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Major MILLER. George Miller, sir.

The purpose of this contract was to try to determine what factors influence career selection by outstanding young men in our secondary schools throughout the United States.

Not only what factors interest them specifically, but also what factors are deemed to be influential by their teachers, their guidance counselors, and their parents, so that, in fact, we can attract the highest quality, the finest young men in the United States to desire, seek out, and obtain appointment to the Military Academy.

We have great confidence in our Academy to produce and train a fine young man, but the finer the young man who comes in, the better the product for the Army. And so we were trying to determine what factors are involved in career selection for the outstanding young man throughout our secondary schools.

Mr. COURTNEY. Well, what communication recommendations—what method of communications have been recommended!

Major MILLER. There have been no recommendations made as yet. The study involves determining what communications means might be used to communicate an image of the Military Academy and of the Army as a career, which would be desirable in the eyes of the outstanding young man and his counselors.

Mr. Kirchin. This is a high-class advertising project? Isn't that essentially what it is? Not from the standpoint of pictures on bulletin boards.

Major MILLER. No.

Mr. KITCHEN. No, but I mean it is advertising with respect to the quality of education, the necessity for career personnel—something that will attract the young man to want to go and make a career of this.

Major MILLER. Yes, sir. It is trying to find out what should be done in this field.

Mr. KITCHIN. Now, when you find out, the Congress would be absolutely interested and eager to know. [Laughter.]

Because I know some of the situations arise almost weekly with reference to congressional appointments, whereby the Congressman has utilized every available piece of information at his hand with reference to the individual's school, background, personality, et cetera, and then uses the good judgment that he has with reference to his knowledge of the family and whether he in his opinion thinks that the boy is qualified and wants to make a career, and sometimes with all of that information we fall flat on our faces—having a boy either flunk out intentionally to get out of the Military Academy, or having him not turn out to be the type of guy we thought he was.

So if that does result in any concrete information of any benefit, we would like to know about it.

Major MILLER. Certainly, the intention is to communicate to Congress any information that is found out, sir.

But more to the point, if we can have a result arise that we do stimulate more outstanding young men to request you to nominate them, then you have a greater selection and can thereby have a greater field from which to choose.

Mr. HÉBERT. You can't get any more than the number of appointments you are allowed, no matter how much time you spend. And, for every 1 you appoint, you make 10 enemies.

Mr. NORBLAD. That has nothing to do with their ability to play a good game of football, by any chance, does it?

Mr. COURTNEY. No, that is handled separately. Major MILLER. I think not. Mr. NORBLAD. Is that handled separately? Major MILLER. This particular thing is designed to try to find out how we can motivate what the secondary schools feel to be their most outstanding young men.

Mr. HÉBERT. Admiral Rickover is in charge of that program. [Laughter.]

Mr. COURTNEY. Now the second—are you through?

Mr. HÉBERT. No. I want to find out too, on what we were discussing prior: Now what stimulated this $40,000 expenditure with this—what is the name of this outfit?

Major MILLER. The Opinion Research Corp.
Mr. HÉBERT. Maybe Gallup would have done it a little cheaper.
Mr. COURTNEY. He may be next door to Opinion Research Corp.
Mr. HÉBERT. Who is Opinion Research Corp., of Princeton, N.J.?

Major MILLER. This is an independent opinion research organization, sir, a civilian organization, deemed to be either the most outstanding or one of the most outstanding of the type of corporation in the field by Dun & Bradstreet, when the report was requested on the organization.

And the organization was recommended to the Superintendent of the Military Academy by his civilian public relations advisory committee, which consists of public relations executives from a number of leading corporations and senior members of several public relations counseling firms.

Mr. HÉBERT. We used to call them press agents. [Laughter.] Major MILLER. And these gentlemen who met voluntarily to give advice on public relations to the Superintendent, said if he wanted this kind of opinion information, that this particular corporation was the most reliable corporation.

Mr. HÉBERT. Who was the Superintendent?
Major MILLER. Who is the Superintendent?
Mr. HÉBERT. I know who it is.

Vho was the Superintendent who recommended this, or wanted to get this study ?

Mr. KITCHIN. On this particular contract it says "February 1961." So it would be the Superintendent now.

Mr. COURTNEY. February 1961.
Major MILLER. February, sir.
Mr. HÉBERT. Then this is just a recent one.
Major MILLER. Yes, sir.

Mr. HÉBERT. Well, now, is the Academy dissatisfied with its graduates, or dissatisfied with its undergraduates?

Major MILLER. I don't believe either is the case, sir. I think we would like to get finer young men out of which to make better graduates.

Mr. HÉBERT. Well, you aren't geting the finest in the country?
Mr. COURTNEY. What happened to the flower of our youth?
Major MILLER. I think we can always do better, sir.

Mr. KITCHIN. They lost some football games recently. [Laughter.]

May I ask the major a question? And if this is an unfair question, just say so.

What has been the reaction of your shop over there with reference to the action on the floor yesterday of making it a 5-year obligation after graduation, from either of the Military Academies?

Major MILLER. I don't know a shop reaction, sir.

My own reaction, particularly as regards the subject under debate, is that I trust this won't make it more difficult to get the most outstanding young man. Mr. KITCHIN. Well, on the contrary, wouldn't it-knowing that

. he had a 5-year obligation before he undertook this particular schooling and go into one of the Academies, don't you think we would eliminate a lot of those that say: "I just want an education, and when I am through with it, the heck with the Army, I will get out”!

Wouldn't the psychological effect be at least in favor of the longterm obligation that he has to fulfill, if he understood that is this schooling in an Academy? Frankly, I was for the 7 years. I think we ought to have a 7-year course.

Mr. HÉBERT. I think 7 years, too.

Then the remarks concerning the football team, I move to make this observation.

