Washington: National Petroleum Council.
This book, produced by the major vested-interest group in the
field of natural resources, contains a great deal of useful and
Its projections of U.S. demand for energy are
questionable as are its projections of potential domestic petroleum
availability; both appear to reflect a measure of interest bias. On
the other hand, the projection methods used are stated clearly, facts
are not difficult to separate from assumptions, and the conclusions
about domestic netroleum potential are considerably more conservative
than those published recently by the petroleum geologists (Future
netroleum provinces of the United States
their geology and potential,
American Association Petroleum Geologists Memoir 15, 1971) and by the
U.S. Department of the Interior (United States energy, a summary
Japanese Ministry of Trade and Industry, 1971, White paper on "Prospect of
Natural Resources Problems in Japan", Trade and Industry of Japan,
An interesting account of political-economic alternatives designed
to cone with a condition of permanent domestic resource scarcity.
Some of the approaches being used or considered by Japan to insure a
steady inflow of foreign raw materials merit study in the context of
National Research Council, 1972. Elements of a national materials
policy. A report of the National Materials Advisory Board,
This report discusses U.S. materials policy in regard to mineral
commodities, states that the basic problem is how to sustain a
continuing flow of needed raw materials into the U.S. economy without
meeting unacceptable environmental, social, political, or fiscal
costs, and puts strong emphasis on the need to re-examine continuing material growth as an element in national policy and strategies.
7. Hewett, D.F., 1929. Cycles in metal production. American Institute
Mining, Met. Engr. Tech. Publ. 183, 37 p. and Trans. 1929,
A pioneer analysis of the production histories of the major
metals, in which it is concluded that there exists a characteristic
cycle of depletion for the mineral resources of a nation, with stages
marked by successive culminations in tonnage exported, number of
mines, number of smelters, tons of ore mined, and amount imported.
Many graphs present the record of the production of separate metals
from some 28 mining districts of Europe and support Hewett's
observation that mining districts pass through stages analogous to those of infancy, adolescence, maturity and old age.
American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 1971, Future petroleum
provinces of North America. A.A.P.G. Memoir 15.
Barnett, Harold J., 1971, "The myth of our vanishing resources", p. 180-186
in The survival equation. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Elliott, M.A., and Linden, H.R., 1968, "A new analysis of U.S. natural
gas supplies". Journal Petr. Techn., v.20, p. 135-141. Hendricks, T.A., 1965, Resources of oil, gas, and natural-gas liquids in
the United States and the world. U.S. Geol. Survey Circ. 522. Hubbert, M.K., 1969, "Energy resources", p. 157-242 in Resources and man.
San Francisco: Freeman.
Hubbert, M.K., 1971, "Energy resources for power production", p. 13-43 in
Environmental aspects of nuclear power stations. Vienna: Intl.
Kaysen, Carl, 1972, "The computer that printed out W*0*L*F*". Foreign
Affairs, v.50, p. 660-668.
American Scientist, v.60, D. 32-40.
McKelvey, V.E., and Duncan, D.C., 1965, "United States and world resources
of energy", p. 1-17 in Symposium on fuel and energy resources.
Merrill, C.W., 1959, "The significance of the mineral industries in the
economy", n. 1-42 in Economics of the mineral industries. New York: Amer. Inst. Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc.
National Petroleum Council, 1971, U.S. energy outlook. Washington.
Shell Oil Companies, 1973, The national energy outlook.
U.S. Denartment of the Interior, 1972, United States energy, a summary
U.S. Geological Survey, 1966, Unpublished memorandum by T. A. Hendricks
and S. P. Schweinfurth quoted in United States petroleum through
Weeks, L.G., 1965, "World offshore petroleum resources".
Assn. Petr. Geologists, v.49, p. 1680-1693.