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LIST OF MAPS FOR VOL V.
GOOD, John Mason, a physician and author, was bora at Epping in Essex, 1764, and died in London in 1827. He commenced practice as a surgeon in Sudbury in 1784, but meeting with little success, he removed to London in 1793, principally with the view of obtaining literary employment
In addition to The Book of Nature, the work by which he is now chiefly known, and which only appeared shortly before his death, he published various poems, translations, and professional treatises. Of his original poems we need say nothing. Amongst his translations we may notice his Song of Songs, or Sacred Idylls, translated from the Hebrew, 1803; his translation of Lucretius, in Terse, in 1805; of the Book of Job, in 1812; of the book of Proverbs, in 1821; and of the Book of Psalms, which was just completed at the time of his death. His chief professional work, his Study of Medicine, in four volumes, was published in 1822. It is a learned and amusing work, but by no means a trustworthy guide to the medical student. He likewise published, in conjunction with Olinthus Gregory and Bosworth, the Pantologia, or Encyclopedia, comprising a General Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and General Literature, in twelve volumes, which were completed in 1813, and contributed largely to various periodicals. His friend, Dr Olinthus Gregory, published a Memoir of his Life in 1828.
GOOD BEHAVIOUR, a phrase rather popular than legal. It is used chiefly as synonymous with keeping the peace. Thus, if one person assaults another, or threatens or provokes him to a breach of the peace, the offence is punishable Bummarily by justices of the peace, who, besides inflicting a fine, may, and often do bind over the offending party to keep the peace, and be of good behaviour for a period of Bix or twelve months. The mode of doing this is by requiring the offending party to enter into his recognizances with or without sureties, which is, in fact, the giving a bond for a specified sum to the crown, and if it is broken, that is, if
the recognizance is forfeited, then the party may be again punished.
GOOD-CONDUCT PAY is an addition made in the British army to the daily pay of corporals and private soldiers, in consideration of long service unaccompanied by bad behaviour. The amount awarded at one time is Id. a day, with one white chevron on the arm as a badge of distinction. Successive awards of good-conduct pay may raise the total grant to (id. a day, with a corresponding number of stripes on the arm. It reckons, in part, towards increase of pension when the soldier quits the service.
In each regiment there is kept a 'Regimental Defaulters' Book,' in which the commanding officer is bound to enter the name of every soldier in the corps who shall have been convicted by courtmartial of any offence, or who, in consequence of misconduct, shall be subjected to forfeiture of pay, either with or without imprisonment, or to any other punishment beyond seven days' confinement to barracks. No first or subsequent \d. of goodconduct pay can be awarded to a soldier, unless two continuous years have elapsed without his name being thus recorded; and if he have the misfortune to come within the provisions of this black book while actually in receipt of good-conduct pay, he loses for each offence Id. per diem, which can only be restored after one uninterrupted year of good service, during whioh his name has not been recorded in the defaulters' book. The loss of the Id. is of course accompanied by tho loss of the corresponding distinguishing mark or stripe.
The first \d. is obtainable after two years' service, without the name once appearing in the defaulters' book; the second, after 6 years; the third, after 12 years; the fourth, after 18 years; the fifth, after 23 years; and the sixth, after 28 years; the service being only reckoned in any case from the age of 18, and two years of uninterrupted good conduct immediately before the time at which the award is granted being requisite in every instance. As au additional inducement to'continuous good behaviour, 14 uninterrupted years without an adverse entry entitles a soldier, after 16, 21, or 26 years' service, to the award for which he would only otherwise be eligible after 18, 23, or 28 years.
Non-commissioned officers do not receive goodconduct pay, an addition instead thereof of 2a. per diem having been made to their regular pay a few years since. A sum, however, not exceeding £4900 a year is distributed among sergeants of long service and good conduct, in the way of annuities, not over £20 each. The annuity is receivable during active service, and also in conjunction with the pension on retirement.
In the Malta Fencible Artillery, good-conduct pay is allowed to native Boldiers for similar periods of service, but to only half the above amount.
