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minifters of Pseudo-Proteftantism have been so afliduous to scatter abroad, to infect the mind with the most contagious part of that very religion which the Association professes to oppose and controul.

The principal and avowed object of our ingenious letter-writer is, to thew that the idea of toleration, as exhibited by the Author of “ the Appeal," is so exceedingly defective, as by no means to deserve the name ;-that his objections to the A&t for Relief of Roman Catholics, are principally founded on an entire misapprehension of its nature; and therefore--that he and his associates, in their endeavours to raise a ferment in the nation, and to excite, mutual ani. mofities amongst the inhabitants of these kingdoms, fo far from deserving to be considered as guardians of the constitution, are in fact, whether they know it or not, abettors of persecution, and enemies of civil and religious freedom.'—This is the object of the prefent liberal and sensible pamphlet ; and we think the Author hath fully accomplished his generous design.

As a specimen of his manner of discusling so important an argument as ihat in which religious liberty is concerned, and as a jaftig. cation of the applause we have honestly bestowed on the design and execution of the tract before us, we shall present our Readers with a passage or two, extracted from the conclufion.

• But it is not merely on account of the consequences to be apprehended from their repeal, that this Author wishes to have all the laws against Popery stand in full force: he desires it likewise by way of retaliacion for the cruelties of the Papifts. The statutes against Popery, notwithftanding their severity, he tells us, are mild when compared with the bloody edicts now in full force against Proteltants in Popish countries. Whild Papists in England are claiming toleration, Proteftants in France are exposed to perfecution by the repeal of the edia of Nantz: and in other Popish countries, Proteftants are by law condemned to death. Aftonishing contralt (adds he) that needs only to be considered, to evince the impropriety of the late repeal. —Now the plain English of this is-that we must perfecute Roman Catholics, because the Roman Catholics have persecuted us! Is this the language of a follower of the meek and lowly Jesus ?-of him, who said, “ Whatsoever ye would that men should do unto you, do ye even fo to them?”-Of him, who taught us to love our enemies, and to do good to those who hate us ?-I challenge him to produce any thing in Popery more opposite and hostile to the fpirit of that New Testament which he professes to venerate.'

• As a private man, however, I believe Popery to be a corrupt religion ; and therefore to be opposed. But now is this to be done? Not by force ; but by reasoning : not by penalties, but by perfuafion. If truth is to be maintained by the sword, Why was not Christianity fo propagated at first? Why did not the Divine Author, joltead of the sword of the Spirit, arm his followers with swords of feel? He who could command legions of Angels to his allistaoce might surely have established his clergy in spite of all opposition, throughout the habitable globe. What other reason can be alligned for his not doing this, but that which he himself has given, and which ought long ago to have put to silence every advocate for church-authority-MY KINGDOM IS NOT OF THIS WORLD.'

Art.

Art. 11. Four Letters from the Country Gentleman, on the

Subject of the Petitions. 8vo. 6 d. Almon. 1780. Reprinted from Almon's news-paper, the London Courant ; in which we have observed some well-written political essays. The Author, who signs himself a Country Gentleman, is a strenuous and able advocate for the county peticions. Art. 12. A Letter to Lord Narth. With Free Thoughts on Pensions and Places.

410. 6 d. Gainsborough printed, and sold by Bladon in Paternoster Row, London.

The production of a well meaning, but dim-lighted politician, who may be referred to Mr. Burke's printed speech (where he con. fiders the partial scheme of taxing placemen and pensioners) for better information. Art. 13. Observations on an Address to the Freeholders of Mid

dlesex, afterbied at Free Mason's Tavern; delivered to the Chairman, and read to that Assembly, December 20, 1779. With a clear Exposition of the Design and Plan, therein proposed, of a Republican Congress, for new modelling the Conititution. 8vo. 6 d. Borven.

A political sneer, intended to ridicule and explode a very serious performance. See our account of the Address, in our Catalogue, for January, p.81. Art. 14. Ejay on Modern Martyrs : With a Letter to General

Burgoyne. 8vo. I s. 60. T. Payne, &c. 1780. • It has been left, says the Author, to the ingenuity of modern times, ever busy in researches, and fertile in improvement, to dira cover a new system of martyrdom ; a syliem into which neither wheels, nor fames, por axes, are permitted to enter; but in which triumph results from punishment, and advantage fprings from calamity; by which the insigoificant may rise to importance, and the indigent co affluence, by the efficacy of mock misfortunes, and the emolument of lucrative heroisin.'

The Author divides modern martyrdom into three species, all of them political, viz.