I think a little bit more consideration should be given to a good stout pair of legs and a good stout heart, and not all to the long hair. [Laughter.]

We want the composite man. We want the man who can fight, as well as the man who can think.

And I, for one, am very strong that West Point, and the Air Force Academy and the Navy, have not only the best football teams, but the best basketball teams and the best everything.

I think these things are very important, because we certainly can't fight wars with boys who just have a pencil in their hands and can figure out that pi means so and so. Mr. Gavin. Only those that know mathematics. Mr. HÉBERT. Mathematics. We need a little brains out there, and physical ability.

Mr. Gavin. Has this Princeton research corporation taken into consideration whether or not the boy has the energy and resourcefulness and courage, and all of those things, that may be essential when he got into combat? Не

may be a good mathematician, but if he gets into combat someplace he has to have those attributes, in addition to brains, too.

I just wondered if you examined that angle of it.

Major MILLER. When the survey was first considered, sir, the Opinion Research Corp. representatives visited the Military Academy, to find out what kind of a young man the Military Academy was interested in, which is the young man who could be a leader in combat.

I believe these factors are being considered.

Mr. COURTNEY. That would be a good beginning for any performance of this kind, I should think.

Mr. HÉBERT. Major, is there any consideration behind-of course, perhaps it is unfair to say it, but I want to ask the question anyway.

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Was any thought given to the tendency, which is evident and obvious year after year, of the Academy officials to take away the power of appointment from congressional sources, and where they want it all unto themselves, to make their own selections without the wisdom of the Members of Congress who know people have votes someplace, maybe?

I don't know. I just wanted to know what their thinking was. Major MILLER. I don't believe this survey was directed to that, sir.

Mr. KITCHIN. We will await the results. Maybe that is what the recommendation will be.

Mr. HÉBERT. That is what the recommendation is going to be: "Don't let the Members of Congress do it.” [Laughter.]

In the 21 years I have been here, I have been very much impressed with the fact that the graduates of all the academies think that politics is a horrible thing, and—“Don't even talk to them” about politics.

Of course, they forgot how they got in there. [Laughter.] That is after they have been baptized and washed and everything. They don't want to be soiled by fooling around with a politician. He is a horrible individual. A Member of Congress : “My goodness alive, don't talk to that man." But his papa and mama, I talked enough

' to them when he wanted to get in, I will tell you that.

Mr. Courtney.
Mr. COURTNEY. We have next a series of contracts.
General, I guess this would be yours. .

Now, we asked some questions, Mr. Chairman, to identify these contracts and the area covered. We asked the identity of the contractor, the cost of the contract, the subject matter, and the results. And if incomplete, the reason why the contract was incomplete.

Now, here is a contract, called an “effort” type contract, to the Atlantic Research Corp., in Alexandria, for which $57,447 was paid.

The subject was an analysis of the 81-millimeter mortars, the M-29, and the M-23A3, for the purpose of defining certain elements in the performance of the present mortar and collecting a new body of data to be used in the proposed design and development of an improved medium mortar.

Now, the results of the undertaking to date: RecommendationsNone.

If incomplete, the reason.

Now, the effort as of March 30, 1961. “Technology of instrumentation may not be advanced sufficient to measure elements involved."

Now, I think the subcommittee would like to know how this organization was selected, what its inhouse capabilities are, and whether the function of determining the capability of a military weapon isn't a military function for military people.

How does it happen that the question was asked for which there was no instrumentation available? Shouldn't this have been discovered earlier, before we got up to $57,000?

Those are a few questions.

General Ely. May I comment in general on this list, before we get into the specifics?

Mr. COURTNEY. Yes, sir.

General Ely. These this list of contracts was obtained here some weeks

ago and furnished to the committee. It consists

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Mr. COURTNEY. Months ago.
General Ely. Months ago.

It consists of the contracts that were let by our seven technical services. In

many cases, as you can see, they are relatively small contracts in dollar value.

Mr. COURTNEY. Cumulatively.
General Ely. Cumulatively they add up to quite a sum of money;

yes, sir.

Mr. COURTNEY. Yes, sir.

General Ely. I am not prepared, without going to each technical service and getting

some of these answers. Mr. COURTNEY. Do you have any specifics, General Bigelow?

General BIGELOW. I do have some specifics with respect to two of the contracts that we have been able to identify.

The third has not yet been identified; that falls in my technical service area.

Mr. COURTNEY. All right.

Let me go over, then-I think the second one you have reference to is to the same contractor.

General BIGELOW. The same contractor. Mr. COURTNEY. That is a contract for $62,811. The subject matter of the report

Now, this information, Mr. Chairman, is all from the Department of the Army. We express no opinion on its content. The language is that of the Department of the Army.

Subject matter:

Project for conducting concept studies and preparation of designs for a new 81-millimeter mortar and a new 4.2-inch heavy mortar.

And this is reported as: No recommendations to date.

But the effort as of March 30—and this March 30, Mr. Chairman, was the return date on the information which the committee received. That is, March 30 of 1961:

Satisfactory progress in preparation of concepts study. Now, General, can you tell us why the military could not conceive of the type of weapon most suited to it—this would be one questionto its needs?

And what capabilities this organization has to supplant the military mind and the military experience in the selection of a weapon?

General BIGELOW. This contract was let by Watervliet Arsenal.
Mr. KITCHIN. When?
General BIGELOW. The contract was entered into on the 18th of July

of last year.

Mr. NORBLAD. Where is that arsenal, please? General BIGELOW. Watervliet Arsenal is in the vicinity of Troy, N.Y.

One of their major missions is the research and development of mortars.

Early this year a study was underway, undertaken to revise and upgrade the military characteristics and the qualitative materiel requirements for medium and heavy mortars.

The arsenal has a very fine capability in this general area.

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