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At last she enters the dressing-room, Cur mihi nota tuo caussa est candoris in ore? where her arrival has been perhaps Claude forem thalami : quid rude prodis for hours expected by a regiment of
opus ? slaves and attendants.' Her first nod Multa viros nescire decet. Pars maxima is to the slave that watches the door,
rerum (the Janitrix, as she is called,) and
Offendat, si non interiora tegas.” then she asks after the billets-doux,
Sabina is aware what consequences bills, letters, messages, milliners, &c.
the admission of any young gentleman that have arrived before she has got
to this privacy might produce, and up. But who might be admitted to
she guards effectually against it. She gaze with uninitiated eyes upon such
remembers the story of Psyche, who a scene as this ? Sabina has read the
put love to fligh: by the injudicious precepts of the great master in the art
introduction of the torch. of love, and she forgets not his pre
Scarcely has the Domina entered the cepts.
numerous circle of her damsels and “ Non tamen expositas mensâ 'deprendat
tire-women, ere each of them, with
the zeal of rivalry, betakes her to her amator Pyxidas. Ars faciem dissimulata juvet. part. As of old, among the Egyptians, Quem non offendat toto fæx illita vultu, each part of the human body had its Cùm fluit in tepidos pondere lapsa sinus ? peculiar physician, so that the ears Esypa quid redolent, quamvis mittitatur doctor, the eye-doctor, the tooth-docAthenis
tor, the clyster-doctor, the foot-docDemtus ab immundo vellere succus ovis ?
tor-each had his own little unapNee coràm mixtas cervæ sumsisse medullas,
proachable division of the general vicNec coràm dentes defricuisse probem. Ista dabunt faciem; sed erunt deformia visu:
tim to deal with, as it might seem good Multaque, dum fiunt turpia, facta placent.
to his fancy,-here too the surface of Qua nunc nomen habent operosi signa My.
Sabina is portioned out among a vast ronis,
variety of petty governors. Every bit Pondus iners quondam, duraque massa fuit. of the smoothened, polished, painted, Annulus ut fiat, primò colliditur aurum : pranked body, thanks a different artist Quas geritis vestes, sordida lana fuit. for its ornament. The slaves are arCùm fieret, lapis asper erat; nunc nobile
ranged into troops and sub-divisions signum
like a legion.* Nuda Venus madidas exprimit imbre comas.
The first file consists of the paintTu quoque dum coleris, nos te dormire pa
ers, the layers-on of white and red, temus ; Aptiùs à summâ conspiciare manu.
the stainers of the eye-brows, and the scrubbers of the teeth. The whole
materials made use of by this class, urina.” In another, we have the vessel were combined under the general itself introduced, speaking thus :
Greek term of Cosmetic, for the rage
of the Roman ladies was in these days “ Dum poscor strepitu digitorum et verna
to call every thing by Greek names, moratur, O quoties pellex culcita facta mea est.”
exactly as it has been the rage of Ger
Lib. xiv. 119. man ladies, in our own times, to call The only relic of this barbarity seems to be
every thing by French. From the perceived in the after-dinner fashions of the
lover, down to the tooth-brush, every English gentlemen. The employment of thing had its endearing appellation in slaves, however, in such ministrations, was Greek. The maids occupied with this shocking even to the ancients. We read great department were called kosmetæ, in Plutarch (see Laconica Apophthegmata The first who begins to operate is in variis, 35. tom. i. pt. ii. p. 934, Wyt. Scaphion, who, with a basin of luketenbach,) of a young Spartan slave who
warm asses milk, washes from the face killed himself from the feeling of this de
the nocturnal incrustation of bread. gradation ; and a serious debate is to be found in Arrian, (i. 2. 8.) whether or no
This mass was called καταπλασμαa slave should submit to it. In another passage of the same work, we hear of the See Pignori de Servis Romanorum, emperors having a servant expressly at 78 (ed. ü. Batav. 1656,) & 191--201. See hasave. This abominable degradation was also Gori upon the Columbarius Livia revived in modern France, where a court Augustæ, discovered a century before that lady of high rank took her title from the time. A Roman dame of high rank, at Cabinet d'aisance. See Soulavie's Memoires the age of our Sabina, had at least 200 Historiques du regne de Louis XVI., vol. liberta and serve attached to her daily ser. mi. p. 48.
