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to be true, and follows Holinshed, from whom he Yea, and furr'd moss besides, when flowers are none, got the name of Sicilius. Leonatus is a name To vinter-ground thy corse.-Act IV. Sc. 2. which occurs in Sydney's Arcadia.-Malone.

The ruddock is the redbreast, and is so called by

Spenser and Chaucer The office of covering the “ All sworn and honourable.”—Act II. Sc. 4. dead is ascribed to this bird by Drayton :

“ Cov'ring with moss the dead's unclosed eye, It was anciently the custom for the attendants on

The little red-breast teacheth charitie." our nobility, and other great personages, (as it is now for the servants of the king) to take an oath of And in an old book called Cornucopia, it is said :fidelity on their entering into oflice.-Percy.

“ The Robin Reidbreast, if he find a man or woman dead, will cover all his face with mosse, and some

thinke that if the bodye should remaine unburied, The ruddock would,

that he would cover the whole bodye also.” We ali With charitable bill, -bring thee all this;

remember “ The Children in the Wood.”

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TITUS ANDRONICUS. 'Ay, come, Semiramis."-Act II. Sc. 3.

Eating the flesh that she herself hath bred.“Queen Semiramis loved a great horse that she

Act V. Sc. 3. had, so farre fortb, that she was content he should The additions made by Ravenscroft to this scene, doe his kind with her.”- Pliny's Nat. Hist. are so much of a piece with it, that we cannot omit

shewing the reader how he continues the speech be" A precious ring.-Act II. Sc. 4. fore us :There is supposed to be a gem called a carbuncle, “ Thus cramm’d, thou’rt bravely fatten’d up for hell. which emits not reflected, but native light. Boyle And thus to Pluto I do serve thee up." believed in its existence.-JOHNSON.

(Stabs the Emperess.

And then—"A curtain drawn discovers the heads As far from help as limbo is from bliss.

Act III. Sc. 1. and hands of Chiron and Demetrius hanging up

against the wall; their bodies in chains in bloody The limbus patrum, as it was calied, is a place linen." -Steevens. that the schoolmen fancied to be in the vicinity of hell, where the souls of the patriarchs, and of those

Some stay to see him fasten'd in the earth." good men who died before our Saviour's resurrec

Act V. Sc. 3. tion, were detained.

That justice and cookery may go hand in hand to Honey-staks to sheep.-Act IV. Sc. 4.

the conclusion of this play, in Ravenscroft's altera

tion of it, Aaron is at once racked and roasted on the Honey-stalks are clover-flowers, which contain a

stage. sweet juice. It is common for cattle to overcharge We have already given specimens of the changes themselves with clover, and die.-JOHNSON.

made in this piece by Ravenscroft, who revised it

successfully in the year 1687 ; and may add, that Bring down the devil.-Act V. Sc. I.

when the empress stabs her child, he has supplied the It appears from these words, that the audience Moor with the following lines :were amused with part of the apparatus of an exe

“She has outdone me, ev’n in mine own art, cution, and that Aaron was mounted on a ladder, as Outdone me in murder, kill'd her own child; ready to be turned off.-STEEVENS.

Give it me, I'll eat it.”

STEEVENS.

PERICLES, PRINCE OF TYRE. That the reader may know through how many re- | were a kind of breeches. “ His bases (which he gions the scene of this drama is dispersed, it is ne. ware so long as they almost came to his ankles) cessary to observe, that Antioch was the metropolis were embrodiered onley with blacke wormes, which of Syria; Tyre, a city of Phænicia in Asia; Tarsus, seemed to crawle up and downe, as readie alreadie the metropolis of Cicilia, a country of Asia-minor; to devour bim.”-STEEVENS. Mitylene, the capital of Lesbos, an island in the Ægean sea; and Ephesus, the capital of Ionia, a Till the ship be cleared of the dead.”-Act III. Sc. 1. country of the Lesser Asia.--STEEVENS.