1. Those who claim merit from the avowal of deliberate malignity; whose public virtue is diftinguihed only by an oppoiition to public justice, and whose policy confifts in taking advantage of that

difpofition in some minds, that considers all government as an oppresion, that feels all subordination as a misery.'-Under this head, the Reader will easily perceive that the Writer' means to include such martyrs as Mr. Wilkes; against whom, however, the charge of

malignity will not be readily admitted, by those who are personally acquainted with this jovial, witry, pleasant hero of the populace.

The second species of martyrdom~' confills in the noble and disinterested act of relinquishing some present advantage, in the fup. posed certain prospect of more exalted power, or more ample prodia Such a fyllem is, indeed, from its nature, confined to the higher order of lufferers, and such as may be emphatically filed the polia. tical, as chose before described, may be rather termed the penal martyre. To facrifice the possession of a lucrative employment, wears at the first glance so trong an appearance of fincerity, that we almelt overlook the folly of untteadiness, and forget the treachery of

desestion.

defertion. Yet on a nearer view of circumstances and characters, we shall not consider the political martyr, merely as a convert to false popularity, but rather as a refined (though often disappointed) fpeculatist, who weighs the chances of events, and calculates the fuce tuations of power with an almost arithmetical nicety.'

It is needless to lead our Readers into those intricate mazes in political conduct, which the ingenious Writer thinks it easy to un. ravel, by the help of this clue. The third species of these self-created martyrs are, the self

f.proclaimed vi&tims, who court the public favour, or pacify the public refentment, not only by voluntary but even by visionary sufferings. In the front of this venerable band appear the military martyrs, armed with recriminating invectives, hielded by new,formed connections, itored with voluminous harangues, arrayed in all the pomp of burlesque inquiries, and adorned with all the trophies of partial approbation. In vain would common sense oppole her strength against the power of military eloquence ; in vain might she represeni, that true valour would require no aid from the refinements of fopbiltry, that real exploits would borrow, no ornament from the pomp of declamation; that the commanders of former days established the glory, and extended the empire of their country, not by tedious recitals, but by actual and effectual enterprizes; that the proofs of meritorious service did not then rest upon the opinion of friendly witnefíes, but on the records of impartial history, on the grateful applause of their countrymen, on the universal sense of mankind.

Here the Author approaches the main object of his view in this publication, viz. the arraignment of the conduct (military and political) of General Burgoyne; which is here expofed to a severity of inveftigation by no means new to this unfortunate commander, who, fince his parole-return to England, hath fuftained many attacks of this kind : herein experiencing the truih of the maxim held by a celebrated French warrior~" That a lost battle hath a long

Our Author takes leave of the General, with the following declaration of his inducements to the discussion of a subject by no means agreeable,' viz. • I will freely own, the first motive that led me to this inquiry, was a desire of vindicating characters very powerfully, or at least speciously assailed. Every step I have proceeded in it, every view in which I have confidered it, has uniformly tended to confirm me in this opinion, that you are not that oppressed officer, not that unprejudiced politician, which your speeches and publications have lo induftriously proclaimed you - that whatever misfortunes you may have suffered, whatever losses you may have endured, have been the consequence of your own a&ts, or the effects of your own folicitation.-Had the case appeared otherwise to my mind, no confideration could ever have induced me to throw the least imputation on your conduct, or insinuate the slightest doubt of your fincerity:Art. 15. Speech of Edmund Burke, Esq; Member of Parlia· ment for the City of Bristol, on presenting to the House of Commons (Feb. ii, 1780) “ A Plan for the better Security of the Rav. Mar. 1780.

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Independency of Parliament, and the economical Reformation of the Civil and other Establishments. 8vo. 2s. Dodfley.

This noble and wonderful piece of oratory, of which we have here an authentic copy , will immortalize the name of BURKE. Art. 16. I boughts on the present County Petitions. Addrefied to

the Gentlemen, Clergy, and Freeholders, throughout England. By an Old-falhicced Independent Whig. 8vo. 1 s. L. Davis. 1780.

This writer discountedances the petitions, on such grounds as seem to evince his thorough acquaintance with the itate of parties in this couniry. In Nort, he is a political sceptic, and does not credit even the Minority themselves for any degree of fincerity, in regard to this extraordinary marcuvre:~he does not believe they wish to obtain the prayer of their petition, left they thoald, themselves, be affected by is, when it may be their turn to have the distribution of the loaves and files.—These cool thoughts were thrown out during the earlier llages of the county meetings; and the publication was, no doub., intended to act as a damper.

