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minifters of Pfeudo-Proteftantifm have been fo affiduous to scatter abroad, to infect the mind with the most contagious part of that very religion which the Affociation profeffes to oppose and controul.
The principal and avowed object of our ingenious letter-writer is, to fhew that the idea of toleration, as exhibited by the Author of "the Appeal," is fo exceedingly defective, as by no means to deferve the name ;-that his objections to the Act for Relief of Roman Catholics, are principally founded on an entire misapprehenfion of its nature; and therefore-that he and his affociates, in their endeavours to raise a ferment in the nation, and to excite mutual animofities amongst the inhabitants of thefe kingdoms, fo far from deferving to be confidered as guardians of the conftitution, are in fact, whether they know it or not, abettors of persecution, and enemies of civil and religious freedom.'-This is the object of the prefent liberal and fenfible pamphlet; and we think the Author hath fully accomplished his generous defign.
Ás a fpecimen of his manner of difcuffing so important an argument as that in which religious liberty is concerned, and as a juftification of the applause we have honestly bestowed on the defign and execution of the tract before us, we fhall prefent our Readers with a paffage or two, extracted from the conclufion.
But it is not merely on account of the confequences to be apprehended from their repeal, that this Author wishes to have all the laws against Popery ftand in full force: he defires it likewife by way of retaliation for the cruelties of the Papifts. The ftatutes against Popery, notwithstanding their feverity, he tells us, are mild when compared with the bloody edicts now in full force againft Protestants in Popish countries. Whilft Papists in England are claiming toleration, Proteftants in France are expofed to perfecution by the repeal of the edict of Nantz: and in other Popish countries, Proteltants are by law condemned to death. Aftonishing contrast (adds he) that needs only to be confidered, to evince the impropriety of the late repeal.Now the plain English of this is that we must perfecute Roman Catholics, because the Roman Catholics have perfecuted us! Is this the language of a follower of the meek and lowly Jefus ?-of HIM, who faid, "Whatsoever ye would that men should do unto you, do ye even fo to them?"-Of HIM, who taught us to love our enemies, and to do good to those who hate us?-I challenge him to produce any thing in Popery more oppofite and hoftile to the fpirit of that New Teftament which he profeffes to venerate.'
As a private man, however, I believe Popery to be a corrupt religion; and therefore to be oppofed. But How is this to be done? Not by force; but by reafoning: not by penalties, but by perfuafion. If truth is to be maintained by the fword, Why was not Christianity fo propagated at firit? Why did not the Divine Author, inftead of the fword of the Spirit, arm his followers with fwords of fteel? He who could command legions of Angels to his affiftance, might furely have established his clergy in spite of all oppofition, throughout the habitable globe. What other reafon can be affigned for his not doing this, but that which he himself has given, and which ought long ago to have put to filence every advocate for church-authority-MY KINGDOM IS NOT OF THIS WORLD.'
Art. 11. Four Letters from the Country Gentleman, on the Subject of the Petitions. 8vo. 6 d. Almon. 1780.
Reprinted from Almon's news-paper, the London Courant; in which we have obferved fome well-written political effays. The Author, who figns himself a Country Gentleman, is a strenuous and able advocate for the county petitions.
Art. 12. A Letter to Lord Narth. With Free Thoughts on Penfions and Places. 4to. 6 d. Gainsborough printed, and fold by Bladon in Paternoster Row, London.
The production of a well meaning, but dim-fighted politician, who may be referred to Mr. Burke's printed fpeech (where he confiders the partial fcheme of taxing placemen and penfioners) for better information.
Art. 13. Obfervations on an Addrefs to the Freeholders of Middlefex, affembled at Free Mafon's Tavern; delivered to the Chairman, and read to that Affembly, December 20, 1779. With a clear Expofition of the Defign and Plan, therein proposed, of a Republican Congress, for new modelling the Constitution. 8vo. 6 d. Bowen.
A political fneer, intended to ridicule and explode a very ferious performance. See our account of the Address, in our Catalogue, for January, p. 81.
Art. 14. Effay on Modern Martyrs: With a Letter to General Burgoyne. Svo. I s. 6d. T. Payne, &c. 1780.
It has been left, fays the Author, to the ingenuity of modern times, ever bufy in refearches, and fertile in improvement, to difcover a new fyftem of martyrdom; a fyftem into which neither wheels, nor flames, nor axes, are permitted to enter; but in which triumph refults from punishment, and advantage fprings from calamity; by which the infignificant may rife to importance, and the indigent to affluence, by the efficacy of mock misfortunes, and the emolument of lucrative heroifm.'
The Author divides modern martyrdom into three fpecies, all of them political, viz.