A considerable increase of the army causes a large decrease in the sum payable for good-conduct pay, as the older soldiers become non-commissioned officers, and the ranks are swelled by young recruits, who have not yet had time to earn these extra rewards. The total charge in the army for good-conduct pay during the year 1873—1874 is estimated, exclusive of the annuities to sergeants, at £133,150.
Good-conduct pay and badges are also awarded in the navy to seamen of exemplary conduct; but the periods for obtaining, and the rules under which it is granted and forfeited, so nearly resemble those in force for the army, that a separate description is unnecessary. The leading differences are, that the grant is limited to three badges, and 3d. a day; that petty officers continue to hold it; and that it is of no account in the pension given at the expiration of active service.
GOOD FRIDAY, the Friday before Easter, sacred as the commemoration of the crucifixion of our Lord. This day was kept as a day of mourning and of special prayer from a very early period. It was one of the two paschal days celebrated by the Christian Church, and in memory of the crucifixion, was called by the Greeks Paacha, Staurogimon, or the 'Pasch of the Cross.' That it was observed as a day of rigid fast and of solemn and melancholy ceremonial, we learn from the apostolic constitutions (b. v. c. 18), and from Eusebius (Ectl. Hist, b. ii. a 17), who also tells that, when Christianity was established in the empire, Constantino forbade the holding of law-courts, markets, and other public proceedings upon this day. In the Roman Catholic Church, the service of this day is very peculiar; instead of the ordinary mass, it consists of what is called the Mass of the Presanctified, the sacred host not being consecrated on Good Friday, but reserved from the preceding day. The priests and attendants are robed in black, in token of mourning; the altar is stripped of its ornaments; the kiss of peace is omitted, in detestation of the kiss of the traitor Judas; the priest recites a long series of prayers for all classes, orders, and ranks in the church, and even for heretics, schismatics, pagans, and Jews. But the most striking part of the ceremonial of Good Friday is the so-called 'adoration of the cross,' or, as it was called in the old English popular vocabulary, 'creeping to the cross.' A large crucifix is placed upon the altar with appropriate ceremonies, in memory of the awful event which the crucifix represents, and the entire congregation, commencing with the celebrant priest and nis ministers, approach, and upon their knees reverently kiss the figure of our crucified Lord. In the eyes of Protestants, this ceremony appears to partake more strongly of the idolatrous character than any other in the Roman Catholic ritual; but Catholics earnestly repudiate all such
construction of the ceremony. See Idolatry; I M.vers. The very striking office of 'Tenebra' is held upon Good Friday, as well as on the preceding two days: it consists of the matins and lauds of the office of Holy Saturday, and has this peculiarity, that at the close all the lights in the church are extinguished except one, which for a time (as a symbol of our Lord's death and burial) is hidden under the altar.
In the English Church, Good Friday is also celebrated with special solemnity. Anciently, a sermon was preached at St Paul's Cross on the afternoon of this day, at which the lord mayor and aldermen attended. The practice of eating upon this day 'cross buns'—cakes with a cross impressed upon them—is a relic of the Roman Catholic times, but it has lost all its religious significance. In England and Ireland, Good Friday is by law a dies non, and all business is suspended. In Scotland, the day meets with no peculiar attention, except from members of the Episcopal and Roman Catholic communions.
GOOD HOPE. See Cate Of Good Hope.
GOODALL, Frederick, an eminent English artist, the son of Edward Goodall, an engraver of reputation, was born in London, September 17, 1822. His first oil-picture was entitled, 'Finding the Dead Body of a Miner by Torchlight,' for which the Society of Arts awarded bim the large silver medaL During the summers of 1838—1842, ho visited Normandy and Brittany, and in 1839, when but 17 years of age, ho exhibited his first picture at the Royal Academy, 'French Soldiers Playing Cards in a Cabaret.' His 'Entering Church,' as well as 'The Return from a Christening,' which received a prize of £50 from the British Institution, and ethers of his early pictures, were purchased by Mr Wells. 'The Tired Soldier,' exhibited in 1842, was purchased by Mr Vernon, and is now in the Vernon Gallery. Some of his French scenes are, 'Veteran of the Old Guard describing his Battles,' 'La Fete du Mariage,' 'The Wounded Soldier Returned to his Family,' 'The Conscript.' In 1844, he went for subjects to Ireland, and subsequently visited North Wales. Among his Irish scenes are, 'Irish Courtship,' 'The Irish Piper,' and the 'Departure of the Emigrant Ship.' 'The Village Festival,' one of tho best of his English subjects, exhibited in 1847, was purchased by Mr Vernon. His'Hunt the Slipper' (1849), ' Raising the Maypole' (1851), 'Arrest of a Peasant Loyalist —Brittany, 1793' (1855), ' Cranmer at the Traitor's Gate' (18o6), 'Rising of the Nile,' 'Subsiding of thfi Nile' (1873), &c., have also added greatly to his reputation. He visited Egypt in 1S58. In 1852, G. was eleoted an Associate of the Royal Academy, and in 1863, a Royal Academician.