MEDICAL. Art. 17. An Answer to the Letter adulrefjed by Francis Risllay,

Physician of Nezubury, to Dr. Hardy, on the Hints given concerning che Origin of the Gour, in his Publication on the Colic of Devon, &c. &c. By James Hardy, M. D. 8vo. 1$. Cadell, &c. 1785.

When a man once mounts his hobby-horse, there is no doppiog him. 'Tis in vain for a friend to say, “ For God's sake, dismount the vicious beait will throw you-you will have your neck brokeyour joints dislocated or at lealt, you will get heartily fplashed and bedaubed.”-- It does not fignify-on he goes-whip and spus-uill his career ends in a quagmire.

Dr. Hardy having laid down to himself as an undeniable position, " thai the primary causes of the gout arise from the action of mineral substances admitted into the human system,” will not recede from his point, though ailailed by the mo& powerful atguments, both theoretical and experimental. If you tell him, that French gentlemen, who make their own wine, and are remarkably curious about it, would never be fo absurd as to mix poison with it, and yet have their full share of the gout--he answers you with a quotation from the Maison Rufiique, in which you find three methods directed for preventing wines from turping four. The firk of these is che fufpending a ball of lead in the cask. Here nobody would deny the possibility of a noxious impregnation. The second is the fumigatiog with brim, fone, or, as

we call it, the summing of wine. Now, mark the Doctor's ingenuiry! This brimstone, he says, may be native, sulphur --native fulphur often contains arsenic--consequently your wine may be impregnated with arsenic by this practice. The third method is boiling down the mult; concerning which, the Doctor thinks it fuf.

Another edition has appeared, (but not printed under the Author's inspection) price i s. 6 d. Published by Hey, in Paternoiter Rowe

ficient to say, that as a vessel of copper, tin, or lead, would probably be used in this operation, his mineral bypothesis is still safe If, after all, you urge, that these noxious impregnacions might possibly occafion a colic or pally, but that' the gout is a different affair-no, fays be, they are the fame thing in effect, though a little different in appearance. To such · teasoning do people fometimes descend in Support of a favourite hypothefis ! Art. 18. An Elay on the Cure of Avfeelles, Wounds, and Ulcers.

Alfo, a New Method of curing ihe Lues i enerea, with Dr Hunter's and Mr. Cruickshanks's Opinion on this Method, and allo on the Absorption in Human Bodies; with Experiments on infenfible Perspiration. By Peter Clare, Sorgeon: The Second Edition, illustrated by Cafes and Anatomical Engravings.

4 S. Boards. Cadell. 1779. In our Review for June last, we gave some account of the first edition of this work. Confiderable additions are now. made to it, particularly in the observations futnihed by Mr. Cruickshanks. Art. 19. Thoughts on Amputation. Being a Supplement to the

Letters on Compound Fractures, and a Comment on Dr. Bilguer's Book on this Operation. To which is added, A Mort Efray on the Use of Opium in Mortifications. By Thomas Kirkland, M. D. Member of the Medical Society at Edinburgh. 8vo. 2$ Dawson. 1780.

Mr. Pott, in a láte publication *,. pointing out the necessity of amputacion in certain cafes, and the advantage of performing this operation speedily, was led to make fome severe firictures on Dr. Bilguer's celebrated work, in which a contrary practice was main. tained. On the other hand, Dr. Kirkland, of Alby, takes up the pen in favour of Bilgoer, and at:enpes to thew, that his general doctrine is neither so abfurd nor mischievous as Mr. Pott has reprefcnted it; and that his own experience, particulary in compound fractures, confirms the fuppofition that amputation is much less frequently neceffary, than is usually imagined. As degree of injury is almost the role thing which must determine this point, it is very dif. ficult to lay down ny precise rules in these cases ; but we think it fufficienily appears, that Dr. Kirkland and lis friends, as well as practitioners in various other parts of the country, have saved many a limb; which would have been doomed, without befitation, to the knife, in a London bospital. It is very possible, however, that the attempt to fave the limb in one case, and its specdy removal in che other, may be both equally right; since the difference between the air of a crowded city hospital, and that of a private chamber in the country, will give room to expect a very different evenť in fimilar accidents: and we are racher surprised, that this important circumftance in the debate has been so litele dwelt on by either party.

Dr. Kirkland's, remarks on the use of upium, in mortifications, tend chiefly to thew, that the propriety of employing this remedy wilt entirely depend on the particular nature and fymptoms of the cale: that wherever there is much pain and irritability, opiates will greatly aslift in the cure; but that where the vis vitæ are very languid,

* See Review for March 1779.

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