1. Those who claim merit from the avowal of deliberate malignity; whofe public virtue is diftinguished only by an oppofition to public juftice, and whofe policy confifts in taking advantage of that difpofition in fome minds, that confiders all government as an opprefion, that feels all fubordination as a mifery.'-Under this head, the Reader will eafily perceive that the Writer means to include fuch martyrs as Mr. Wilkes; against whom, however, the charge of malignity will not be readily admitted, by thofe who are perfonally acquainted with this jovial, witty, pleafant hero of the populace.
The fecond fpecies of martyrdom-confils in the noble and dif interested act of relinquishing fome prefent advantage, in the fuppofed certain profpect of more exalted power, or more ample profit. Such a fyllem is, indeed, from its nature, confined to the higher order of lufferers, and fuch as may be emphatically filed the political, as thofe before described, may be rather termed the penal marTo facrifice the poffeffion of a lucrative employment, wears at the first glance fo ftrong an appearance of fincerity, that we almelt overlook the folly of unsteadiness, and forget the treachery of
defertion. Yet on a nearer view of circumstances and characters, we shall not confider the political martyr, merely as a convert to false popularity, but rather as a refined (though often difappointed) fpeculatift, who weighs the chances of events, and calculates the fluctuations of power with an almost arithmetical nicety.'
It is needlefs to lead our Readers into those intricate mazes in political conduct, which the ingenious Writer thinks it easy to unravel, by the help of this clue. The third fpecies of these self-created martyrs are, • the self-proclaimed victims, who court the public favour, or pacify the public refentment, not only by voluntary but even by vifionary fufferings. In the front of this venerable band appear the military martyrs, armed with recriminating invectives, fhielded by new formed connections, ftored with voluminous harangues, arrayed in all the pomp of burlesque inquiries, and adorned with all the trophies of partial approbation. In vain would common fenfe oppofe her ftrength against the power of military eloquence; in vain might the reprefent, that true valour would require no aid from the refinements of fophiftry, that real exploits would borrow no ornament from the pomp of declamation; that the commanders of former days eftablished the glory, and extended the empire of their country, not by tedious recitals, but by actual and effectual enterprizes; that the proofs of meritorious fervice did not then reft upon the opinion of friendly witneffes, but on the records of impartial hiftory, on the grateful applaufe of their countrymen, on the univerfal fenfe of mankind.'
Here the Author approaches the main object of his view in this publication, viz. the arraignment of the conduct (military and political) of General Burgoyne; which is here expofed to a feverity of investigation by no means new to this unfortunate commander, who, fince his parole-return to England, hath fuftained many attacks of this kind: herein experiencing the truth of the maxim held by a celebrated French warrior-" That a loft battle hath a long tail."
Our Author takes leave of the General, with the following declaration of his inducements to the difcuffion of a fubject by no means agreeable,' viz. I will freely own, the first motive that led me to this inquiry, was a defire of vindicating characters very powerfully, or at leaft fpeciously affailed. Every ftep I have proceeded in it, every view in which I have confidered it, has uniformly tended to confirm me in this opinion, that you are not that oppreffed officer, not that unprejudiced politician, which your fpeeches and publications have fo induftriously proclaimed you that whatever misfortunes you may have fuffered, whatever loffes you may have endured, have been the confequence of your own acts, or the effects of your own folicitation.-Had the cafe appeared otherwife to my mind, no confideration could ever have induced me to throw the leaft impu tation on your conduct, or infinuate the flightest doubt of your fincerity.
Art. 15. Speech of Edmund Burke, Efq; Member of Parlia
ment for the City of Bristol, on prefenting to the Houfe of Commons (Feb. ii, 1780) "A Plan for the better Security of the
Rav. Mar. 1780.
Independency of Parliament, and the economical Reformation of the Civil and other Establishments. 8vo. 2 s. Dodfley.
This noble and wonderful piece of oratory, of which we have here an authentic copy, will immortalize the name of BURKE. Art. 16. Thoughts on the prefent County Petitions. Addreffed to the Gentlemen, Clergy, and Freeholders, throughout England. By an Old-fashioned Independent Whig. 8vo. 1 s. L. Davis. 1780.
This writer discountenances the petitions, on fuch grounds as feem to evince his thorough acquaintance with the state of parties in this country. In short, he is a political feeptic, and does not credit even the Minority themfelves for any degree of fincerity, in regard to this extraordinary manœuvre:-he does not believe they wish to obtain the prayer of their petition, left they thould, themfelves, be affected by it, when it may be their turn to have the distribution of the loaves and fishes.-Thefe cool thoughts were thrown out during the earlier flages of the county meetings; and the publication was, no doubt, intended to act as a damper.
