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vacillatory motion of the burning glass. The action of fire, or the actual cautery, has been long, and almost generally, employed as an effectual method of curing certain ulcers of a malignant kind, which resist the influence of all other remedies; but it is only of late, that the heat of the sun has been substituted in the place of red-hot metals, burning hards, and other caustics of that nature. M. LA PEYERE communicated to the society, four observations of bad ulcers speedily and happily healed by letting the focus of a burning glass fall upon the parts of these ulcers, which, he thought, required it. M. LE COMTE, surgeon at Arcueil, had (so early as the year 1759) performed an excellent cure by the fame means, which is published here for the first time, at the end of the observations of M. Le Peyere, under the title of Observations concerning a Cancer in the under Lip, cured in the space of three Weeks, by the actual Cautery of the Solar Fire.

It is, indeed, easily to be conceived, that the focus of a burning-glass, being nothing but the re-union of the particles of the purest fire, must have great advantages over the ordinary fire, proceeding from any bodies whatever in a state of ignition. The action of the former is absolutely in our power, and we can modify it as we think proper ; but this, as the two learned physicians observe, is, by no means, the case with the latter, as it acts not only on the part to which it is applied, but also on those that are near it; and this both augments the pain of the patient, and retards the cure. Besides, the emanations from bodies in a state of ignition may be unfavourable to the ulcer, more especially if it be of a cancerous nature ; and the continual diminution of the heat of the bodies, or inftruments employed, prevents our discerning their effect, or regulating their action with precision. These inconveniences have, no doubt, engaged the generality of practitioners, at least in Europe, to abandon the use of the actual cautery. The focus of the burning-glass is entirely exempt from these inconveniences; it has, on the contrary, the advantage of preserving its heat always in the same degree, or of increasing or diminishing its action, as the operator thinks proper to render the rays more or less concentrated ; and thus it may furnish the art of healing with new fuccours, of which the observations of Messrs. Le Comte and La Peyere give us promising hopes.

The Memoirs in this Volume are both numerous and elaborate. Some of them form complete dissertations on the moft important fubjects, both in the theory and practice of phyfic. Among these a distinguished rank is due to M. LafJonne's account of the accidents occasioned by the miasmas, or pestilential effluvia of animals in putrefaction, Andry's researches concerning madness, and the manner of treating it, and

Jaubert's

I

Jaubert's Memoir, which obtained the academical prize on the following question: What are the circumstances in exanthematous fevers, in which the cool regimen is preferable to the warm, and in what cafes is a contrary method to be employed ?

The Memoir of M. Bucquet, concerning the manner in which animals are affected by different aerial mephitic fluids, and the means of remedying the effects of these fluids, contains a circumstantial account of a great number of experiments made on above two hundred animals, such as quadrupedes, birds, frogs, and others. These experiments were made in the calcareous acid gas, in air, rendered deadly by the burning of charcoal, and in the inflammable gas, in order to examine the symptoms, which appear in different kinds of animals, from the moment they are plunged in the mephitic fluid, till that of their death ;-to observe in their dissected carcases the state of the different viscera, and particularly of those by whose concurrence the circulation of the blood and respiration are carried on ; – to see how far an animal may suffer, without all hope being removed of its being restorable to life; and finally, to determine, what are the most speedy and efficacious means of restoring sensation and motion that have been suspended. The relult of all these experiments, which seem almost to have exhausted the subject, is, that all stimulants, acrid, and pungent remedies, volatile acids, or alkalis, may be employed with equal success in the greatest part of these cases ;—that it acts as a stimulant or irritating agent (and not as an absorbent of acids), that the volatile fluor alkali produces good effects in certain circumstances, and that this caustic deserves no pre-ference beyond other stimulants; nay, that it is only proper in

the second degree of the asphyxies, that is, when the patient can draw in the odours which are placed under his noftrils : and though, in this case, says M. BUCQUET, the volatile alkali may fucceed, it often happens, that it is less efficacious than the radical vinegar, because the violent shock, which the volatile spirit of fal ammoniac produces, is always followed by weakness, while the imell of vinegar, though often less active, yet is a greater supporter of strength and spirits.

With respect to the internal use of volatile alkali, M. BucQUET thinks that this remedy cannot be administered with too much circumspection and caution, as it has a tendency to occasion heavings of the stomach, troublesome hiccoughs, nay, even sometimes convulsive motions in persons of weak nerves, and feeble constitutions. This is true; but it is not the whole truth: for too strong a dose of this dangerous remedy occasions excruciating pains, a violent inflammation, the gangrene, and death.

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The two Memoirs of M. MAUDUIT, relative to the efficacy of electricity in the cure of the palsy, and other diseases, deserve the attention of physicians and philosophers in a particular manner. This acute and laborious observer of nature, animated by the countenance of government, and of the Royal Society of Medicine, has illustrated this important subject, by the most ample series of observations and experiments that have yet been made. These two Memoirs, which will be followed by several more, Chew already to what the researches of the learned academician will amount; they may even prove, that, in certain cases, electricity is an effectual method of curing the pally, and other disorders of a like nature, and that, in other cases, it proves useless, and even prejudicial. What he has already published is fufficient to determine the kinds of these disorders, and the particular circumstances and cafes in which it is expedient to have recourse to electricity, and where its application would be pernicious ;-to thew the effects it produces, in general, on the animal economy, the inconveniencies that may result from it, and the means of preventing or removing them ; in a word, to point out the method of administering this new remedy upon right principles.

