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Education of Princes. By Sig. ANTHONY Planelli, Knight of the
man nature, and a well-directed zeal for public felicity, is divided into fourteen chapters. In the first, the Author points out three kinds of education, which he distinguishes by the epithets of natural, civil, and political. The two first are common to all men, the third ought to be adapted to the rank and offices which different persons are designed to fill in society. It is of this latter that our Author treats. To thew, therefore, what fort of education a prince ought to receive in his political character, as a person designed to hold the helm of government, he confiders, in his second chapter, the effential duties of a prince, with the branches of knowledge and virtue that ought more especially to form his understanding, and take the lead (if we may use that expression) in his heart. “ It is not, says he, by “ the study of the Greek and Latin authors, as some scholastic “ pedants will have it, that the great and important art of
government is to be learned, but by a careful study of man in general, and a strict examination, in particular, of the
nature and genius of the state and people that are to be “ governed.”- In good time. But are the Greek and Latin aut.ors of no use in facilitating the study of man, and the knowledge of the various fprings that actuate and set in motion that miscellaneous being, commonly called Human Nature? If history (however fallacious when confidered as exhibiting a finished pidure, a full length of MAN) be nevertheless a faithful mirror of human nature in many of its characteristics, and an instructive representation of those that more especially concern a prince; and if Grecian and Roinan history are fiiled with thule active and tumultuous scenes, which, arising from the extremes of licentiousness, anarchy, and despotism, have occalioned alternately bold and artful exertions of all the virtues, vices, pallions, capacities, and resources of the human mind, we do not see why the Greek and Latin authors should be barished from the library of a prince,- if he is to have any library at all. If books are to be entirely discarded, the study of man will be long and laborious to every individual, and totally inaccessible to a prince, who can only look at the world though the key-hole of his cabinet, or through the very fallivie representations, which are given of mankind in general, Ly the few individuals that surround him. If our Author's
objection be founded on the time that a prince must employ in the study of the dead languages, -he ought to have said so:and, indeed, we acknowledge, that in good translations (if such, were to be found) of Thucydides, Xenophon, Livy, Salluft, Polybius, and Tacitus, a prince may acquire the same measure of useful knowledge that is to obtained from the originals : the difference here is only a matter of taste. However, we have a strong (perhaps, it may be a whimsical) notion, that taste, good taste, is a friend to humanity, and, therefore, by no means, a matter of indifference in the education of a prince. Let Sig. PLANELLI reflect for a moment, why the study of the ancient Greek and Latin authors was called ftudia humanitatis,, and its object, humaniores literæ.
For the rest, the notions of Sig. PANELLI seem accurate and judicious, with respect to the general tenor of political education. When he defines political science, the art of influencing the actions of a multitude of persons united in society, in . such a manner as to make them concur in promoting the public good, he defines it well. This art, according to him, supposes an acquaintance with the intellectual conftitution of man. The prince (and every able statesman) must be a logician, a moralift, a metaphysician, says our Author; and if he says right, the subjects of some monarchies are surely to be pitied. But the knowledge of the capacities, passions, and wants of men would, in his opinion, be of no use; nay, it would be even dangerous to a prince, if it were not accompanied with the knowledge of the local circumstances of the country which he is to govern: these circumftances are the five following,—the fundamental constitution, or form of its government-its civil laws—the qualities and nature of the soil the national character of its inhabitants--the forms of government also, and forces of neighbouring states, and of those nations from whence a country has any thing to hope or fear, or with whom it is its interest to be in any way connected. These branches of knowledge will enable a prince to fulfil his destination, and to promote the true felicity of his country
It is not, however, only the duty of a prince to promote the happiness of his country, by wise arrangements, that tend to internal order, peace, union, and opulence; he is, moreover, called to secure a country, thus happily governed from within, against all danger, violence, and calamity from without. He mult defend his country, as well as govern it; accordingly, our Author enlarges on this part of the duty of a prince, and difcuffes, among other things, the nice question, Whether a fovereign should himself march at the head of his armies, or give the command of them to his generals ? He decides in
favour of the former, against some writers of note; and maintains, that a war will be sooner terminated, and in a manner more advantageous for a people, when the fovereign commands his armies in person.
Our Author considers all branches of knowledge, except those already mentioned, not only as prejudicial, but even of the most pernicious consequence both to a prince and the ftate, at the hea] of which he is placed. The demonstration of this paradox (for such at least the violence of Signor Planelli's expr lion renders it) is the subject of the third Chapter; in wach this Author, though learned himself, exerts all his power of argument and persuasion to banish learning from the throne, or rather, ought we to say, to prevent its making its way th'ther. We think that this exclusion of learning from Royal, ty is fusceptible of restrictions and modifications, to which our Author has not given a proper degree of attention, and which result from the natural character, genius, and capacity of a prince, as well as from the conftitution of the government over which he presides. We should not like to see a monarch writing commentaries on Terence or Aristophanes, or making bad or niiddling poems himself; but we should rather be edified than offended, if we met with annotations of a royal pen on certain passages of Livy, Tacitus, or the Commentaries of Cælar.-Ed modus in rebus.
