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as Poor Richard says. How much more than is neceffary do we spend in sleep! forgetting that, “ The sleeping fox catches no poultry, and that there will be sleeping enough in the grave," as Poor Richard says.
" If time be of all things the most precious, wasting timę muk be,” as Poor Richard Tays, “ the greatest prodigality;" fince, as he elsewhere tells us, “ Loft time is never found again; and what we call time enough, always proves little enough :” let us then up and be doing, and doing to the purpore; so by diligence shall we do more with less perplexity. * Sloth makes all things difficult, but industry all easy; and, He that riseth late, mult trot all day, and shall scarce overtake his business at night; while laziness travels fo Nowly, that poverty foon overtakes him. Drive thy business, let not that drive thee; and early to bed, and early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise," as Poor Richard says.
. So what fignifies wishing and hoping for better times? We may make these times better, if we beftir ourselves. “ Industry need not wish, and he that lives upon hope will die fafting. There are no gains without pains; then help hands, for I have no lands," or, if I have, they are smartly taxed. “ He that hath a trade, hath an estate ; and he that hath a calling, hath an office of profit and honour," as Poor Richard says; but then the trade must be worked at, and the calling well followed, or, neither the estate, nor the office will enable us to pay our taxes. - If we are industrious, we shall never starve ; for, “ at the working man's house hunger looks in, but dares not enter." Nor will the bailiff or the constable enter, for “ Industry pays debts, while Despair increaseth them.” What though you have found no treasure, nor has any rich relation left you a legacy, “ Diligence is the mother of good luck, and God gives all things to industry. Then plow deep, while fluggards sleep, and you Thall have corn to sell and to keep.” Work while it is called to-day, for you know not how much you may be hindered tomorrow. « One to-day is worth two to-morrows," as Poor Richard says; and farther, “ Never leave that till to-morrow, which you can do to-day.” If you were a servant, would you not be alamed that a good master should catch you idle? Are you then your own master ? be ashamed to catch yourself idle, when there is so much to be done for yourself, your family, your country, and your king. Handle your tools without mitcens, remember, that, “ The cat in gloves catches no mice," as Poor Richard says. It is true, there is much to be done, and, perhaps, you are weak-handed; but ftick to it steadily, and you will see great effects; for “ Constant dropping wears away stones ; and by diligence and patience the mouse
ate in two the cable; and little Krokes fell great oaks.” O 4
On the subject of frugality, Father Abraham, who strings his proverbs much more closely, and to the purpose, than Sancho, says, among many other good things, what follows:
. If you would be wealthy; think of saving, as well as of getting. The Indies have not made Spain rich, because her outgoes are greater than her incomes.'
Away' then, with your expenfive follies, and you will not then have so much cause to complain of hard times, heavy taxes, and chargeable families ; for
Women and wine, game and deceit,
“ Make the wealth small, and the want great." And farther, “ What maintains one vice, would bring up two children." You may think, perhaps, that a little tea, or a little punch now and then, diet a little more costly, clothes a little finer, and a little entertainment now and then, can be no great matter ; 'but remember, “ Many a little makes a mickle." Beware of little expences; "A small leak will sink a great ship, ” as Poor Richard says; and again,“ Who dainties love thall beggars prove;" and moreover, “ Fools make feasts, and wife men eat them."
" Here you are all got together to this sale of fineries and nick-nacks. You call them goods; but, if you do not take care, they will prove evils to some of you. You expect they will be sold cheap, and, perhaps, they may for less than they coft; but, if you have no occasion for them, they must be dear to you. Remember what Poor Richard says, “ Buy what thou halt no need of, and ere long thou malt sell thy neceffaries." And again," At a great pennyworth pause a while.” He means, that perhaps the cheapness is apparent only, and not real; or the bargain, by ftraitening thee in thy business, may do chee more harm than good. For in another place he says, “ Many have been ruined by buying good pennyworths." Again, “ It is foolilh to lay out money in a purchase of repentance ;” and yet this folly is practised every day at auctions, for want of minding the Almanack. Many a one, for the sake of finery on the back, have gone with a hungry belly, and half starved their families; “ Silks and fattins, scarlet and velvets, put out the kitchen. fire,” as Poor Richard says.'
We are loth to part with our instructive friend, Father Abraham, who lo excellently spouts his Wisdom of Nations, seasoned alternately with seriousness and jocularity: but we must give a part of what this dry joker says on the subject of running in debt.
• When you have got your bargain, you may, perhaps, think little of payment; but, as Poor Richard says, Creditors baye better memories than debtors; creditors are a superstitious feet, great observers of set-days and times.” The day comes round
before you are aware, and the demand is made before you are prepared to satisfy it; or, if you bear your debt in mind, the term, which at first seemed so long, will, as it leflens, appear extremely short: Time will seem to have added wings to his heels as well as his shoulders. “ Those have a fhort Lent, who owe money to be paid at Easter.” At present, perhaps, you may think yourselves in thriving circumftances, and that you can bear a little extravagance without injury; but
“ For age and want save, while you may,
“ No morning sun lasts a whole day." Gain may be temporary and uncertain, but ever, while you. live, expence is constant and certain ; and, “ It is easier to build two chimneys, than to keep one in fuel," as Poor Richard says; so, “ Rather go to bed supperless, than rise in debt.”
" Ger what you can, and what you get hold :
“ 'Tis the stone that will turn all your lead into gold." And when you have got the philosopher's ftone, sure you will no longer complain of bad times, or the difficulty of paying taxes.'