There was an ancient superstition, that a ship at

sea would sink if a corpse remained on board. So " When I saw the porpus, how he bounded and in Fuller's Historie of the Holy Warre :-“ His tumbled." -Act II. Sc. I.

| body was carried into France, there to be buried, Captain Cook, in his second voyage to the South and was most miserably tossed; it being observed, Seas, mentions the playing of porousses round the that the sea cannot digest the crudity of a dead corpse, ship as a certain sign of a violent gale of wind. being a due debt to be interred where it dieth; ana

Mason. ship cannot abide to be made a bier of."-STEEVENS. “ A pair of bases.”--Act II. Sc. 1.

These roguing thieves serve the great pirate Valdes." What bases mean is quite uncertain, but from a

Act IV. Sc. 2. passage in Sydney's Arcadia we may suppose they The Spanish Armada probably furnished the au. thor with this name. Don Pedro de Valdes was an ! men that shall enhabyte with her carnally, the fyrst admiral in that feet, and had the command of the shall give me a pounde of golde, and after ihat great galleon of Andalusia. His ship being dis- echone a peny of golde.-STEEVENS. abled, he was taken by Sir Francis Drake, on the 22nd of July, 1588, and sent to Dartmouth. The I have drawn her picture with my voice." making one of this Spaniard's ancestors a pirate,

Act IV. Sc. 3. was probably relished by the audience in those

It was formerly the custom at Naples to hang up days.—Malone.

the pictures of celebrated courtesans in the public

parts of the town, to serve as directions where they To keep our door hatched."-Act IV. Sc. 2. lived.-Mason. The doors or hatches of brothels seem to have had some distinguishing mark. So in Cupid's Whirli “Crack the glass of her virginity, and make the rest 1607 :-" -“Set some picks upon your hatch, and,

malleable."-Act IV. Sc. 6. pray, profess to keep a bawdy-house."

A skilful workman, who had discovered the art of “And cry, he that will give most, shall have her first." Tiberius, who asked him if he alone was in posses

making glass malleable, carried a specimen of it to

Act IV. Sc. 3. sion of the secret. He replied in the affirnatire ; The prices of first and second prostitution were on which the tyrant ordered his head to be struck exactly settled ; so in an old prose romance :

:-"Go off instantly, lest the invention should injure the thou and make a crye through the citie, that of all I workers in precious metals.-Dion Cassius.

gig,

KING LEAR.

And to eat no fish.”-Act I. Sc. 4. | speech, that spying but a small company in a house, In Elizabeth's time, the papists were thought, and they boldly and bluntly enter, compelling the ser? with reason, enemies to the government. Hence vants, througt fear, to give them what they dethe proverbial expression of, he's an honest man, and

mand."-STEEVENS. eats no fish, to signify he's a friend to the government,

Then he wears wooden nether-stocks." and a protestant; the eating of fish being considered

Act II. Sc. 4. such a badge of popery, that when it was enjoined by parliament to encourage the fish-towns, it was Nether-stocks is the old word for stockings. B-eeches held proper to declare the reason, hence it was called being at that time called overstocks.-STEEVENS. Cecil's fast.-WARBURTON.

Who gives anything to Poor Tom ! whom the fou That frontlet."-Act I. Sc. 4.

fiend hath led through fire and through flame A frontiet was a forehead cloth, used formerly by

Act III. Sc. 4. ladies at night, to render that part smooth.

Edgar's ravings may be explained by reference MALONE. to a passage in Harsnet's book :-" This Exam?

further sayeth, that one Alexander, an apothecary, That's a shealed peascod."-Act I. Sc. 4.

having brought with him from London to Denham, The robeing of Richard II's effigy in Westminster on a time, a new halter, and two blades of knives, Abbey, is wrought with peascods open, and the peas did leave the same upon the gallerie floore, in her out ; perhaps an allusion to his once being in pos- master's house : a great search was made in the session of full sovereignty, but soon reduced to an house to know how the said halter and knife-blades empty title.-TOLLET.

came thither, till Ma. Mainy, in bis next fit said,

it was reported that the devil lay'd them in the gal Stocks brought out."--Act II. Sc. 2. lerie, that some of those that were possessed might This was not the first time of introducing stocks on either hang themselves with the halter, or kill themthe stage. In Hick Scorner, which was printed selves with the blades.”—MALONE. early in the reign of Henry VIII., Pity is put into them, and left there till he is freed by Perseverance “ Wore gloves in my cap."-Act III. Sc. 4. and Contemplacyon.-STEEVENS.

