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in years.-We greybeards however should be loth to venture upon the Author's noftrum, on his single example, or authority: though we have a much better opinion of his other rocipe for old age-of giving occasionally - a kind of filip to nature,' of a very different kind from the preceding, in now and then exceeding in the use of good wine, of a proper age.'
The reader who has been amused by these specimens of the character of his present' Bath Guide,' or by his recommendations of young girls, and old wine, will probably receive further amusement from him on the various other subjects on which he has chosen to instruct as well as entertain him. These subjects, which are discussed without any rigid adherence to method, are the Bath Waters and their analysers, Apothecaries, Physicians, Bathing, Surgeons, Bilious Disorders, Music, Dr. Bacher's Cure of the Droply, hot Rolls and burnt Butter, Gall-ftones, &c. together with so many stories, and gosliping anecdotes inter
per sed, as induced us to infer--whatever the young maidens may think—that he surely must be considerably turned of fixty. Art. V. A Treatise on the Culture of the Pine Apple, and the Me.
nagement of the Hor-house; together with a Description of every Species of Insect that infests Hor houses; with effectual Methods of defroying them. By William Speechley, Gardener to the Duke of Portland. 8vo.
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niency, there are few that furnish it with more elegant and blameless luxury than horticulture. This luxury is by no means confined to the palate ; it extends itself to the gratification of the mind. In cultivating the various productions of nature, and in attending to the progress of vegetable life, the fancy meets with continued recreation and amusement, and every seafon brings to us a new source of pleasure.
Perhaps there is no part of the gardener's art more capable of gratifying the contemplative mind than that refined branch of it which gives, to the natives of a warmer region, an atmosphere congenial to their own. By means of the modern invention of stoves, there are few plants, remarkable for use or beauty, but have been naturalized, and are become objects of attention to the curious, in this useful and entertaining study. There is perhaps no tropical plant that has been cultivated with more afiduity, and, we may add, success, than that which is the subject of the present treatise.
One of the principal difficulties that have attended the ma. nagement of this valuable exotic, has been, to destroy the infedts which infest it. Of these Mr. Speechley enumerates three species – The brown turtle insect, the Coccus Hesperidum of Lintinged in sect: the two last have been hitherto unnoticed by all former entomologists. For which reason, as well as because they are the most pernicious, the present Writer has been particularly accurate in the description of them. The methods that have been formerly in use for extirpating these noxious vermin, have been, to shift the plants into fresh pots, at the same time cleansing their leaves and roots, which is usually stiled a dressing.
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· Decoctions, continues he, made from tobacco, wormwood, walnut-leaves, henbane, and other herbs of a bitter or poisonous quality, are generally used on this occasion; and, by some, snuff, sulphur, and pepper are added : but none of these prove to be of a nature fufficiently penetrating. There are insects always between the leaves in the centres of the plants, fixed To low as to escape unhurt; and as they increase, the pine plants are soon reduced to the very situation I have just described, which perplexes and gives the gardener everlasting vexation. Besides, it is evident that this unleasonable business of shifting and dressing the plants, will considerably retard their growth, and bring upon them a fickly appearance, especially in their last stage, viz. their fruiting season.'
After relating what suggested to him the method of cure which he now recommends, he then gives the receipt : but for that, as well as for leveral curious particulars relative to the experiments that have been made with it, we must refer to the book itself. To those who have hot-houses, the receipt will not be thought dearly purchased at the price of the book, which indeed is valuable on other accounts also. With respect to the general management of pine-apple plants, Mr. Speechley has thrown out many useful and ingenious hints. Of this class perhaps is the following:
· Whenever the pine plants are removed after they are grown large, it will be of service, before they are taken out of the tan-bed, to mark the side of the pots which stands next the fun; for it is observable, that the centres of the plants generally tend that way : so that the plants when replaced, may ftand as they did before they were removed. I do not mean that it is at all necessary for the plants to be put into the very identical places in which they stood before, but in point of position it will be proper, and the plants will be benefited by being so placed. This may as easily be done as placing them in a random manner, which is the common method.'
This rule, however, though ingenious, is by no means original. With respect to the position of transplanted trees, it is of very ancient date. Theophrastus says expressly, "HYTEP fix si ένια των δενδρων τα προς βορραν, και τα προς έως και τα προς This nu @pixv. Columella is equally circumstantial : Cum de les minario eximuntur, rubrica notetur una pars, quæ nos admoneat, ne aliter arbores conftituamus, quam quemadmodum in seminario fteterint. Plurimum enim refert, ut eam partem cæli Spectent, cui ab tenero confueverunt. We meet with the same precept also in Virgil, who, in directing the removal of vines from the nursery into the vineyard, observes, with his usual accuracy and precision, that the curious in this branch of agricul. ture not only attend to fimilarity of soil,
Quin etiam cæli regionem in cortice signant:
Restituant: adeo in teneris confuefcere multum eft. Fanciful as this notion has, in general, been deemed by those who superficially examined it, Mr. Speechly, we apprehend, is convinced, from actual experiment, that it is founded in truth.
In our account of Memoires concernant l'Histoire, &c. des Chinois, vol. lix. p. 523, we took notice of a method in use among that ingenious people, of raising an artificial dew in their hothouses, by means of boiling water. Mr. Speechley's method we should apprehend to be superior, both in fimplicity and effect.