After having finished his plan of education for the head, our Author proceeds to that part of his plan that relates to the heart. He points out the manner in which a wise governor may rectify the irregular propensities, improve the good dispositions of his royal pupil, and form in his mind that love of his subjects, and that spirit of active application to business, that are the two essential constituents of the character of a good prince. This is the subject of the fourth Chapter; and in the fifth and following Chapters he shews, that from these two qualities all other princely virtues naturally flow. His illustrations of this plan of royal or princely education discover a confi. derable fund of knowledge, and more especially an intimate acquaintance with the history and interests of the European Itates.
ART. XXI. Ffai sur la Musique Ancienne et floderne.- An Essay on Ancient and Modern Muác. In Four Volumes.
4to. (containing 1681 Pages.) With Cuts. Paris. 1780.
HIS is the work of a scholar, a performer, a composer, and a man of exquifite taste. It is the result of thirty
years reading, as the Author * tells us, and of the extracts made from some thousands of volumes on the subject of music, accompanied with his own reflections on the nature, power, and branches of that charming art. It was originally designed to occupy a place in another work, by the fame hand, intitled, A Voyage through Switzerland and Italy; but its bulk increasing beyond expectation, required its being published apart.
The Introduction contains an interesting inquiry concerning the mufic of the ancients. Of the astonishing effects of that music accounts have been given, which, if genuine, our Author is rather disposed to attribute to the extreme fenfibility of the Greeks and Asiatics, than to the transcendent excellence of their art, or the extraordinary merit of their performers. Ą warm climate, lively passions, a keen taste for pleasure, fineness of organs, and above all, perhaps, the custom of joining perpetually with music the charms of poetry, all these are circumstances which account more or less for the extraordinary effects of music in ancient times. Plato maintained, that the inmost feelings and thoughts of the mind might be distinctly represented and expressed by different notes of the lyre: our Author proves this to be impossible; "he exposes also, with learning and judgment, the ignorance of the Athenian sage, with respect to this branch of the fine arts ; and though he acknowledges, that the ancients cultivated music with zeal and assiduity, that they looked upon it as an object of great importance in the education of their children, who were taught to fing before they were taught to read, and that some of their greatest men made music a serious object of study; yet he is persuaded, that the ancients made very little progress in the science of sound; and he appears to us to have proved this point with a high degree of plaufibility, if not with irrefragable evidence. That the Greeks had the art of painting sounds, or writing music, is certain; but what can be more fabulous than Ariftotle's story of the horses of the Sybarites, throwing their riders, by dancing to the flutes of the Crotoniates, who had used that stratagem to conquer their enemies, as they knew the education of these animals, and how much they were affected by the harmony and melody of sounds?
This idle story, which Athenæus took from a book of Ari. stotle t, long since loft, is adopted by Pliny; and another Roman author of high note I tells one, still more ridiculous, of
M. DE LABORDE, who comes indeed somewhat late after Dr. BUREY, and other able writers on this subject, but not too late to be read with pleasure and instruction by the lovers of this fine art.
+ This book treated of the republic of Lybaris, | Varro de Re Ruftica.
certain floating istands in Lydia, which first danced into a circle at the sound of a Aute, and afterwards came gently together, and formed a line along the borders of the lake.
M. De LABORde's Work is divided into fix Books. The firft treats of music in general, its divifion, its antiquity, its origin, the uses to which it was first applied, the state of that art among the Jews, Chaldeans, and other Oriental nations, as also among the Egyptians, Grecians, Romans, and Italians. It also treats of the dances, gestures, and the public plays of the ancients, &c. We find, moreover, in this first Book a compendious history of music, from the Gauls down to the present time, an account of the origin and progress of that art among the Chinese, the Hungarians, the Perlians, Turks and Arabians. The details here are learned, entertaining, and furnish a great variety of agreeable instruction. The Author has made considerable use of Father Amiot's Memoir concerning the Chinese music *, and of the excellent Memoirs of M. Burette and the Abbé Rouffier, concerning the music of the ancients. At the conclusion of this first Book he has placed fome precious remains of antiquity relative to the subject of his Work, as, ist, The only Fragments of Grecian music that are known, with a Translation by M. Burette ;--they consist of three Hymns ; one to Calliope, another to Apollo, and a third to Nemesis (set to Music, in four Parts, of which the Greek found or tune makes the treble), and the first eight verses of the first Pythic Ode of Pindar. 2dly, A Table of the Notes of the Grecian Music, vocal and instrumental, compared with the Notes of Modern Music. This Table, perfectly well executed, exhibits the 1620 characters which have been preserved by Alypius, and it will certainly be of great use in decyphering the pieces of Grecian music that may be found in the manufcripts of Herculaneum and Pompeïa.
In the second Book we meet with a history, accompanied with figures, of the musical instruments of the ancients, divided into three classes; wind-inftruments, pulsatile, and stringed. His observations upon the defects of the harpsichord in particular are learned and ingenious. The subjects that employ our Author in the remaining part of this book are—the Music of the Rusians—the Opera-the Comic Opera--the Opera (called .by the French) Bouffon—the Spiritual Concert--the Fraternity of St. Julien de Menétriers--the Music of the Modern Greeks—the Sounding Stones of China-the Music of the Siamese—the Lyrig Poetry and Music of the Morlachians.
See in this Appendix the mention made of this treatise, in our extract of the fifth and fixth Volumes of the Memoirs of the Chinese Milionaries.