It was anciently the custom to wear gloves in the

hat, on three different occasions, viz. as the favour Of Bedlam beggars." -Act II. Sc. 3. of a mistress; the memorial of a friend; and as a In the Bell-man of London, by Decker, 1640, is mark to be challenged by an enemy. A passage or an account of one of these characters, under the two may be given to prove the usage. pame of an Abraham Man. “ He sweares he hath In the play called Campaspe:-"Thy men turned been in Bedlam, and will talke frantickly of pur- to women, thy soldiers to lovers, gloves worn in vel. pose : you see pinnes stuck in sundry places of his vet caps, instead of plumes in graven helmets.” naked flesh; especially in his armes, which paine he

And in Decker's Satiromastix:- Thou shalt wear gladly puts himself to, only to make you believe he her glove in thy worshipful hat, like to a leather is out of his wits. He calls himself by the name of brooch."-STEEVENS. Poore Tom, and coming near any body crys out, Poore Tom is a-cold; of these Abraham Men, some

“Web and the pın.”—Act III. Sc. 4. be exceeding merry, and doe nothing but sing songs The Lapland method of cure for “ a disease of fashioned out of their own braines: some will dance, the eyes called the pin and web, which is an impersome will doe nothing but either laugh or weepe; fect stage of a cataract," is given by Acerbi, ip is others are dogged, and so sullen both in looke and travels.-BIA KEWAY.

" Whipped from tything to tything.". of Bedlam, to receive such drink as the charitable

Act III. Sc. 4. might afford him. See A Pleasant Dispute between A tything is a division of a place, a district, the a Coach and a Sedan, 1636. I have observed same in the country, as a ward in the city. In the when a coach is appendant but two or three hunSaxon times, every hundred was divided into ty- dred pounds a yeere, marke it, the dogges are as things. By a statute of Elizabeth, it is enacted, leane as rakes; you may tell all their ribbes lying

that every vagabond shall be publickly whipped, by the fire: and a Tom-a-Bedlam may sooner eat and sent from parish to parish.”-ŠTEEVENS. | his horne, than get it filled with small drinke; and

for his old alms of bacon there is no hope in the “ Peace, Smolkin, peace.”—Act III. Sc. 4. world.”—MALONE. The demons here mentioned by Edgar, were the popular fiends of the poet's age, and were well

Upon these eyes of th ne, I'll set my foot..

Act III. Sc. 7. known among the superstitious of every class. Even the learned and noble fell into the same gro- In Selimus, emperor of the Turks, one of the sons velling delusion; King James was a staunch be- of Bajazet pulls out the eyes of an Aya on the stage, liever, not merely in their existence, but in the and says, every-day agency which was ascribed to them by “ Yes, thou shalt live, but never see that day, the vulgar. Shakespeare has made Edgar, in his Wanting the tapers that should give thee light.” feigned madness, allude to an imposture of some English Jesuits. The trick was in substance as Marston's Antonio's Revenge, 1602, Piero's tongue

Immediately after, his hands are cut off. In follows :—While the Spaniards were preparing their is torn out upon the staye. We give these instances armada against England, the Jesuits were busy to of depraved taste, to prove that Shakespeare's drama promote it

, by making converts: one method they was not more sanguinary than that of his contememployed was to dispossess pretended demoniacks, poraries.”—Steevens and Malone. by which artifice they made several hundred converts among the common people. The principal

-Half way down scene of this farce was laid in the family of one Hangs one that gathers samphire; dreadful trade !" Peckham, a catholic; where Marwood, (a servant

Aot IV. Sc. 6. of Auiaony Babington, who was afterwards exe- “ Samphire grows in great plenty on most of the cutea for treason,) Trayford, an attendant on Peck sea cliffs in this country: it is terrible to see how the ham, ana three chamber-maids, in that family, came people gather it, hanging by a rope several fathom into the priest's hands to be cured; but the disci- from the top of the impending rocks, as it were in the pline of the patients was so long and severe, and air."-Smith's History OP WATERFORD, 1774. the priests were so elate and careless with success, that the plot was discovered on the confession of That fellow handles his bow like a crow-keeper." che parties, and the contrivers of it deservedly pu