• Besides the watering of the pine plants in the manner recommended, it will be of great use to them during the summer, if the walks and Aues of the hot-house are frequently watered : this should constantly be done in warm weather, and always late in the evening; the glasses Mould be immediately closed. The great heat of the hot house will exhale the mois. ture, and raise a kind of artificial dew, which will soon stand in drops on the glasses; the leaves of the pine being succulent, they will imbibe the watery particles, to the great benefit of the plants. It will also be of great use to give the top of the tanbed frequent waterings during the summer, in order to keep it in a moist state; for when the tan becomes dry and husky, the pine plants never make any great progress. The water may, with great ease, be put upon the tan between the pine pots, by the help of the watering pipe. When the tan is in a moilt ftate, it not only affords a more generous warmth to the plants, but (the pots being porous) their roots also imbibe a constant moisture, which is far preferable to any waterings that can be given them.
Though it might injure Mr. Speechley in the emoluments of his publication even to hint at the nature of his secret for destroying the insects which infeft pine-apple plants, yet we think neither he nor our readers will be offended at our inserting the following note, which, besides the useful information it contains, will serve also as a specimen of the skill and abilities of this ins genious and philosophical artist :
Soap-suds effe&ually destroy the different species of insects that infeft fruit-trees growing against walls; of these insects thé aphis is the most common as well as the most destructive. It generally attacks, with great violence, the peach, cherry, and plum : the aphides are universally known by the appellation of lice.
• The acarus, though not fo fatal to plants growing in the open air as when under glass, is also very prejudicial to the above trees when planted against walls.
• The thrips are sometimes very numerous on peach and nectarine trees, but they are less hurtful than either of the former species : besides the above, there are two or three forts of Cocci that are very common upon fruit-trees; but as they adhere very close to the branches, they are not so conspicuous, and consequently less known. However, trees that are much infested with Cocci are, in the summer, very distinguishable, as wasps constantly attend these insects to feed on the sweet matter that issues from them. When the muscle-shaped Coccus has been very numerous, I have known hive-bees frequent the trees in great abundance.
• In the spring, the Aphis, the Acarus, and Thrips are few in number, in comparison to what they are in the summer : however, I have constantly observed the two former species on the buds of the trees, before they break into leaf, especially on such trees as have ‘been much infested with them the preceding fummet.
• It is most probable that the insects that survive the winter, in whatever state, are concealed during that period either under the branches of the trees, or in the shreds that fasten them to the wall; else in the nail-holes or crevices of the wall; in all these situations the soap-suds have fully answered my most fanguine expectations. The operation is far from being either troublesome or expensive; and the method is practicable at any season, but more especially between the fall of the leaf and the time the blossom-buds are near ready to open. Proceed thus:
• Take any quantity of soap-suds after a common washing ; but when they are thick and strong, they should be lowered with water. A person on a ladder fhould pour them from a watering-pot over both trees and walls, beginning at the top of the wall, and bringing it on in courses from top to bottom; the suds when used should be many degrees warmer than new milk, especially in the winter; and when plentifolly and properly applied, every part of the wall will appear of a pale red colour, not in the least disagreeable.
• Moft large families, in the course of a few months, make a quantity of the above liquid sufficient to walk a great extent of wall.
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Beside the advantage of destroying insects, the suds appear to be productive of other good effects. When applied just after the fall of the leaf, they contribute much to preserve the wood of the delicate and tender kinds of peaches. I account for it thus : It is allowed that our summers are, in general, too short to perfect the wood of the tender kinds of peach and nectarine trees without artificial means, and when the wood of these trees is imperfe&tly ripened, it is very subject to the canker, especially if, in the succeeding winter, there happens a succeffion of rain and frost. This the nurseryman, as well as the gardener, often woefully experiences.
• I constantly have observed that the canker originates at, or close adjoining to, the buds of the last year's wood. The cause seems to be this. Wood imperfectly ripened is always loft and spongy, and therefore admits of imbibing a large por. tion of moisture in rainy weather. The bud and the fine capillary vessels adjoining it being surcharged with moisture in a wet evening, when the frost comes at night, it freezes the moisture in the vessels, and causes it to expand; which, by tearing the vessels asunder, brings on a decay of the parts. Now the soap-suds seem to leave a glossy kind of coat or covering on the branches, and the oily particles contained in the fuds, by penetrating them, prevent their being overcharged with moisture.
• But here it may seem strange that oil should act this friendly part, when it is well known to be so highly pernicious to plants in general. That it is so, in its genuine state, is proved by daily experience. The general and received opinion of wool being poisonous to plants, is from no other cause than from the oil contained in it.
• But notwithstanding that oil has this pernicious effect on plants, when in its original and genuine state, still, when made miscible, perhaps nothing is more nourishing and friendly to them. This brings me to consider soap-fuds as a manure to the borders, for it is evident that by the rains and dews, the principal of it does terminate there at laft; and this important confideration alone is sufficient to recommend the practice. It may seem unnecessary to observe, that soap-suds contain a larger portion of oily particles after a common washing, than in the original state.
• I Mall conclude this digressional note with observing, that soap-suds keep trees clear of moss, and render the bark clear and healthy.'
The branch of gardening which has of late received the greatest improvements, is that which relates to the management of hot-houses, hot-walls, and hot-beds. A general treatise on these subjects, explaining the particular modes of cultivating the various plants that are raised or brought to perfection by