M. De Lassonne has, in a very judicious Memoir, proposed a method of improving and rendering entirely uniform, the tartar emetic, or slibiated tartar. This discovery is a matter of no small consequence, as there have been hitherto great variations in the method of preparing this important remedy, and a great diversity in the degree of its strength and efficacy. The moft eminent medical chymists are agreed, that these variations, and this diversity of strength and efficacy, may be entirely removed, and the remedy, under consideration, brought to the highest degree of perfection, by substituting in the place of glass of antimony, which is the ordinary basis of itibiated tartar, another emetic preparation of antimony, which must be invariable, when well made, and which is called powder of algaroth. This is also the opinion of M. De Lassonne. But this eminent physician has discovered a ftill farther improvement of this remedy, viz. the means of preventing this salt from falling, in form of precipitate, on the sides of the vessel, when the Itibiated tartar is dissolved in water.-This he prevents by incorporating with the tartar a quantity of sal ammoniac, equal to it in weight. The development and theory of this remarkable effect must be interesting to the lovers of chymical pharmacy, and with this theory M. LASSONNE promises to gratify their curiosity, on another occasion.

ART,

ART. III. Voyage Pittoresque de la Grece. Chap. V.-Travels through the dif

ferent Parts of Greece, represented in a Series of Engravings. Large Folio. No, V.. Paris. 1780. LATES XLIII. and XLIV. of this elegant work con

tain, 1. A plan, or map, of part of the island of Metelin ; 2. A beautiful view of the city of that name and its northern harbour, of which the drawing was made by Count De ChoiSEUL-GOUTTier himself. His account of the island, which is the ancient Lesbos, could neither be particular nor instructive, as he was there but two days. He tells us, however, that the city of Mytilene, on whose ruins Metelin was built, is yet to be known by the descriptions of Strabo, Longus, and other ancient writers t. The multiplicity and magnificence of its ruins agree perfectly with their accounts. The name of Lefbos recals to our Author the celebrated names of Sappho, Arion, and Terpander; and the harbour of Metelin renews the remembrance of one of the most signal events of the Peloponnefian war. Our Author is never at a loss to entertain his Reader, one way or another; and ancient history is laid under contribution, where modern observation has been either wanting, through precipitation and hurry, or unsuccessful through defect of materials.

Eustathius is the only writer who makes mention of the ancient city of Lesbos. The isle of Metelin would still, says our Author, be a noble poffeffion, if so many centuries of calamities had not almoft ruined its population. These calamities, produ.ced at first by the anarchy of the Grecian empire, and prolonged afterwards by the tyranny and oppression of the Turks and Ve. netians, have spread desolation in a scene, which a mild climate, and the faireft marks of Nature's bounty, seemed to point out for the well-being of its inhabitants.

Plate XLV. exhibits a view of the harbour of Scio, or Chio, which is frequented by all the ships that go from Egypt to Conftantinople. This is the handsomeft city of the Levant: Its houses, built by Genoese and Venetians, display marks of ele. gance, convenience, and amenity, which are rarely found in the Archipelago. “ The island is intersected by several chains of « barren mountains; but the vallies, watered by a multitude “ of streams, are full of pomegranates, of orange-trees, and « citrons, and exhibit, on all lides, the most delightful pro" spects. The vineyards of Scio have always been famous: they

* See our account of No, IV. in the Appendix to vol. LXI. p. 1. The preceding Numbers were mentioned in former Reviews.

+ See Vitruv. l. 1. c. 6.--Cicero de Lege Agraria.

66 ftill medal

" still constitute the principal riches of the island; and the “ delicious wines, which Virgil calls the Arvisian nectar, main“ tain, at this day, their ancient reputation.” The manufactures of gold and silver brocades in this island are still numerous, though less so than they were some years ago : the culture of the Lentiscus, which produces the Mastic, forms a confiderable and very profitable branch of the commerce of Scio. The Turkish and Grecian ladies make great use of this detergent, stomachic resin, which they chew in order to give to their breath an aromatic perfume, though it has a very noxious effect on the beauty of their teeth. Our Author gives (after Mr. Galard) a particular account of the manner of preparing the Maftic, describes the four different trees that produce it, and the medicinal and other uses to which it is successfully applied.

We have in plate XLVI. a view of the fountain of Scio; and in the XLVIIth, a view of the rock, which is called The School of Homer. Dr. Richard Pococke gave a drawing of this rock merely from his own imagination, which has been censured in Dr. Chandler's Travels. This latter ingenious Author looks upon the pretended School of Homer as nothing more than the remains of an ancient temple of Cybele, and Count de Choiseul is of the same opinion. Plates XLVIII. and XLIX. represent the women of Scio in their usual dress, and also one of the gardens of that isand ; and here we begin to perceive, that our Noble Author is sometimes more liberal of his engravings and descriptions than the subjects deserve. For the rest,- the women of Scio, whom Nature has rendered beau. ciful and pleasing, distigure their natural charms and graces by the awkwardness and absurdity of their dress. Their liberty is great, their affability ftill greater, and, nevertheless, their virtue does not suffer by either :-for no where, says the Count DE CHOISEUL, are the women so free and so wise.

Plates L. and LI. represent a plan and a perspective view of the harbour of Tchefme, known, in ancient times, by the name pf Gyllus. It was in this harbour that the Romans defeated the feet of Antiochus in the year 191 before Christ, and that the Rullians destroyed the naval force of the Turks in 1770, and might have made, or rather granted peace under the walls of the Seraglio, had they known the wretched state of the Dardanelles at that time, and availed themselves of the variety of circumstances which united to favour their enterprise.

At the end of this Number, in a noble tail-piece, we have beautiful engravings of three medals, struck in the ide of Lel bos. The first represents, on one side, an helmet inclosed in a square with the name of the Lesbians. The same name apo pears on the reverse, together with a woman carried off by a Centaur, This square and the form of the letters prove this

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