Act IV, Sc. 6. nished. The devils mentioned by Edgar, are those who were made to act in this farce upon the cham- figure representing a man, and armed with a bow

In several counties, to this day, they call a stuffed bermaus, and they were generally so ridiculously and arrow, set up to fright the crows from the fruit nick-wamed, that Harsnet has one chapter “On and corn, a crow-keeper, as well as a scare-crow. the strange names of their devils ; lest, (says he)

THEOBALD. meeting them otherwise by chance, you mistake them for names of tapsters or jugglers.”

It were a delicate stratagem, to shoe WARBURTON.

A troop of horse with felt.-Act IV. Sc. 6. Hopdance cries in Tom's belly.”-Act. III. Sc. 6.

This “delicate stratagem" had actually been put

in practice about fifty years before Shakspeare was In Harsnet's book, one of the pretended demo- born, as we learn from Lord Herbert's Life of niacs deposeth—" that if at anytime she did belch, Henry VIII.:-“ And now,” says that historian, as often times she did by reason that shee was “ baving feasted the ladies royally for divers days, troubled with a wind in her stomacke, the priests he (Henry) departed from Tournay to Lisle, Oct. wouja say at such times, that then the spirit began 13, 1513; whither he was invited by the Lady Marto rise in her, and that the wind was the devil,” garet, who caused there a juste to be held in an and, as she saith, if they heard any croaking in extraordinary manner; the place being a fore-room, her belly, then they would make a wonderful matter raised high from the ground by many steps, and of that."-STEEVENS.

paved with black square stones, like marble; while

the horses, to prevent sliding, were shod with felt or Four Tom, thy horn is dry."'-Act IU. Sc. 6. flocks ; after which the ladies danced all night.” A norn was usually carried about by every Tom

MALONE.

ROMEO AND JULIET.

"We ll not carry coals." —Act I. Sc. 1. "Here comes one that will carry coals, ergo, will hold One chat would carry coals, formerly meant a

my dog." Every Man out of his Humour. mean-spirited fellow, who would submit to any in." He has had wrong, and if I were he, I would beare dignity without resentment. A passage or two from no coales.” Antonio and Mellida, 1602. old plavs will abundantly prove this:--“Now my ancient being a man of an un-coal-carry

I will bite my thumb at them.”-Act I. Sc. 1. ing spirit.” Chapman's May-day, 1610. This mode of quarrelling appears to have been common in our author's time, What swearing is obliged to carry a lighted match hanging at their tbere (says Decker, describing the various groups belts, very near to the wooden flask in which they that daily frequented the walks of St.Paul's church), kept their powder.-STEEVENS. what shouldering, what justling, what jeering, what byting of thumbs to beget quarrels !" The Dead Lie thou there."-Act IV. Sc. 3. Tam, 1608.-MALONE.

It appears from several passages in our old plays. “Your plantain leaf is ercellent for that.” that knives were formerly part of the bride's arrian

. Act li Sc. 2. trements, and every thing behoveful for Julieť: state

had been just left with her. So in Decker's 3.atch Tachius tells us, that a toad, before she engages Me in London, 1631 :with a spider, will fortify herself with some of this plant; and that if she comes off wounded, she cures "See at my girdle hang my wedding-kni ves." herself afterwards with it. Dr. Grey.

And in King Edward III. 1599:-. “Court-cupboard."- Act I. Sc. 5.

* Here by my side do hang my wedding-knives.' A court-cupboard was a moveable, a boufet, a fixture. The former was open, and made of plain oak;

And shrieks like mandrakes drawn out of the earth.the latter bad folding-doors, and was both painted

Act I .Sc. 3. and gilded on the inside. --STEEVENS.

The mandrake (says Thomas Newton, in his Her.

ball to the Bible, 8vo. 1587) has been idly repre Turn the tables up.”-Act I, Sc. 5. sented as “a creature having life, and engendereu It should be observed, that ancient tables were under the earth of the seed of some deade person flat leaves, joined by hinges and placed on tressels. that hath been convicted and put to deathe for some When they were to be removed, they were there felonie or murther; and that they had the same in fore turned War -STEEVENS.

such dampishe and funerall places where the sa.de

convicted persons were buried."-STEEVENS. Like powder in a skill-less soldier's flask.

