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The third Book of this learned and entertaining Work contains the abridgment of a Treatise on Musical Compofition, to which the Author has subjoined, ift, A general table of uniYons, together with a notice of the extent and powers of all the different instruments, and also of the different kinds of voices. 2dly, A comparative table, in which he endeavours to prove, that the term mode, as employed by the ancients, is equivalent to what we call tone ; with this difference only, that in each mode they went only through the degrees of the octave, whereas our tones extend much farther. 3dly, Several pieces of music of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In this book M. De LABORDE is sometimes an opponent of the celebrated J. J. Rousseau, whose incomparable Dictionary of Music has been lately affaslinated in English, and some of whose doctrines are, in our opinion, refuted here with the utmost evidence. As these refutations are interesting, we intend to communicate some specimens of them to our Readers in a subsequent Article.
The fourth Book may very well be intitled, A Book of Songs; and however light this title may be, its contents are far from being frivolous. Songs are among the characteristical marks, from which an observer will learn much of the genius, spirit, and character of a people, and it will appear from the Historico-Poetico-Musical details, into which our Author here enters, that the French excel other nations in their amorous satirical, and Bacchanalian fongs. This Book is divided into twelve Chapters, of which the titles are as follows : Reflections on Songs : Of Grecian Songs Of Roman Songs–Of the changes that have taken place in the French language-Of French Songs, and the Poetical Songsters (or the ballad-making Bards) of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries—Songs of Coucy-A Table of the Songs of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, contained in the manuscripts of the Vatican, of the King of France, of the Marquis of Palmy, of Meff. de St. Palaye, de Clairambaut, et de Noailles-Concerning some French Lyric Poets of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries
Songs of Denmark, Norway, and Iceland-Erse Songs and Poems --Songs of Perigord, Strasburg, and Auvergne-Select French Songs, fet to Mufic, in four Parts--Songs of Gascogne, Bearne, Languedoc, and Provence-Grecian Dances—Dances of the Savages, Rufians, Grecians, Chinese, and of several provinces in France.
[Ta be continued.]
* By the word amorous, we do not mean love, nor any thing out of the sphere of gallantry. It is almost only among the Italian and British bards that love is sung with genuine fenfibility.
ART. XXII. Sammlung Antiquarischer Auffoetze, &c.-A Collection of Discourses
on several Points of Antiquity. By M. Heyne, Counsellor, &c. at Hanover. Vol. II. Leipfic. 1779.
HIS second part of M. Heyne's interesting Collection
contains a variety of instructive and entertaining matter relative to ancient literature and the arts. The first Discourse in this second part treats of the famous Lapcoon Notwithstanding all the accounts we have of that sublime groupe in the writings of the Abbé Winkelman and other virtuosos, the Reader will here find perhaps new instruction with respect to its discovery, together with ingenious remarks on what has been said concerning it by Pliny, Virgil, and other writers, and a criti. cal history of the art that is displayed in it. The second Dircourse contains an inquiry into the real or supposed distinctions between the Fauns, Satyrs, Silenuses, and Pans. The third contains a curious account of the authors which Pliny followed in his Natural History. The fourth is a Discourse on the Toreuticum, or carving, especially that kind mentioned by Pliny, which was the art of moulding or casting figures in relievo. The fiftb exhibits farther illustrations of the sculpture of the ancients in ivory; as also a Memoir concerning the manner of working in ivory, communicated to our Author by M. Spengler of Copenhagen, in which he shews, that the turning lathe was not necessary to the formation of ivory statues, and mentions several ancient remains of sculpture in that substance, that are ftill to be met with in the cabinets of the curious, particularly the head of a woman in the Royal collection at Copenhagen.
ART. XXIII. Kurzgefasste Geschichte der Hungern, &c.- A Compendious Hitory
of ihe Hungarians, from the earliest to the present Time, colle died froin the most faithful Historians and the most authentic Manuscripts. By M. CHARLES GOTTLIEB VON WINDISH. Presburg and Leiplic. 1779.
E formerly mentioned a General History of Hungary *
by M. de Sacy, Royal Censor at Paris. That which is here announced has been composed under the protection of the government, and of consequence the Author must be supposed to have had the ampleft fources of information, though not that unbounded liberty and independence to which alone we must look for impartiality. In the ancient parts of this hiftory, he
* See Review, vol. Iviii. p. 384.
has not made such a liberal and judicious choke of facts as might have been expected from a writer of the eighteenth century: for his narration is disguised with a multitude of legendary ftories of miracles and saints, which no respect due to the public records Mould engage an historian to admit without distinction. The Author faithfully follows the Annals of the Abbé Pray *, and begins his history with the Sinais Huns of M. de GUIGNES. He divides his materials into four Sections. The first comprehends the history of Hungary under its Dukes; the second, that of the native Kings; the third, that of the foreign Kings; and the fourth, the history of the Kings of the House of Auftria, fo far down as the year 1775. A great variety of writers have lately employed their pens on the history of this country, whose natural riches and fertility, whose vigorous and fpirited inhabitants, whose government, princes, and revolutions, give it a title to the attention of the Historic Muse. Among these writers, we must not pass over in filence the work of M. KASANA, Professor of History in the University of Buda, and Presbyter of the Diocese of Strigonia, which relates to the ancient history of Hungary under its first Dukes. The title of this work is as follows: Historia Critica primorum Hungariæ Ducum, ex Fide domesticorum et exterorum Scriptorum concinnata. A STEPHANO KASANA, &c. The Annals of Pray are here abridged, but in a very judicious manner. Our Author begins his history with the year 884, and places the arrival of the Madschares in 889.