the soaps and essences which were ap- While Phiale is busy with her penplied after its removal, ousyuara. Î'o cils and pallet, a third slave, whose enumerate all the names of these nom-de-toilette is Stimmi, is getting would require a treatise, and a dull ready a little pot with pounded black one; the ancients, so far as chemical lead (which they called, very approskill was not absolutely necessary, were priately, fuligo) and water. In her nowise inferior to the moderns in this other hand she has a very delicate species of invention. Varro, a contem- pencil or needle, for laying on this porary of Cicero, calls one of these tinctare; for in those days the Greek salves by which wrinkles were re and Roman ladies universally made moved, tenti pellum-humorously lik use of methods for increasing the lustre ing it to the stretchers used by tan and depth of their eye-lashes and eyeners. The second slave is Phiale brows, very similar to the surmé still her care is the pallet alone, it is her's employed for the same purposes by the to clothe with white and red the clean Oriental fair. The common mixture washen and smoothed visage of the was called Stibium (a slight alteration Domina. Before, however, she pre- of the Greek stipeyes, an eye-brow), and sumes to apply her colours, she breathes it might either be formed, as we have on a metallic mirror, and gives it to already described it, from lead, or from her lady, who smells the breath. The antimony or bismuth, the very matestate of the saliva of the maiden is by rials still in fashion among the easthis ascertained--a circumstance of terns. Stimmi, with her calliblemighty import in the mixing of the pharon (for this too was another name colours.
for it, and the most elegant of all), The ointments and colours, and the soon transfers Sabina into some resemwhole apparatus wherewith, as Ham- blance of the ox-eyed hero of Homer. * let says, they disguised God's handi- The eye-brows also are delicately touchwork, was contained in two caskets of ed. Next comes Mastiche to her post, ivory and crystal work, which form- the dentist of the toilette. She applies ed, in these days, the chief ornaments to the Domina that Chian martix from of the female toilette, and were known which she derives her own name, and by the Greek name, Narthekia. Our which was the customary dentifrice of fair readers may be excused for wish- the day. From the corner of her ing to have a glimpse of the interior beautiful mastix-box she next produof these repositories; but let our gen- ces a little onyx phial, containing the tlemen take warning from the fate of urine of an infant, and a golden shell, “ Peeping Tom of Coventry." We containing finely pounded pumicemay, however, mention this much in stone, which, from the mixture of a degeneral, that with the exception of the ancient and saturnian white lead, The best description of this operation is which was then quite as fashionable Juvenal's : as it is now, the greater part of the Illa supercilium madida fuligine tactum ancient paints were derived from the Obliquâ producita cu, pingitque trementes comparatively innocent animal and ve. Attollens oculos. getable kingdoms. The Roman ladies Petronius also speaks of "Supercilia prowere in this respect wiser than ours. ferre de pyxide." What Juvenal calls the
obliqua acus is called by Galen, in speaking
of the ladies of his time, (ut oonuspus cope * The word Fard is derived, not from u Boruesve yuvaixes) pinam, i. e. specillum. fucus, as Menage thinks, but from the Ita. + The word mastis itself (uasiev, marlian farda-saliva. The sublimate of mer. illa, macheoire) shews how universal was cury was always moistened by saliva before this practice. The substitute of the rich, it was mixed up with the colours. To this when any substitute was used, was a silver Ariosto alludes, in his first satire :
picker spina argentea. (See Petron. c. 33. • Voglio che si contenti della faccia
p. 128.) The poor then, as they still do in Non sa ch'il liscio e fatto con salvo
the east, were obliged to employ a false Delle Guidee ch'il vendon, ne con tempre species of mastich, the attractilis gummifera Di muschio ancor perde l'odor cattivo." Linn. In old times the tree itself, however,
See Triller de remediis veterum cosme- was sedulously cultivated both in Italy and ticis eorumque noxiis, vit. 1757, 4.