Act III. Sc. 3. “One of our order, to associate me.”—Act V. Sc. 2. To understand this allusion, it should be remem- Each friar has always a companion assigned bio. pered, that the ancient English soldiers, using match- by his superior, when he asks leave to go out; and locks, instead of lacks with flints as at present, were thus they are a check upon each other. -STEE VENS

HAMLET.

The morning cock crew loud."-Act I. Sc. 2. tory, continual hunger and thirst were enumerated

Bourne, of Newcastle, in his Antiquities of the Chaucer says,-" And moreover the misese of hell Common People, informs us, —" It is a received shall be in defaut of meat and drinke." Nasne, in tradition among the vulgar, that at the time of cock-his Pierce Penniless, has the same idea :-“Woecrowing, the midnight spirits forsake these lower ther it be a place of borror, stench, and darkness, regions, and go to their proper places. Hence it where men see meat, but can get none, and are evap is (says be), that in country places, where the way thirsty.” So, likewise, at the conclusion of an an: of life requires more early labour, they always go cient pamphlet, called The Wyll of the Devyll :cheerfully to work at that time; whereas, if they

“Thou shalt lye in frost and fire are called abroad sooner, they imagine every thing

With sicknesse and hunger.” they see a wandering ghost.”-Farmer.

In her ercellent white bosom, these."-Act II. Sc. &. ? They csepe us, drunkards."—Act I. Sc. 4.

It was customary for ladies to have a pocket at Avd well our Englishmen might; for in Eliza- the bosom of their dress, in which they kept ietters

, beth's time, there was a Dane in London, who is or any other valuable which they desired to have thus mentioned in a collection of characters, en constantly about them. titled Looke to It, for Ile Stab Ye:“ You that will drink Reynaldo unto deth,

An eyty of children." -Act II, Sc. 2. The Dane that would carowse out of his boote.”

This relates to the young singing men of the Cha

pel-Royal, or St. Paul's, of the former of whom And it appears from one of Howell's Letters, dated mention occurs in a puritanical pamphlet so eary at Hamburgh, in the year 1632, that the then king as 1569:-“ Plais will never be supprest, while her of Denmark had not degenerated from his jovial Majesties unfledged minions flaunt it in silkes and predecessors. In his account of an entertainment sattens. They had as well be at their popish ser given by his majesty to the earl of Leicester, he vice in the devill's garments. Even in her Ma tells us, that the king, after beginning thirty-five jestie's chapel do these pretty upstart you toasts, was earried away in his chair, and that all fane the Lorde's day by the lascivious writhings of the officers of the court were drunk.-STEEVENS. their tender linbes, and gorgeous decking in their

apparell, in feigning bawdie fables gathered from " Doomed for a certain term to walk the night, the idolatrous heathen poets."-STEEVENS And, for the day, confin'd to fast in fires.'

Act I. Sc. 5. By the altitude of a chopine.”-Act II. Sc. Among the other punishments of hell and purga.

“A thing made of wood, and covered with leather

hes pra of sundry colours, some with white, some with redde, at such a distance from the wall, that a person some yellow. It is called a chapiney, which they might easily stand behind them unperceived. wear under their shoes. Many of them are curiously

MALONE. painted, some also of them have I seen fairly gilte. There are many of these chapineys of a greai height, Look here, upon this picture, and on this." even half a yarde highe, whiche maketh many of

Act III. Sc. 4. their women, whiche are very short, seeme much The introduction of miniatures in this place is a taller than the tallest woman we bave in England. modern innovation. A print prefixed to Rowe's Also, I have heard it observed among them, that by edition of Hamlet, 1709, proves this. There the how much the nobler a woman is, by so much the two royal portraits are exhibited as half lengths, higher are her chapineys. All their gentlewomen, hanging in the queen's closet; and either thus, or and most of their wives and widows that are of any as whole lengths, they were probably exhibited from wealth, are assisted and supported, eyther by men the time of the original performance of this tragedy, or women, when they walke abroade, to the end they to the death of Betterton. We may also learn, may not fall. They are borne up most commonly by from this print, that the trick of throwing down the the left arme, otherwise they might quickly take a chair, on the appearap..e of the ghost, was adopted fall.”-Corrat's CRUDITES, 1611.

by modern Hamlets, from the practice of their pre

decessors.-MALONE and STEEVENS. Like French falconers." -Act II. Sc. 2.