ART. XXIV. Esai sur l'Ile de Otahiti, &c.--Exay concerning the Inland of Ota
hiti, and the Character and Manners of its Inhabitants. Svo.
E have here a collection of all the accounts that have
been given of the island of Otahiti (as it is here written), and its inhabitants, by Meff, Banks and Solander, Cook, and Bougainville. It is however to be observed, that the Author has not availed himself of the last (printed) voyage of the unfortunate Captain Cook, to improve his compilation, though he would have found in it new facts, and some corrections of former mistakes.
• For an account of M. Pray's Essay concerning Ecclefiaftical Power in Hungary, fee App. to Rey, vol. Ix. p. 562,
ART. XXV. Memoires de l'Academie Royale de Prusse, concernant l'Anatomie, la
Phyfiologie, la Physique, &c.-Memoirs of the Royal Academy of Prussia, relative to Anatomy, Physiology, Natural History, Botany, Mineralogy, &c. together with a select Number of Chemical and Metaphysical Memoirs, Preliminary Discourses, and Appendixes, in which new Discoveries are announced. By M. Paul, Correspondent of the Royal Society of Sciences of Montpellier, &c. Paris and Avignon. 8vo. 1777.
HIS title is sufficient to sew the nature and usefulness
of the collection of M. Paul. It is well known, that the plan of the Academy of Berlin is moft extenfive, and comprehends almost all the various branches of human knowledge, The Memoirs, therefore, here selected must prove acceptable to a multitude of Readers, to whom the original work is inaccerfible, on account of its high price, and the number of volumes of which it is already composed. The Memoirs contained in this collection are curious and masterly, and some of them open views of utility that deserve attention. Of the former kind is the Memoir of M. Heinius concerning animated beings; and of the latter, the Memoir of M. Margraff, containing chymical experiments, made with a design to draw real sugar from several plants which grow in Europe. All the others have likewise their merit; and therefore the continuation of this collection will no doubt be deemed a useful present to the public.
XXVI. Annales Poetiques depuis l'Origine de la Poesie Francoise. Poetical
Annals carried down from the Commencement of French Poetry. 8vo. Paris. 1779.
T entertaining and is an elegant, animated, and judicious
history of French poetry, illustrated by extracts from the bards of that nation. This Volume ends with Malherbe, who forms an epocha in poetic history. It was this amiable, and often sublime poet, in whose compositions the French Lyric Muse first appeared with dignity and grace. Sublimity of ideas, perspicuity and richness of expression, a happy mixture of images and sentiments, and a perpetual harmony of verlification, distinguished this excellent bard.
XXVII. Principes de Morale, de Politique, et de Droit Public, &c, ou, Dif
cours sur l'Histoire de France, 80,-Moral and Political Discourses on the History of France. By M. MOREAU, Historiographer of France. Vol. VIII. and IX. *
8vo, Paris. . 1779. HIS eloquent, judicious, and indefatigable Author, afa
ter having discussed, towards the conclusion of his seventh Volume, the legislation of Charlemagne, in its relatior to and influence on religion and manners, considers it, in the commencement of the eighth, in its conformity with the rights of man. This leads him to exhibit, in different points of view, the Capitularies, or Royal edicts of the three first Kings of France of the second race, and to compare the legislation of the Franks, whose government he proposes to illustrate, with the Jaw of Nature, and the primitive principles of focial order. These instructive discussions terminate the ninth Discourse. The tenth exhibits the means that were employed, at the commencement of the second race, to secure the
perpetuity of the monarchy, and the influence which the restora. tion of the imperial dignity had upon the French government. Our Author, in treating this part of his subject, explains the nature and characters of those Royal magistracies, conferred by Charlemagne as a kind of settlement on his children, in whole favour he never resigned his supremacy, and who were no more in their respective governments, than the representatives and depositaries of his authority. After having examined the extent of the power and jurisdiction which, during their own lives, Charlemagne and Louis le Debonnaire conferred upon their children, M. MOREAU explains, in a very curious discussion, founded upon authentic records, the nature of the authority and prerogatives which the Popes éxercised at that time at Rome, and in a part of Italy. He thews, that the Roman Pontiff was only one of the first magistrates of the empire, who, like the others, usurped, by degrees, both the civil power and the territory, that were intrufted to his administration. He endeavours also here to refute the arguments by which some writers have pretended to prove, that the throne was elective under the first French Kings of the second race. In the eleventh Discourse, going backwards to the period when the Carlovingians assumed the scepter of royalty, he points out, in their origin, the secret defects that could not but weaken and enervate their dominion in process of time. The fabric of their government carried within itself the principles of its destruc
See our account of the three preceding volumes in our Review for September 1779, p. 214.