the Levant. Sonnini has several curious Also, an amusing article in the European remarks concerning it, and the trade arising Magazine, 1797, "the Adventures of Mer out of it. See Voyage en Grece et Turquie cury.
vol. ii. p. 126.
licate marble, sparkles with every va- DESCRIPTION OF THE DRESSING-BOX riety of colour. But perhaps all this OF ASTERIA, A ROMAN LADY OF is mere show. The teeth which are THE FOURTH CENTURY, FOUND IN contained in the little box of Mastiche THE YEAR 1794. have no real occasion for tooth powder, dentifrice, or pearl essence. These are “ Could we but see one of the rouge. easily placed with all their beauty in boxes in the Museum of Portici ! Has the hollow jaws, and no powder or no dressing-box been found among all brush can do any good to the few and their excavations? Learned men used ragged remnants of the aboriginal to be buried with a copy of Homer or stumps. The truth is, that the in- Cicero under their heads-- did no fair vention of ivory teeth and golden and luxurious Domina ever take her sprigs is as old as the twelve tables. * toilette apparatus with her to her
Martial often speaks in a manner grave ?” So we can easily imagine one which proves the universality of the of our fair readers to express herself, use of false teeth in his times; for in- after perusing the first scene of our stance, in the following, when he in- Sabina. troduces the tooth-powder as speak By a happy accident, there was dising;
covered, some years ago, the complete Quid mecum est tibi ? me Puella sumat,
toilette of a Roman larly of the first Emptos non voleo polire dentes.
rank, in a tomb of the imperial city.
It is true, that the age of this precious The goddess Fashion had in these
monument is some few centuries later times not only as many worshippers, than that of our Sabina ; and it is albut was a lored by them with the same so true that our Herculanean lady can incense and morning offerings as now.
scarcely be suppused to have rivalled To many a Sabina of that day a por
the magnificent equipage of the contrait-painter might have made the same
sular lady Asteria; but, nevertheless, excuse which Lord Chesterfield has
we may gain at least some light from put in the mouth of Liotard, “I
examining that interesting relic of annever copy any body's work but my tiquity. But first a few words on the own and God Almighty's.”+
mode of its discovery. Let us hear the address of Martial In the spring of 1794, some labour. to one of his own countrywomen :
ers digging for a well in the garden Cum sis ipsa domi mediâque ornere Suburâ
of a monastery, not far from the SaburFiant absentes et tibi Galla Comæ
ra, nt the foot of the Equiline hill, Nec dentes aliter quam Serica nocte reponas,
canie upon a large subterranean chamEt jaceas centum condita pyxidibus. Nec tecum facies tua dormiat, innuis illo
ber filled with crumbled ruins, from Quod tibi prolatum est mane, supercilio.
which, after some time, they succeed
ed in extricating a chest filled with a Sixteen centuries later, La Bruyere
variety of ancient articles of dress. At speaks much in the same way of his
first, however, this discovery was countrywomen: “I have collected
looked upon as so unimportant, that the voices of the men, and they were
government, although legally entitled almost all of my opinion, that it is al
to all things so dug up, made over the most as odious a thing to see a woman
prize, without difficulty, to the perwith white lead on her face, as with
sons in whose garden it had been false teeth in her gums, or waxen
found. These sold the whole to a plumpers in her cheeks. They pro
German connoisseur, the Baron von tested, that before God and man, no
Schellersheim, then residing in Rome, part of this deceit and treachery could
who was indefatigable in picking up be laid to their charge.”.