Art. 17. An Anfwer to the Letter addreffed by Francis Risllay, Phyfician of Newbury, to Dr. Hardy, on the Hints given concerning the Origin of the Gout, in his Publication on the Colic of Devon, &c. &c. By James Hardy, M. D. 8vo. Is. Cadell, &c. 1780.
When a man once mounts his hobby-horfe, there is no stopping him. 'Tis in vain for a friend to fay," For God's fake, difmountthe vicious beast will throw you-you will have your neck brokeyour joints dislocated-or at least, you will get heartily fplashed and bedaubed."-It does not fignify-on he goes-whip and fpur-till his career ends in a quagmire.
Dr. Hardy having laid down to himself as an undeniable position, "that the primary caufes of the gout arife from the action of mineral fubftances admitted into the human fyftem," will not recede from his point, though affailed by the most powerful arguments, both theoretical and experimental. If you tell him, that French gentlemen, who make their own wine, and are remarkably curious about it, would never be fo abfurd as to mix poison with it,—and yet have their full fhare of the gout-he answers you with a quotation from the Maifon Ruftique, in which you find three methods directed for preventing wines from turning four. The firft of thefe is the fufpending a ball of lead in the cafk. Here nobody would deny the poffibility of a noxious impregnation. The fecond is the fumigating with brim ftone, or, as we call it, the fumming of wine. Now, mark the Doctor's ingenuity! This brimftone, hè fays, may be native fulphur -native fulphur often contains arfenic-confequently your wine may be impregnated with arfenic by this practice. The third method is boiling down the muft; concerning which, the Doctor thinks it fuf
Another edition has appeared, (but not printed under the Author's infpection) price 1 s. 6d. Published by Hey, in Paternoster Row.
ficient to fay, that as a veffel of copper, tin, or lead, would probably be used in this operation, his mineral bypothefis is ftill fafe If, after all, you urge, that thefe noxious impregnations might poffibly Occafion a colic or palfy, but that the gout is a different affair-no, fays he, they are the fame thing in effect, though a little different in appearance. To fuch reafoning do people fometimes defcend in Support of a favourite hypothefis!
Art. 18. An Efay on the Cure of Abfceffes, Wounds, and Ulcers.
Alfo, a New Method of curing the Lues venerea, with Dr Hunter's and Mr. Cruickshanks's Opinion on this Method, and alfo on the Abforption in Human Bodies; with Experiments on infenfible Perfpiration. By Peter. Clare, Surgeon. The Second Edition, illuftrated by Cafes and Anatomical Engravings.
Boards. Cadell. 1779.
In our Review for June laft, we gave fome account of the first edition of this work. Confiderable additions are now made to it, particularly in the obfervations furnished by Mr Cruickshanks. Art. 19 Thoughts on Amputation. Being a Supplement to the Letters on Compound Fractures, and a Comment on Dr. Bilguer's Book on this Operation. To which is added, A fhort Effay on the Ufe of Opium in Mortifications. By Thomas Kirkland, M. D. Member of the Medical Society at Edinburgh.
8vo. 2 S.
Mr. Pott, in a late publication*,. pointing out the neceffity of amputation in certain cafes, and the advantage of performing this operation speedily, was led to make fome fevere ftrictures on Dr. Bilguer's celebrated work, in which a contrary practice was maintained. On the other hand, Dr. Kirkland, of Afhby, takes up the pen in favour of Bilguer, and attempts to fhew, that his general doctrine is neither fo abfurd nor mifchievous as Mr. Pott has reprefented it; and that his own experience, particulary in compound fractures, confirms the fuppofition that amputation is much less frequently neceffary, than is, ufpally imagined. As degree of injury is almoft the fole thing which must determine this point, it is very dif. ficult to lay down any precife rules in thefe cafes; but we think it fufficiently appears, that Dr. Kirkland and his friends, as well as practitioners in various other parts of the country, havé faved many a limb; which would have been doomed, without hefitation, to the knife, in a London hofpital. It is very poffible, however, that the attempt to fave the limb in one cafe, and its speedy removal in the other, may be both equally right; fince the difference between the air of a crowded city hofpital, and that of a private chamber in the country, will give room to expect. a very different event in fimilar accidents and we are rather furprifed, that this important circumftance in the debate has been fo little dwelt on by either party.
Dr. Kirkland's remarks on the ufe of opium, in mortifications, tend chiefly to fhew, that the propriety of employing this remedy will entirely depend on the particular nature and fymptoms of the cafe: that wherever there is much pain and irritability, opiates will greatly aflift in the cure; but that where the vis vita are very languid,
*See Review for March 1779.