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be composed with precision, and must be more especially of use to those who trade with the French islands in America.

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ART. XII. L'Intrigue du Cabinet fous Henri IV. et Louis XIII. terminée par la

Fronde. —The Political Intrigues or Negociations of the Cabinet. Council under Henry IV. and Lewis XIII. ending with the Troubles of the Fronde. By M. AXQUETIL, Regular Canon of the Congregation of France, Correspondent of the Royal Academy of Inscriptions, &c. 4 vols, in 12mo. HIS interesting Work comes from the fame hand to

which the public is indebted for the juftly-applauded piece of modern history, intitled, The Spirit of the League, which unfolds with such accuracy and candour the scenes of blood and horror that were exhibited by the ambition and bigotry of the faction of the Guises. The present Work, though less striking, is not however less instructive; for if it does not exhibit a series of warlike exploits, which astonish, it opens useful views of the workings of ambition, and the other hu. man passions, that neftle in the cabinets of princes, and from thence spread their pernicious influence through human society.

The Work is divided into nine Books. In the first, we see the painful efforts of Henry IV. to restore order and subordination in his kingdom-the spirit of faction and the remains of the League forcing this prince to acts of severity, against his natural propensity to clemency and indulgence- the progress of navigation and agriculture, and the flourishing state of the kingdom. In the second, we see this monarch, vi&orious over his enemies, enjoying peace at home and abroad, but imbittering his felicity by an inconfiderate passion, which casts a cloud over the remainder of his days, and furnishes a pretext for the Queen-Confort to perfevere in a line of conduct that is pernicious to the kingdom.- In the third, Mary de Medi. cis, devoted and abandoned to insolent favourites, adopts all their prejudices against the princes, who arm, and the parliaments, who murmur. Here we meet with a variety of objects, presented in a very interesting manner ; such as, the character of Mary de Medicis, the triumph of Condé, the remarkable history of the Mareschal D'Ancre, the disgrace of the QueenMother, the contest between her and Condé, &c. In the fourth, Mary de Medicis regains her credit, opposes her son, who, incapable of governing without a leader, falls into the hands of Richlieu, whose influence and ascendency, after having suffered several checks, is confirmed by the disgrace of his principal enemies. In the fifth, the genius of this minifter displays all its powers, and renders him master of the King, His accumulated successes excite envy-powerful cabals are

formed,

formed; into which the Queen-Mother, the King's brother and nearest relations, and several magistrates and military commanders of the first rank enter; all of whom are punished, for their attempts to overturn the minister, by exile, imprisonment, or death.---- In the fixth, the Frondeurs, though supported by the parliament, and become masters of the metropolis, by the famous four des Barricades, are obliged to conclude a peace, which is followed by a variety of intrigues, in which the political operations of Richlieu are curious, and well represented. The death of that cardinal and Lewis XIII. the rife, favour, and qualities of Mazarin, and the beginning of the regency of Anne of Austria, make also an interesting part of the contents of this book. --The seventh, eighth, and ninth books exhibit to us a kind of moving picture, in which the figures, fometimes visible and sometimes concealed, advance, retire, unite, separate, change sides, every moment, and espouse different and opposite plans and interests with the utmost inconstancy. Here we see Paris blockaded by Condé, through the inftigation of Mazarin,—this prince arrested by the joint efforts of the Frondeurs and the minister,--set at liberty again by the former, in spite of the latter, who is obliged to quit the kingdom,-the Frondeurs joining the court to destroy Condé,- the return of Mazarin,-the re-union of all the factions against him,-civil war,-the flight, return, and triumph of Mazarin, while the Fronde, like a fire-work, after throwing out, for a while, Squibs and rockets, consumes itself, and goes out in smoke.

The events related in these Volumes, when joined with the Spirit of the League, form a regular and connected history of the cabals and factions that agitated the court and kingdom of France during the course of a century. Our Author observes, in his Preface, that these events exhibit to us important truths and useful lessons, relative to the true ends and methods of government. Some of these leilons are relative to the French nation ; but the following seem to be of much more general application and utility : ist, That the monarch must be una happy who is implicitly governed by nis ministers, and becomes, in their hands, a crowned flave, forced to maintain, against his discontented subjects, principles and meafures that have not his own approbation; 2dly, That as authority has its limits, so has resistance its limits also; and that it is therefore the indispensable duty of the supreme councils of a nation, whose proceedings are the objects of public examination and attention, to follow measures and rules of conduct, equally remote from a fervile condescension and an inflexible and factious obftinacy

At the head of this instructive and entertaining Work we find a catalogue of the principal political writings that have been

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published, published, relative to the reigns of Henry IV. Lewis XII. and the wars of the Fronde, with observations on each article, These observations alone are a sufficient proof of the concise eloquence, the accurate judgment, and the candid impartiality of this excellent Author : they are sensible, elegant, and mafterly, and discover the nicest touch in appreciating the merit of historical publications.

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ART. XIII.
Memoire sur un Para-Tremblement de Terre et un Para-Volcan, -

A Memoir concerning a Counter-Earthquake and a Counter Vol.
cano (by which the Author means a Method of preventing these
Convulsions in the Bowels of the Earth). By M. BERTHOLON De
St. Lazare, Member of the Royal Academies of Montpellier,
Beziers, Lyons, Marseilles, Dijon, &c.

