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value of the total assets of the issuer at the time when the loan is made. A loan shall be presumed to be for temporary purposes if it is repaid within sixty days and is not extended or renewed; otherwise it shall be presumed not to be for temporary purposes. Any such presumption may be rebutted by evidence.

(h) “Asset coverage" of a class of senior security representing an indebtedness of an issuer means the ratio which the value of the total assets of such issuer, less all liabilities and indebtedness not represented by senior securities, bears to the aggregate amount of senior securities representing indebtedness of such issuer. "Asset coverage" of a class of senior security of an issuer which is a stock means the ratio which the value of the total assets of such issuer, less all liabilities and indebtedness not represented by senior securities, bears to the aggregate amount of senior securities representing indebtedness of such issuer plus the aggregate of the involuntary liquidation preference of such class of senior security which is a stock. The involuntary liqui. dation preference of a class of senior security which is a stock shall be deemed to mean the amount to which such class of senior security would be entitled on involuntary liquidation of the issuer in preference to a security junior to it.

(i) Except as provided in subsection (a) of this section, or as otherwise required by law, every share of stock hereafter issued by a registered management company (except a common-law trust of the character described in section 16 (b)) shall be a voting stock and have equal voting rights with every other outstanding voting stock: Provided, That this subsection shall not apply to shares issued pursuant to the terms of any warrant or subscription right outstanding on March 18, 1940, or any firm contract entered into before March 15, 1940, to purchase such securities from such company nor to shares issued in accordance with any rules, regulations, or orders which the Commission may make permitting such issue.

(j) Notwithstanding any provision of this title, it shall be unlawful, after the date of enactment of this title, for any registered face-amount certificate company

(1) to issue, except in accordance with such rules, regulations, or orders as the Commission may prescribe in the public interest or as necessary or appropriate for the protection of investors, any security other than (A) a face-amount certificate; (B) a common stock having a par value and being without preference as to divi. dends or distributions and having at least equal voting rights with any outstanding security of such company; or (C) short-term payment or promissory notes or other indebtedness issued in consideration of any loan, extension, or renewal thereof, made by a bank or other person and privately arranged and not intended to be publicly offered;

(2) if such company has outstanding any security, other than such'

face-amount certificates, common stock, promissory notes, or other evidence of indebtedness, to make any distribution or declare or pay any dividend on any capital security in contravention of such rules and regulations or orders as the Commission may prescribe in the public interest or as necessary or appropriate for the protection of investors or to insure tħe financial integrity of such company, to prevent the impairment of the company's ability to meet its obligations upon its face-amount certificates; or

(3) to issue any of its securities except for cash or securities including securities of which such company is the issuer.

DIVIDENDS

Sec. 19. It shall be unlawful for any registered investment company to pay any dividend, or to make any distribution in the nature of a dividend payment, wholly or partly from any source other than

(1) such company's accumulated undistributed net income, determined in accordance with good accounting practice and not including profits or losses realized upon the sale of securities or other properties; or

(2) such company's net income so determined for the current

or preceding fiscal year; unless such payment is accompanied by a written statement which adequately discloses the source or sources of such payment. The Commission may prescribe the form of such statement by rules and regulations in the public interest and for the protection of investors.

PROXIES; VOTING TRUSTS; CIRCULAR OWNERSHIP

Sec. 20. (a) It shall be unlawful for any person, by use of the mails or any means or instrumentality of interstate commerce or otherwise, to solicit or to permit the use of his name to solicit any proxy or consent or authorization in respect of any security of which à registered investment company is the issuer in contravention of such

rules and regulations as the Commission may prescribe as necessary or appropriate in the public interest or for the protection of investors.

(b) It shall be unlawful for any registered investment company or affiliated person thereof, any issuer of a voting-trust certificate relating to any security of a registered investment company, or any underwriter of such a certificate, by use of the mails or any means or instrumentality of interstate commerce, or otherwise, to offer for sale, sell, or deliver after sale, in connection with a public offering, any such voting-trust certificate. The prohibitions of this subsection shall not apply to a class of voting-trust certificates, if any certificate of such class was made the subject of a public offering by the issuer or by or through an underwriter prior to March 15, 1940.

(c) No registered investment company shall purchase any voting security if, to the knowledge of such registered company, crossownership or circular ownership exists, or after such acquisition will exist, between such registered company and the issuer of such security. Cross-ownership shall be deemed to exist between two companies when each of such companies beneficially owns more than 8 per centum of the outstanding voting securities of the other company. Circular ownership shall be deemed to exist between two companies if such companies are included within a group of three or more companies, each of which

(1) beneficially owns more than 3 per centum of the outstanding voting securities of one or more other companies of the group; and

(2) has more than 3 per centum of its own outstanding voting securities beneficially owned by another company, or by each of two or more other companies, of the group.

(d) If on the effective date of this title cross-ownership or circular ownership exists between a registered investment company and any other company or companies, it shall be the duty of such registered company, within five years after such effective date, to eliminate such cross-ownership or circular ownership: If at any time after the effective date of this title cross-ownership or circular ownership between a registered investment company and any other company or companies comes into existence upon the purchase by a registered investment company of the securities of another company, it shall be the duty of such registered company, within one year after it first knows of the existence of such cross-ownership or circular ownership, to eliminate the same.

LOANS

SEC. 21. It shall be unlawful for any registered management company to lend money or property to any person, directly or indirectly, if

(a) the investment policies of such registered company, as recited in its registration statement and reports filed under this title, do not permit such a loan; or

(b) such person controls or is under common control with such registered company; except that the provisions of this paragraph shall not apply to the extension or renewal of any such Ioan made prior to March 15, 1940, or to any loan from a registered company to a company which owns all of the outstanding securities of such registered company, except directors' qualifying shares.

