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13 15

General rule-making procedures.
Enforcement procedures.
Nondiscrimination in Federally assisted programs of the Federal Aviation

Administration-effectuation of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.


21 Certification procedures for products and parts. 23 Airworthiness standards: normal, utility, and acrobatic category airplanes. 25 Airworthiness standards: transport category airplanes. 27

Airworthiness standards: normal category rotorcraft. 29 Airworthiness standards: transport category rotorcraft. 31 Airworthiness standards: manned free balloons. 33 Airworthiness standards; aircraft engines. 35 Airworthiness standards; propellers. 37 Technical standard order authorizations.

Airworthiness directives. 40–42 [Reserved] 43 Maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, and alteration. 45 Identification and registration marking. 47 Aircraft registration. 49 Recording of aircraft titles and security documents. 50-59 [Reserved]


60 61 63 65 67

Certification: pilots and flight instructors.
Certification: flight crew members other than pilots.
Certification: airmen other than flight crewmembers.
Medical standards and certification.


Part 71 73 75 77

Designation of Federal airways, controlled airspace, and reporting points.
Special use airspace.
Establishment of jet routes.
Objects affecting navigable airspace.



91 93 95 97 99 101 103 105

General operating and flight rules.
Special air traffic rules and airport traffic patterns.
IFR altitudes.
Standard instrument approach procedures.
Security control of air traffic.
Moored balloons, kites, unmanned rockets and unmanned balloons.
Transportation of dangerous articles and magnetized materials.
Parachute jumping.




127 129 133 135

Certification and operations: domestic, flag, and supplemental air carriers

and commercial operators of large aircraft.
Certification and operations of scheduled air carriers with helicopters.
Operations of foreign air carriers.
Rotorcraft external-load operations.
Air taxi operators and commercial operators of small aircraft.


141 143 145 147 149

Pilot schools.
Ground instructors.
Repair stations.
Mechanic schools.
Parachute lofts.


151 153 155 157 159 165 167

Federal aid to airports.
Acquisition of U.S. land for public airports.
Release of airport property from surplus property disposal restrictions.
Notice of construction, alteration, activation, or deactivation of airports.
National capital airports.
Wake Island code.
Annette Island, Alaska, Airport.


Part 171

Non-Federal navigation facilities.


183 Representatives of the Administrator. 185 Testimony by employees and production of records in legal proceedings. 187 Fees. 189 Use of Federal Aviation Administration communications system. 190-197 [Reserved]


198 199

War risk insurance.
Employee responsibilities and conduct.




"Airport" means an area of land or water that is used or intended to be used for the landing and takeoff of aircraft, and includes its buildings and facilities,

if any.

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1.1 General definitions.
1.2 Abbreviations and symbols.
1.3 Rules of construction.

AUTHORITY: The provisions of this part 1 issued under sec. 313(a), 72 Stat. 752, 49 U.S.C. 1354(a). § 1.1 General definitions.

As used in subchapters A through K of this chapter:

“Accelerate-stop distance" means the distance required to accelerate an airplane to a specified speed and, assuming failure of the critical engine at the instant that speed (V) is attained, to bring the airplane to a stop.

“Administrator" means the Federal Aviation Administrator or any person to whom he has delegated his authority in the matter concerned.

"Aerodynamic coeficients” means nondimensional coefficients for aerodynamic forces and moments.

“Air carrier" means a person who undertakes directly by lease, or other arrangement, to engage in air transportation.

"Air commerce" means interstate, overseas, or foreign air commerce or the transportation of mail by aircraft or any operation or navigation of aircraft within the limits of any Federal airway or any operation or navigation of aircraft which directly affects, or which may endanger safety in, interstate, overseas, or foreign air commerce.

“Aircraft” means a device that is used or intended to be used for flight in the air.

"Aircraft engine" means an engine that is used or intended to be used in propelling aircraft. It includes engine appurtenances and accessories necessary for its functioning, but does not include propellers.

"Airframe" means the fuselage, booms, nacelles, cowlings, fairings, airfol surfaces (including rotors but excluding propellers and rotating airfoils of engines), and landing gear of an aircraft and their accessories and controls."

"Airplane" means an engine-driven fixed-wing aircraft heavier than air, that is supported in flight by the dynamic reaction of the air against its wings.

“Airport traffic area" means, unless otherwise specifically designated in Part 93, that airspace within a horizontal radius of 5 statute miles from the geographical center of any airport at which a control tower is operating, extending from the surface up to, but not including, 2,000 feet above the surface.

“Airship” means engine-driven lighter-than-air aircraft that can be steered.