GOODENIA'OE^!, a natural order of exogenous plants, of which about 150 species are known, mostly herbaceous plants, although a few are shrubs, and mostly natives of Australia and the islands of the Southern Ocean, a few being also found in India, the south of Africa, and South America. The order is allied to Campanulacece and Ldbeliacta, but is destitute of the milky juice which is found in both of these. The corolla is monopetalous, more or less irregular. A remarkable character of this order is that the summit of tho style bears a little cup, in the bottom of which the stigma is placed. The flowers of some of the species are of considerable beauty. The young leaves of Scwvola taccada are used as a salad by the Malays; and the pith furnishes a kind of rice-paper, which they make into artificial flowers and other ornaments.
GOODS AND CHATTELS—GOODWIN SANDS.
GOODS And CHATTELS, a legal as well as popular phrase in common use, to signify personal property. It is not unfrequently used in wills, but seldom in any other legal instrument; and when used in wills, it generally includes all the personal property of the testator. In Scotland, the corresponding phrase is goods and gear.
GOODS IN COMMUNION, the name given in the law of Scotland, France, and some other countries, to the personal property of a married couple, which is not subject to any deed, but left to the operation of the common Uw. In England, such a phrase is unknown, for upon marriage, all the personal property which previously belonged to the woman (which is not secured by any deed or will), as well as what was previously his own, becomes and continues the husband's absolutely—he is entire master of it, and can do what he likes with it, regardless of the wishes of his wife or children, and he may even bequeath it away to strangers. In Scotland, the theory is not so liberal towards the husband, though in practice there is not much difference. By the law of Scotland, the husband can also do what he likes with the personal property of both parties, if there is no previous marriagecontract or other deed governing the subject-matter. He can almost squander it at will. It is only at his death that the theory of a kind of partnership, or of a communion of goods, comes into play.
Until 1855, when the law was altered, this theory prevailed when the wife died, for formerly, at her death, the goods were divided into two parts, if there were no children, and one-half went to the next of kin of the wife, however distant the relationship, and not to the husband. But now, by statute 18 Vict. c. 23, s. 6, when a wife dies before the husband, her next of kin takes no interest whatever in the goods in communion ; and the law in this respect is now the same as it is in England. Hence the phrase goods in communion is less appropriate than it was before 1855. If, however, the husband die, the goods in communion suffer a division on the principle of a partnership. Thus, if there are no children, half goes to the widow, and the other half to the next of kin of the husband. If there are children, then one-third goes to the widow, and is often called her Jut BeUetct (q. v.), and the other two-thirds to the children equally, if there is no will; or if there is a will, then one-third to them, called the Legitim (q. v.). The same division also takes place in England, when there is no will; but this is done in England by virtue of a statute 29 Charles II. c 3, called the Statute of Distributions (q. v.), whereas this effect is produced in Scotland not by a statute, but by the common law. Practically, this distinction, though important to be known by lawyers, may seem immaterial to laymen.