Thus the Old Gentleman-says Poor Richard, for he is now the speaker-ended his harangue.-The people heard it, and approved the doctrine ; and immediately practised the contrary, just as if it had been a common sermon ; for the auction opened, and they began to buy extravagantly.— I found the good man had thorougly studied my Almanacks, and diğefted all I had dropt on those topics during the course of twenty-five years. The frequent mention he made of me must have tired any one else; but my vanity was wonderfully delighted with it, though I was conscious, that not a tenth part of the wisdom was my own, which he ascribed to me, but rather the gleanings that I had made of the sense of all ages and nations. However, I resolved to be the better for the echo of it; and, though I had at first determined to buy stuff for a new coat, I went away, resolved to wear my old one a little, longer. Reader, if thou wilt do the same, thy profit will be as great as mine.'
RICHARD SAUNDERS. If every one of us, in our respective stations, would attend to, and immediately put in practice, the excellent advice given by poor Richard in this paper ; each individual would, we apprehend, foon find a much more, sensible alleviation of the weight that he bears in the burthens imposed by the state *, than is to be expected from even the present endeavours to procure relief, by the abolition of finecures, and the reduction of exorbitant
The Reviewer is aware of an obvious obje&ion: but the frugality: of individuals.can never injure she state, with respect so revenue, 1o. much as it must suffer, even as a state, by their idleness, diffipation, and the other political fins or failings, against which Father Abrabam raises his truly patriotic voice in this oration.
emoluments, how proper soever.- Be this as it may, we are glad to circulate a part of poor Richard's plain and wholesome precepts; and to extend the knowledge of them farther, by intimating that the whole of this excellent little piece has been printed on a single sheet of paper, of a small size, fit for framing, and may be had of the publisher of the present volume, at the small price of two-pence.
In perusing the political pieces in this collection, though the Reader will frequently be reminded of Swift, when treating of the interests of Ireland; yet no two characters will be found more different in several respects. Except in those parts of his writings where he treats of what may be called General Politics, Swift exhibits every mark of a disappointed, passionate, and even caustic party man; execrating ministers, and in short, almost constantly venting his spleen in personalities against those who differ from him. Dr. Franklin, on the contrary, in the political writings now before us, appears almost on every occasion the placid and dispassionate philosopher ;-as much a philosopher, at least, as one, who is at the same time a public man, and on very trying occasions, can be expected to be. His writings, before the American troubles commenced, every where breathe the spirit of peace and conciliation. They express an anxious desire to unite and blend the interests of the parent country and its colonies, in one common mass of vigour and public'felicity; and to prevent every measure that thewed a tendency to alienate the two countries from each other. It is evident likewise, from some papers in this collection, that he earnestly wilhed to preserve the natural connection between this country and his own t; even after certain proceedings-(on both fides, it must be acknowledged) had created a distinction between them. In a letter to a friend, written from Philadelphia, October 3, 1775, when he was a member of the Continental Congress, he thus expresses his sentiments on the subject :
I wilh as ardently as you can do for peace, and should re. joice exceedingly in co-operating with you to that end. But every thip from Britain brings some intelligence of new measures that tend more and more to exasperate; and it seems to me, that until you have found by dear experience the reducing us by force impracticable, you will think of nothing fair and reasonable. We have as yet resolved only on defensive measures. If you would recall your forces and stay at home, we should meditate nothing to injure you. A little time so given for cooling, on both sides, would have excellent effects. But you
it Dr. Franklin is an American ; born at Bofon, as we learn from an inscription under a bult of him, prefixed to this collection, in the
will goad and provoke us. You despise us too much ; and you are insensible of the Italian adage, that there is no little enemy.'
We meet with no personalities in our Author's productions respecting the American conteft. Indeed a candid looker on will perhaps infer, that the measures that have been pursued, in this country, with respect to America, are not to be wholly ascribed to any particular set of men, in or out of place ;-for persons of both these descriptions have contributed to the bringe ing matters to the present formidable crisis :--but to the monopolifing spirit of a rich, proud, warlike, and commercial NATION, operating with the spirit of their rulers for the time being. The nation will perhaps, to a philosophic eye, appear to have been equally criminal with the ministers of the day, in anticipacing a catastrophe which must, however, probably have taken place, under any management whatever, though at a later period. In fact, we are now little more than commenting on a passage contained in a letter of Dr. Franklin's,
Speaking of the British nation, in the letter to Lord Howe above alluded to, the Author says. I know too well her abounding pride and deficient wisdom, to believe she will ever take such falutary measures' (meaning the repairing the mifchiefs done to America, previous to, and during the course of, the war. ]— Her fondness for conquest as a warlike nation; her luft of dominion as an ambitious one; and her thirst' for a gainful monopoly as a commercial one (none of them legitimate causes of war) will join to hide from her eyes every view of her true intereft ; and continually goad her on in these ruinous distant expeditions, lo destructive both of lives and of treasure, that they must prove as pernicious to her in the end, as the croisades formerly were to most of the nations of Europe :'He then adds- I have not the vanity, my Lord, to think of intimidating, by thus predicting the effects of this war; for I know it will in England have the fate of all my former predictions ; nor be believed till the event Thall verify it.'
But enough of these gloomy and mortifying politics :-yet before we quit the political part of this collection, we owe an act of justice to their Author ; whose moral character has long suffered most severely, on account of certain transactions in the year 1773, while he resided here as agent for the colony of the Massachusett's Bay. We allude to his having, by some means or other, procured and transmitted to his conftituents at Boston, certain letters of Governor Huchinson, &c. :-to the fubfequent duel fought, in consequence of misapprehensions on both i fides, between Mr. Whately and Mr. Temple ;-—and to Dr. Franklin's afterwards declaring the perfect innocence of these two gentlemen, in a letter printed in the Public Advertiser; and