Thunders in the inder."-Act III. Sc. 4 The amusement of falconry was much cultivated in France. In Sir Thomas Browne's Tracts, we In many old books we find the index inserted at are told, that “the French seem to have been the the beginning instead of the end, as is now usual. first and noblest falconers in the western part of Europe." And, that “the French king sent over Hide for, and all after.—Act IV. Sc. 3. his falconers to shew that sport to King James the There is a play among children, called Hide for First."-Steevens.

and all after, which Decker seems to allude to in

his Satiromastix :-"Our unhandsome-faced poet “ I have heard of your paintings, too, well enough.” does play at bo-peep with your grace, and cries,

Act III. Sc. 1. 'All hid, as boys do.'-HanMER. Painting the skin was very common anciently, and was frequently alluded to by Shakspeare's con- By his cockle hat and staff, temporaries. So, in Drayton's Mooncalf :

And his sandal shoon." Act IV. Sc. 5 "—No sooner got the teens,

This is the description of a pilgrim. While this But her own natural beauty she disdains ; kind of devotion was in favour, love-intrigues were With oyls and broths most venomous and base, carried on under that mask. The cockle-shell hat. She plaisters over her well-favour'd face; was one of the essential badges of this vocation; for And those sweet veins by nature rightly placid, the chief places of devotion being beyond sea, or on Wherewith she seems that white skin to have lac'd, the coasts, the pilgrims were accustomed to put She soon doth alter, and, with fading blue, cockle-shells in their hats, to denote the due perBlanching her bosom, she makes others new.” formance of their vows. WARBURTON.

STEEVENS.

The owl was a baker's daughter."-Act IV. Sc. 5. “ Out-herods Herod."-Act III. Sc. 2.

This is a common story among the vulgar in The character of Herod in the ancient mysteries Gloucestershire, and is thus related :-"Our Saviour was always a violent one. The following language went into a baker's shop, where they were baking, is put into his mouth in an old play :

and asked for some bread to eat. The mistress of “Now I reign lyk a king array'd full rych,

the shop immediately put a piece of dough into the Rollyd in rynggs and robys of array,,

oven to bake for him; but was reprimanded by her

daughter, who insisted that the piece of dough was Dukys with dentys I drive into the dych, My dedys be full dowty demyd be day."

too large, and reduced it to a very small size. The

dough, however, inmediately afterwards began to “Of bewte and of boldnes I ber evermore the belle, swell, and presently became of a most enormous

Of mayn and of myght I master every man; size. Whereupon, the baker's daughter cried out I dynge with my dowtiness the devyl down to helle, - Heugh, heugh, heugh! which owl-like noise For bothe of hevyn and of earth I am kynge probably induced our Saviour, for her wickedness,

certann." Steevens and Malone. to transform her into that bird.”-Douce.

Lying down at Ophelia's feet."-Act III. Sc. 2.

By Saint Charity.”-Act IV. Sc. 5. To lie at the feet of a mistress, during any dra

In the scene between the bastard Faulconbridge matic representation, seems to have been a common and the friars and nun, in The First Part of the act of gallantry. So in The Queen of Corinth, by Troublesome Raigne of King John,—" The nunne Beaumont and Fletcher .

swears vy Gis, and the friar prays to Saint Withold “Ushers her to her coach, lies at her feet

(another obsolete saint mentioned in King Lear)

and adjure him by Saint Charitie to hear them.” At solemn masques, applauding what she laughs

BLACKSTONE. STEEVENS. Behind the arras PU convey myself."

There's rosemary, that's for remembrance."

Act IV Sc. 5. Act III. Sc. 3.

Rosemary was anciently supposed to strengthen The arras-hangings, in the poet's time, were bung :he memory, and was not only carrie at funerals,

at.”

3 T

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