all antique rarities discovered during his stay; and who, upon a closer in
vestigation, had no difficulty in find. • Cicero de legg. ii. 24. It is forbidden
ing, that he had thus got into his pose to bury gold with the dead, but where an express exception is made concerning those
session one of the most precious rewho were buried with false teeth fastened
mains of Roman antiquity which had with gold in this way.
ever been dug from the earth, both by + The World, No 105.
reason of its materials and its work Caractères, vol. i. p. 153. manship. He shortly after shewed. his prize to the learned Abbate Vis- and Constantia. As to the destination conti, at that time inspector of the of this box there can remain no doubt, Museum Po-Clementinum, who made after the slightest examination of the its value known to the world by a let- relievos and inscriptions with which it ter addressed to the Prelate Jomaglia is covered. Upon the tablet, at the
The whole of the articles found with top, which may be supposed to be the this casket are of massy silver, and most honourable place, there is a halftheir total weight amounts to one length relievo of a man and a woman. thousand and twenty-nine ounces. The lady stands on the right of her The whole pieces of wrought silver of husband, and holds in her hand a half antiquity (coin excepted) which have unfolded roll. This is often to be seen as yet been discerned, would scarcely on old monuments where a marriage is equal the weight of this single trea- the subject of representation, and the sure; an moreover, a very great pro- roll has been supposed by some of the portion of ts component parts are sil- most erudite antiquarians, to be the ver-gilt. The other important re- marriage-contract. It is probable that mains of this kind which have been the box itself was the wedding gift of found have all been in single pieces, the bridegroom to his bride. The such as, the silver shield found in the head-dress of the lady is elevated to a Rhone not far from Avignon ; another great height, with curls and ringlets shield found in the Arve, near Genf; after the fashion commonly met with a third shield, which has been describ- in the coins of the age of the Empress ed in the 9th volume of the Memoires Helena. The bridegroom has a short de Litterature; the great silver key at curled beard, like the heads in the coins the Vatican, and the Aldaburian Pa- of Maximus, Julius, and Eugenius.tera, which has been described by the Over his shoulders he has a mantle, Abbate Braschi. But however great (the chlamys ) * which is fastened, as the metallic weight of some of these usual, above the right arm, with a single pieces may be, no one of them clasp of considerable size. The two can be put into any kind of compari- busts are surrounded with a common son with this casket and its contents, border of sufficiently intelligible deby any one who has the smallest tinc- scription. It is a garland of myrtle ture of true antiquarian learning. twigs, held at either extremity by a Here are to be seen at once, almost all flying genius-a symbol of the unity the articles in use in the toilette of a of the pair. distinguished Roman lady of the fourth Three of the four declining sides of century; the history of luxury and the lid are adorned with beautiful refashions possesses no monument which presentations of the goddess of love. can be compared with it.
One of these is particularly charming, The most remarkable piece is the wherein Venus is pictured as making silver toilette, or dressing-box itself, her progress over the calm waves, two feet in length, a foot and a half attended by a group of Tritons and a in breadth, and one foot in height. whole procession of Cupids. One of The form, the workmanship, the fi- the Tritons leans forward, and pregures upon its exterior, are all of the sents to the goddess an oval mirror; a most elaborate and exquisite kind. group often seen, with some little va. The quadrangular box consists of two riation, on ancient gems and medals. equal parts, of which the one forms the box, properly speaking, and the The chlamys, originally entirely confinother the lid. The box is thickest ated to military dress, had, in the 3d and 4th the place where these join ; from that centuries, almost superseded the use of the point upwards and downwards it is proper toga. The clasps were continually shaped in a pyramidal fashion ; and increasing in size, and in elaborate workit terminates both above and below in manship. See Rhodius, de acia c. 5. p. 56 a small oblong tablet. The earlier
and Smetius, Antiquitates Neomag. p. 86. taste of antiquity would have rejected
+ The Venus Marina, a favourite sub. this form as too artificial ; but it is to
ject both of sculptors and painters. A fine
passage in the beautiful poem of Claudian, be seen in several lids of urns, &c.