HIS learned academician, after an eloquent defeription

of the horrors that accompany earthquakes and volcanos, gives an historical list of these tremendous phenomena, from the feparation of Offa and Mount Olympus, to the present times; and indeed their number is so great in all parts of the world, as to justify that emphatic faying of an ancient writer, thac we walk upon the carcaffes of cities, and inhabit only the ruins of our globe. The destruction of twelve cities of Asia, at once, by an earthquake, as the fact is related by Seneca, Straho, and Tacitus, fills the Reader with astonishment;'and the frequency of earthquakes in our days is adapted to excite apprehenfion and terror. It is more peculiarly adapted to excite the inquiries of natural philosophers into the means of prevent ing these dreadful explosions, or of avoiding their fatal effects. Such is the object of the Memoir before us, whose ingenious Author Aatters himself with having succeeded in this inquiry. His ideas on this subject are as follows:

He confiders earthquakes as electrical phenomena ; and this he proposes to prove and illustrate in a separate differtation, though it be an hypothefis already adopted by the most eminent observers of nature. An earthquake is no more (as Pliny observed long ago) than fubterraneous thunder; and when we confider" the extent of the shock of the earthquake that destroyed the Afiatic cities, and of that which some years ago laid Lisbon in ruins ;-when we reflect how the deep moving power muft have been below the surface of the earth, to affect such a confiderable part of that furface, and what an enormous mass of folid matter was set in motion by these dreadful earthquakes, we shall perhaps be engaged to think, that the electrical com motion alone can operate at such distances, and produce such astonishing effects, This, at least, is the conclusion to which

our

eur Author designs to lead us up by calculations and reasonings, for which we reter the Reader to the Memoir itself.

It is, therefore, according to our Author, the interruption of the equilibrium between the electrical matter which is diffused in the atmosphere, and that which belongs to the mass of our globe, and pervades its bowels, that produces earthquakes. If the electrical Auid be superabundant, as may happen from a variety of causes, its current, by the laws of motion peculiar to fuids, is carried towards those places where it is in a smaller quantity ; and thus sometimes it will pass from the internal parts of the globe into the atmosphere. In such a case, if the equilibrium is re-established with facility, the current produces no other effect than what our Author calls ascending thunder; but if considerable and multiplied obstacles oppose this re-establishment, the consequence then is an earthquake, whose violence and extent are in exact proportion to the degree of the interruption of the equilibrium-the depth of the furnace of the electrical matter-and the obstacles that are to be surmounted. If the electrical furnace is large and deep enough, so as to give rise to the formation of a conduit or issue, a volcano will be produced, whose fucceflive eruptions are no more in reality, says our Author, than electrical repulsions of the matters contained in the bowels of the earth.

Having thus investigated the cause of the evil, our Author thinks it not difficult to find out a preservative or remedy ;as it is the electrical matter which causes this evil, he proceeds in his method of preventing or removing its fatal consequences, upon the same principles that have been followed in preventing the pernicious effects of thunder-storms. Long, or rather enormous metal-conductors, sunk as deep as possible into the earth, and having both their extremities armed with several divergent harp points (verticilles), are the essential parts of our Author's method. The inferior points, considerably dispersed and lengthened, in order to render their influence more extensive, will draw out from the interior parts of the earth, the superabundant electrical or fulminating matter, which being transmitted along the metallic substance or conductor, will be discharged into the air of the atmosphere under the form of tuffs (aigrettes), by the divergent points at the superior extremity of the conductor. Our Author enters into a long detail in describing the construction, and pointing out the effo: ets, of this preservacive against earthquakes and volcanos : he acknowledges, that his method must be attended with confiderable expence, as a great number of these enormous electrical rods or conductors will be required; for the number must be proportioned to the permanent quantity of electrical matter in the district that is to be preserved, and to the extent of that district. But

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great as this expence may be, provinces laid waste, cities over turned, and thousands of their inhabitants buried in their ruins, testify how indispensably necessary it is, at least, in certain parts of the globe ; befides, it is the business of princes and sovereign states, and hot of particular persons. We refer our Readers to the Memoir itself for a more circumstantial account of our Author's method ; where also they will find a chronological history of the earthquakes and volcanos, that have produced havock and desolation in many countries. This Memoir is published in the Journal de Physique of the Abbé Rofier, for the month of August 1779.

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ART. XIV. Recherches sur le Commerce, ou Idies relatives aux Interéts des Peuples

de l'Europe.--Inquiries concerning Commerce, containing Ideas Felative to the Interests of the European Nations. Vol. II. Part I, Amsterdam. 1779.

E mentioned the first Volume of this work with the

high efteem to which it has so just a title *, as it discovers, in its Author, a moft extensive knowledge of the subject of commerce, and large and philosophical views with respect to its connection with the interests of humanity.

The ingenious Author Thewed, in his first Volume, in opposition to the affertion of Mr. Hume, that the great quantity of gold and silver that has been poured into Europe fince the difcovery of America, and the variations consequent upon this that have taken place in the value of money, have been really detrimental to society in general. He observed, moreover, that this evil has been considerably increased by paper-circulation and credit; -he promised to thew this at length in a subsequent Volume, and he fulfils his engagement, in a masterly manner, in that now before us ; at least in part: for of the three Parts into which this second Volume is divided, we have only the first in this publication; and we cannot -disguise a sentiment of uneafiness, which we really feel, at receiving this precious Work piece-meal, and, as it were, dismembered. When an eminent artist uncovers the contour of one side of his statue, we are impatient to see the whole.

Be that as it may, what we see pleases us much, and gives us a full persuasion, that the rest will answer our utmost ex pectations.

The first part, then, of this second Volume contains some discussions and ideas relative to modern banks and paper-credit in general. These discussions, which are not exempt from

See in our Review for July 1778, the first article of Foreign Literasure.

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