Another more important distinction, however, both theoretically and practically, is this: The above division of the goods in communion prevails in Scotland whether the husband has left a will or not; in short, it prevails in spite of his will, and all that a husband having a wife and children can do by means of a will, is to bequeath one-third of his personal estate to strangers, and this third is usually called on that account the Dead's Part (q. v.). Thus, in Scotland, on the death of the husband, the wife and children have an indefeasible interest in two-thirds of his personal property, and this inchoate interest during life gave rise to the phrase 'goods in communion.' In England, on the contrary, the will, if there is one, may carry away all the personal property to strangers, regardless of the wife and children. Hence, the result may be stated shortly thus: in Scotland, a man cannot disinherit his wife and children; whereas m
England he can. See other incidents of this distinction in Paterson's Compendium of Englult and Scotch Law, ss. 673, 738. If there is a marriage-contract or antenuptial settlement between the nusband and wife, the rights both of the wife and children may be materially varied, for the rule then is, that the parties may make what arrangement they please by way of contract, and in such settlements a fixed sum U generally provided both to the wife and children, in lieu of what they would be entitled to at common law, i. e., where no express contract is made.
GOOD-WILL is rather a short popular expression than a legal term. It means that kind of interest which is sold along with any profession, trade, or business. In reality, it is not the business that is sold, for that is not a distinct thing recognised by the law, but the house, shop, fixtures, &c, are sold, and the trade debts; and along with transferring these, the seller binds himself, either by covenant or agreement, to do everything in his power to recommend his successor, and promote his interests in such business. If the seller acts contrary to such agreement, he is liable to an action. But the more usual course is for the seller to enter into an express covenant not to carry on the same business within 30, 40, or 100 miles, or some specified moderate distance from the place where the purchaser resides. At first, such a covenant was sought to be set aside as invalid, on the ground that it tended to restrain the natural liberty of trade; but the courts have now firmly established that if a definite radius of moderate length is fixed upon, it does not sensibly restrain trade, inasmuch as the person covenanting can go beyond those limits, and trade as much as he pleases. Hence, such limitations are a fair matter of bargain, and upheld as valid. If the party break his covenant, he is liable to an action for damages.
GOODWIN SANDS, famous banks of shifting sands stretching about 10 miles, in a direction north-east and south-west, off the east coast of Kent, at an average distance of f>i miles from the shore. The sands are divided into two portions by a narrow channel, and at low water, many parts are uncovered. When the tide recedes, the sand becomes firm and safe; but after the ebb, the water permeates through the mass, rendering the whole pulpy and treacherous, in which condition it shifts to such a degree as to render charts uncertain from year to year. The northern portion is of triangular form—34 miles long, and 24 in its greatest width; on the northernmost extremity, known as North Sand Head, a light-vessel marks the entrance on this perilous shoal This light is distant about seven miles from Ramsgate. In the centre, on the western side, jutting out towards the shore, is the Blunt Head, a peculiarly dangerous portion, also marked by a light-ship. The southern portion is 10 miles in length, 24 in width at its northern end, and sloping towards the south-west, to a point called South Sand Head, which, being marked by a light-vesseL completes the triangle of dangerous proximity recorded for the benefit of mariners.
From the sunken nature of these sands, they have always been replete with danger to vessels passing through the Strait of Dover, and resorting either to the Thames or to the North Sea. On the other hand, they serve as a breakwater to form a secure anchorage in the Downs (q. v.), when easterly or south-easterly winds are blowing. The Downs, though safe under these circumstances, become dangerous when the wind blows strongly off-shore, at which time ships are apt to drag their anchors, and to strand upon the perfidious breakers of the Goodwin, in the shifting sands of which their wrecks are soon entirely swallowed up. Many celebrated and terribly fatal wrecks have taken place here, among which we have only space to enumerate the three line-of-battle-ships, Stirling Cattle, Mary, and Northumberland, each of 70 guns, which, with other ten men-of-war, were totally lost during the fearful gale of the 2Gth November 1703, a gale so tremendous that vessels were actually destroyed by it while riding in the Medway. On the 21st December 1805, here foundered the Aurora, a transport, when 300 perished; on the 17th December 1814, the British Queen, an Ostend packet, was lost with all hands; and on January 5, 1857, during a gale of eight days' duration, in which several other vessels were lost, the mail-steamer Violet was destroyed, involving the sacrifice of many lives in the catastrophe. From these dates, it will be seen that the greatest dangers are to be apprehended in the winter months.