“Air traffic" means aircraft operating in the air or on an airport surface, exclusive of loading ramps and parking areas.

“Air traffic clearance" means an authorization by air traffic control, for the purpose of preventing collision between known aircraft, for an aircraft to proceed under specified traffic conditions within controlled airspace.

“Air traffic control" means a service operated by appropriate authority to promote the safe, orderly, and expeditious flow of air trafic.

"Air transportation" means interstate, overseas, or foreign air transportation or the transportation of mail by aircraft.

“Alternate airport” means an airport at which an aircraft may land if a landing at the intended airport becomes inadvisable.

“Appliance" means any instrument, mechanism, equipment, part, apparatus, appurtenance, or accessory, including communications equipment, that is used or intended to be used in operating or controlling an aircraft in flight, is installed in or attached to the aircraft, and is not part of an airframe, engine, or propeller.

“Approved", unless used with reference to another person, means approved by the Administrator.

“Armed Forces" means the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard, including their regular and reserve components and members serving without component status.

“Autorotation" means a rotorcraft flight condition in which the lifting rotor is driven entirely by action of the air when the rotorcraft is in motion.

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“Auxiliary rotor” means a rotor that serves either to counteract the effect of the main rotor torque on a rotorcraft or to maneuver the rotorcraft about one or more of its three principal axes.

“Balloon" means a lighter-than-air aircraft that is not engine driven.

“Brake horsepower" means the power delivered at the propeller shaft (main drive or main output) of an aircraft engine.

"Calibrated airspeed” means the indicated airspeed of an aircraft, corrected for position and instrument error. Calibrated airspeed is equal to true airspeed in standard atmosphere at sea level.


(1) As used with respect to the certification, ratings, privileges, and limi. tations of airmen, means a broad classification of aircraft. Examples include: airplane; rotorcraft; glider; and lighterthan-air; and

(2) As used with respect to the certification of aircraft, means a grouping of aircraft based upon intended use or operating limitations. Examples include: transport, normal, utility, acrobatic, limited, restricted, and provisional.

“Category II operations," with respect to the operation of aircraft, means a straight-in ILS approach to the runway of an airport under a Category II ILS instrument approach procedure issued by the Administrator or other appropriate authority.

"Ceiling" means the height above the earth's surface of the lowest layer of clouds or obscuring phenomena that is reported as “broken", "overcast", or "obscuration", and not classified as "thin" or "partial".

“Civil aircraft” means aircraft other than public aircraft.


(1) As used with respect to the certification, ratings, privileges, and limi. tations of airmen, means a classification of aircraft within a category having similar operating characteristics. Examples include: single engine; multiengine; land; water; gyroplane; helicopter; airship; and free balloon; and

(2) As used with respect to the certification of aircraft, means a broad grouping of aircraft having similar characteristics of propulsion, flight, or landing. Examples include: airplane; rotorcraft; glider; balloon; landplane; and seaplane.

"Clearway" means:

(1) For turbine engine powered airplanes certificated after August 29, 1959, an area beyond the runway, not less than 500 feet wide, centrally located about the extended centerline of the runway, and under the control of the airport authorities. The clearway is expressed in terms of a clearway plane, extending from the end of the runway with an upward slope not exceeding 1.25 percent, above which no object nor any terrain protrudes. However, threshold lights may protrude above the plane if their height above the end of the runway is 26 inches or less and if they are located to each side of the runway.

(2) For turbine engine vered airplanes certificated after September 30, 1958, but before August 30, 1959, an area beyond the takeoff runway extending no less than 300 feet on either side of the extended centerline of the runway, at an elevation no higher than the elevation of the end of the runway, clear of all fixed obstacles, and under the control of the airport authorities.

Commercial operator" means a person who, for compensation or hire, engages in the carriage by aircraft in air commerce of persons or property, other than as an air carrier or foreign air carrier or under the authority of Part 375 of this Title. Where it is doubtful that an operation is for “compensation or hire", the test applied is whether the carriage by air is merely incidental to the person's other business or is, in itself, a major enterprise for profit.

“Controlled airspace" means airspace, designated as continental control area, control area, control zone, or transition area, within which some or all aircraft may be subject to air traffic control.

“Crewmember" means a person assigned to perform duty in an aircraft during flight time.

“Critical altitude" means the maximum altitude at which, in standard atmosphere, it is possible to maintain, at a specified rotational speed, a specified power or a specified manifold pressure. Unless otherwise stated, the critical altitude is the maximum altitude at which it is possible to maintain, at the maxi. mum continuous rotational speed, one of the following:

(1) The maximum continuous power, in the case of engines for which this power rating is the same at sea level and at the rated altitude.

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