De Nupt. Hon. et Mar. seems to have of the age of Constantine, among been composed with reference to some such others, in the two urns supposed to representation as the present. See v. 151, have contained the ashes of St Helena &c.
The drapery of the figures on all these intimately connected with the use of three sides is strongly gilt. In these all these. A fourth slave holds a basin later times, this gilding of silver was of a semicircular form. A fifth holds the universal taste. The scene on the a ring, from which depends a small fourth side is also worthy of much at- box pyramidically shaped in its cover, tention, although Venus is not visibly but fat below. In addition to all this introduced. It represents the festal rich work, there are still two female home-bringing of the bride to her figures more, which seem to perform husband's house. The shape of the the parts of candelabra: probably this house, with its wreathed pillars, is one may refer to the well-known nuptial of familiar occurrence in medals. The torch-bearing. The subject of this bride moves between her two brides- piece, then, is not, it would seem, any maidens, the one of whom holds a ordinary dressing, but the formal and tambourin in her hand. At a little solemn attiring of a bride. The chamdistance there are some more figures, ber wherein the figures are placed has a woman with two children, all bring- in its back-ground a row of pillars, ing boxes, vases, ewers, and other ar- every two figures separated by one of ticles of furniture. The figures are them. The unwearied invention of in some measure separated from each the artist has placed by each of the other by a pillar which stands in the extreme columns a peacock in the full middle, covered with garlands, and splendour of his expanded plumage ;* wreathed like those already mentioned, the whole of the gay scene being most in the corrupt fashion of architecture fitly terminated on either side by one then prevalent.
of the emblems of that imperial Juno, Another very interesting represents who has no emblems but those of ation is that on one of the sides of the pride and splendour. box-paper, where the lady whom we T his then is a dressing-box t exhave just seen introduced to the house actly of the same nature with those is set forth in the retirement of her which modern ladies use. The only toilette or dressing-room. She is difference is, that our ladies are in seated on a splendid stool, while her common satisfied with boxes of atlas slaves are busied about her. The stool or rose-wood, inlaid with brass or is hung round with golden chains and silver, while the ancient fair conde. ornaments, and is therefore a cathedra. scended not below silver materials and The lady holds in one hand a casket, the workmanship of a sculptor.-As containing probably her wedding-jew- to the name of the owner, no doubt els ; with the other she is fastening a can exist. On the smooth summit of band upon her head. Right before the lid, the following words are still her stands one of the attendant slaves, distinctly visible : Secunde et Projecta with a silver mirror of the common vivatis. Secundus is the bridegroom, oval shape in her hand, which she is Projecta is the name of his bride. A holding up to her mistress. Another prayer for the happiness of both is the stands by her with a dressing-box, meaning of the legend. On some of containing probably the rouge and the the smaller pieces there is found, alother cosmetic apparatus. A third though not so entire, the name Proholds a rectangular casket high up, jecta Turci. Now, in the history of and has an ewer at her feet. This the fourth and fifth centuries, several probably is the psecas, the slave whose of the first dignities in Rome were vocation it is to sprinkle the odorife- held by men bearing the name of rous Indian essences over the hair and Turcius Asterius Secundus ; I so that dress of her lady. The casket which there seems to be no reason to doubt she holds is probably the proper nare that this splendid box was possessed thezium, or salve-casket, filled with by a Projecta, wife of one of these alabaster vases, oil flasks, onyx phials, Asterii. &c.; and the water ewer below is
• ~ Gloriosum animal, gemmantes lau• The use of the word ducere is evidently datus expandit colores.” Plin. x. 20. derived from this practice. Processions of t Its proper name was Pyxis, which the same kind are still used among the in- shews of what materials it was originally habitants of European Turkey. See Tourne- formed. fort, Voyage du Levant, vol. ii. p. 51. (edit. There were two prefects of the Gens Amst. 1718. 4.)
Turcia in the years 339 and 362. VOL. IV.