These dangerous sands are said to have consisted at one time of about 4000 acres of low land, fenced from the sea by a wall. One well-known tradition ascribes their present state to the building of the Tenterden steeple, for the erection of which the funds that should have maintained the sea-wall had been diverted: this traditionary account is of little, if any value. Lambard, in writing of them, says: 'Whatsoever old wives toll of Goodwyne, Earle of Kent, in time of Edward the ConfeBSOur, and his sandes, it appeareth by Hector Boc'tius, the Brittish chronicler, that theise sandes weare mayne land, and some tyme of the possession of Earl Godwyne, and by a great inundation of the sea, they weare taken therfroe, at which tyme also much harme was done in Scotland and Flanders, by the same rage of the water.' At the period of the Conquest by William of Normandy, these estates were taken from Earl Godwin, and bestowed upon the abbey of St Augustine at Canterbury, the abbot of which, allowing the Bea-wall to fall into a dilapidated condition, the waves rushed in, in the year 1100, and overwhelmed the whole. How far this account of the formation of this remarkable shoal can be relied on, is a matter of considerable doubt, the documentary evidence on the subject being scanty and unsatisfactory. A colourable confirmation is, however, to be deduced from the fact of the successive inroads which the sea has made for centuries past, and is still making along the whole east coast of England.
As a precaution, now, in foggy weather, bells in the light-ships are frequently sounded. Difficulty is experienced in finding firm anchorage for these vessels; and all efforts to establish a fixed beacon have been hitherto unsuccessful In 1846, a lighthouse on piles of iron screwed into the sand was erected, but it was washed away in the following year. As soon as a vessel is known to have been driven upon the sands, rockets are thrown up from the light-vessels, and the fact thus communicated to the snore. The rockets are no sooner recognised, than a number of boatmen, known all along the coast as 'hovellers,' immediately launch their boats and make for the sands, whatever may bo the state of wind and weather. These 'hovellers' regard the wreck itself as their own property, and although during fine weather they lead a somewhat regardless as well as a wholly jdlo and inactive life, their intrepidity in seasons of tempest is worthy of all praise.
GOOLE, a thriving market-town and river-port of England, in tho West Riding of Yorkshire, is situated on the right bank of the Ouse at its junction with the Dutch River, 22 miles southsouth-east of York. It has only recently risen
into importance, and may be said to date the commencement of its prosperity from its establishment as a bonding-port in 1829. It has commodious ship, barge, and steam-vessel docks, a patent slip for repairing vessels, ponds for bonded timber, a neatly-built custom house, and extensive warehouse accommodation. G. has a considerable trade in ship and boat building, sail-making, iron-founding, and agricultural machine-making; it has also several corn-mills, some of which are worked by steam. Coal is largely exported along the coast, and in considerable quantities to London. In 1872, 4652 vessels, of 481,643 tons, entered and cleared the port. Pop. (1871) 7680.
GOOSANDER (Mergus Merganser), a webfooted bird of the same genus with those commonly called Mergansers (q. v.), and the largest of the British species. It is larger than a wild duck; the adult male has the head and upper part of tho neck of a rich shining green; tho feathers of tho crown and back of the head elongated, the back black and gray, the wings black and white, the breast and belly of a delicate reddish buff colour. The female has the head reddish brown, with a less decided tuft than the male, and much grayer plumage, and has been often described as a different species, receiving the English name of Dundiver. Both mandibles arc furnished with many sharp serra'tures or teeth directed backwards (sec accompanying illustration), the nearest
approach to true teeth to be found in the month of any bird. Sec also Bill. The G. is a native of the arctic regions, extending into tho temperate parts of Europe, Asia, and America; in the southern parts of Britain, it is seen only in winter, and then only in severe weather, the females and young migrating southwards in such circumstances more frequently than the-old males, and not unfrequently appearing in small flocks in the south of Scotland and north of England; but in some of the northern parts of Scotland and the Scottish isles it spends the whole year. It feeds on fish, crustaceans, and other aquatic animals which its serrated bill and its power of diving admirably adapt it for seizing. The flesh of the G. is extremely rank and coarse, but the eggs appear to be sought after by the inhabitants of some northern countries.
GOOSE (Anser), a genus of web-footed birds, one of the sections of the Linneean genus Anas (q. v.), having the bill not longer than the head, more high than broad at the base, the upper mandible slightly hooked at the tip; the legs placed further