DISTRIBUTION, REDEMPTION, AND REPURCHASE OF REDEEMABLE

SECURITIES

Sec. 22. (a) A securities association registered under section 15A of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 may prescribe, by rules adopted and in effect in accordance with said section and subject to all provisions of said section applicable to the rules of such an association

(1) a method or methods for computing the minimum price at which a member thereof may purchase from any investment company, any redeemable security issued by such company and the maximum price at which a member may sell to such company any redeemable security issued by it or which he may receive for such security upon redemption, so that the price in each case will bear such relation to the current net asset value of such security computed as of such time as the rules may prescribe; and

(2) a minimum period of time which must elapse after the sale or issue of such security before any resale to such company, by a member or its redemption upon surrender by a member;

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in each case for the purpose of eliminating or reducing so far as reasonably practicable any dilution of the value of other outstanding securities of such company or any other result of such purchase, redemption, or sale which is unfair to holders of such other outstanding securities; and said rules may prohibit the members of the association from purchasing, selling, or surrendering for redemption any such redeemable securities in contravention of said rules.

(b) Such a securities association may also, by rules adopted and in effect in accordance with said section 15A, and subject to all provisions of said section applicable to the rules of such an association, prohibit its members from purchasing, in connection with a primary distribution of redeemable securities of which any registered investment company is the issuer, any such security from the issuer or from any principal underwriter except at a price equal to the price at which such security is then offered to the public less a commission, discount, or spread which is computed in conformity with a method or methods, and within such limitations as to the relation thereof to said public offering price as such rules may prescribe, in order that the price at which such security is offered or sold to the public shall not include an unconscionable or grossly excessive sales load.

(c) After one year from the effective date of this Act, the Commission may make rules and regulations applicable to principal underwriters of, and dealers in, the redeemable securities of any registered investment company, whether or not members of any registered securities association, to the same extent, covering the same subject matter and for the accomplishment of the same ends as are prescribed in subsections (a) and (b) of this section in respect of the rules which may be made by a registered securities association governing its members; and any rules and regulations so made by the Commission, to the extent that they may be inconsistent with the rules of any such association, shall so long as they remain in force supersede the rules of the association and be binding upon its members as well as all other underwriters and dealers to whom they may be applicable.

(d) No registered investment company shall sell any redeemable security issued by it to any person except either to or through a principal underwriter for distribution or at a current public offering price described in the prospectus, and, if such class of security is being currently offered to the public by or through an underwriter, no principal underwriter of such security and no dealer shall sell any such security to any person except a dealer, a principal underwriter or the issuer, except at a current public offering price described in the prospectus: Provided, however, That nothing in this subsection shall prevent a sale made (i) pursuant to an offer of exchange permitted by section 11 hereof including any offer made pursuant to clause (1) or (2) of section 11 (b); (ii) pursuant to an offer made solely to all registered holders of the securities, or of a particular class or series of securities issued by the company proportionate to their holdings or proportionate to any cash distribution made to them by the company (subject to appropriate qualifications designed solely to avoid issuance of fractional securities); or (iii) in accordance with rules and regulations of the Commission mado pursuant to subsection (b) of section 12.

(e) No registered investment company shall suspend the right of redemption or postpone the date of payment or satisfaction upon redemption of any redeemable security in accordance with its terms for more than seven days after the tender of such security to the company or its agent designated for that purpose for redemption except

(1) for any period (A) during which the New York Stock Exchange is closed other than customary week-end and holiday closings or (B) during which trading on the New York Stock Exchange is restricted;

(2) for any period during which an emergency exists as a result of which (A) disposal by the company of securities owned by it is not reasonably practicable or (B) it is not reasonably practicable for such company fairly to determine the value of its net assets; or

(3) for such other periods as the Commission may by order permit for the protection of security holders of the company. The Commission shall by rules and regulations determine the conditions under which (i) trading shall be deemed to be restricted and (ii) an emergency shall be deemed to exist within the meaning of this subsection. Any company which, as of March 15, 1940, was required by provision of its charter, certificate of incorporation, articles of association, or trust indenture, or of a bylaw or regulation duly adopted thereunder, to postpone the date of payment or satisfaction upon redemption of redeemable securities issued by it, shall be exempt from the requirements of this subsection; but such exemption shall terminate upon the expiration of one year from the effective date of this title, or upon the repeal or amendment of such provision, or upon the sale by such company after March 15, 1940, of any security (other than short-term paper) of which it is the issuer, whichever first occurs.

(f) No registered open-end company shall restrict the transferability or negotiability of any security of which it is the issuer except in conformity with the statements with respect thereto contained in its registration statement nor in contravention of such rules and regulations as the Commission may prescribe in the interests of the holders of all of the outstanding securities of such investment company.

(g) No registered open-end company shall issue any of its securities (1) for services; or (2) for property other than cash or securities (including securities of which such registered company is the issuer), except as a dividend or distribution to its security holders or in connection with a reorganization.

DISTRIBUTION AND REPURCHASE OF SECURITIES: CLOSED-END COMPANIES

SEO. 23. (a) No registered closed-end company shall issue any of its securities (1) for services; or (2) for property other than cash or securities (including securities of which such registered company is the issuer), except as a dividend or distribution to its security holders or in connection with a reorganization.

(b) No registered closed-end company shall sell any common stock of which it is the issuer at a price below the current net asset value of such stock, exclusive of any distributing commission or discount

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