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extent. To ascertain the nature and extent of child labor in the State two investigations were made by the bureau, one in 1899 and the other in 1900. In 1899 1,473 establishments were reported which employed child labor. Of 41,957 persons employed 577, or 1.38 per cent, were children under 16 years of age. In 1900 1,522 establishments were reported in which 751 out of a total of 44,162 employees, or 1.70 per cent, were children under 16 years
age. SUNDAY LABOR.- In accordance with the provisions of a law enacted in 1899 a special investigation was made by the bureau with respect to the number of persons employed on Sundays, the conditions of such employment, and other facts relating to Sunday labor. The principal objects of inquiry were the nature of Sunday work, the reasons for its performance, the proportion of persons employed on Sundays, the number of Sundays during the year on which labor was performed, the working hours per day on Sundays and on week days, whether Sunday labor was compulsory or optional with the employees, and whether a day of rest was allowed in lieu of Sunday.
Returns were received from 760 establishments which engaged in work on Sundays. Of 37,710 employees engaged an average of 11,928, or 31.63 per cent, were employed on Sundays. The average hours of labor per day in these establishments were 91 on week days and 8 on Sundays. Work was performed on an average of 43 Sundays during the year. The reasons assigned for Sunday labor were public demand or public necessity in 496 cases and preservation of property or private necessity in 264 cases. In the former class the laborer's numbered 19,407, of which 8,822 performed labor on Sundays. In the latter class the laborers numbered 18,303, of which 3,106 performed labor on Sundays. This shows that by far the larger proportion of Sunday labor was performed on account of public demand or necessity. In 486 cases out of 674 reported no day of rest was allowed in place of Sunday, while 188 reported granting a week day of rest, 73 with pay and 115 without. In 616 establishments no additional pay was allowed for Sunday labor, the persons being employed with the understanding that such labor was to be performed. Sixty-three establishments paid price and one-half for Sunday labor, and 14 paid double price. In 607 cases Sunday work was obligatory and in 122 cases it was optional. In 483 out of 722 cases reporting refusal to perform Sunday labor involved dismissal or discharge. The following table shows the most important data with regard to Sunday labor, by industries:
Sundays ing ing
hours ployees ployees ployees
hours ceived. on week on Sun- of week on week on Sun
during days. days. day em- days. days.
587 336 167 359 482 158
3 3 3 19
4 21 76
9 15 12 21 50 105
5 10 38 35
48 81 101 147
65 1,057 258
30 347 1,421
371 26 210 234 339 113
2, 407 324
67 540 1,479
65 163 262
257 2, 865 192
99.32 100.00 38. 32 13. 37 16.80 63. 92 62. 29 35. 48 43. 91 79. 63 44.78 64. 26 96.08 56.92 15.95 80. 15 91.05 11.83 58.85 33. 33 29.71
9 10 10 13 11 10 10 10 11 12 10 9 8 8
10 10 9 5 11 10
47 52 52
17 18 15 69 9 6 6
2, 250 1, 305
STATISTICS OF SUNDAY LABOR.
a Not including fire departments.
AUSTRIA Der Arbeiterschutz bei Vergebung ötfentlicher Arbeiten und Lieferungen.
Bericht des k. k. arbeitsstatistischen Amtes über die auf diesem Gebiete in den europäischen und überseeischen Industriestaaten unternommenen Versuche und bestehenden Vorschriften. x, 163 pp.
The present report relates to the protection of labor on public works. It contains an account of the efforts made and of the laws and regulations enacted in the leading countries of the world for the protection of employees in the public service and of persons in the service of employers on public contract work. The countries considered are Great Britain, Belgium, the Netherlands, the United States, Germany, Switzerland, Norway, Austria, Hungary, Bosnia, and Herzegovina. An appendix relates to contracts given by public authorities to associations of workingmen, with special reference to this system of awarding contracts in France and Italy.
The protection of employees on public works considered in this report relates chiefly to the fixing of a minimum wage rate and a maximum working day. Other provisions considered relate to safety, hygiene, sick and accident insurance, Sunday rest, the limitation of working time, overtime, etc.
Annuaire des Syndicats Professionnels, Industriels, Commerciaux et
Agricoles constitués conformément à la loi du 21 mars 1884, en France et aux Colonies. Office du Travail, Ministère du Commerce, de l'Industrie, des Postes et des Télégraphes. 1900. lvii, 688 pp.
This is the eleventh annual report on trade, commercial, and agricultural unions and associations organized in conformity with the provisions of the law of March 21, 188+ (a), in France and her colonies. Under this head are included trade unions, employers' associations, organizations composed of employers and employees, and farmers' associations. The report consists mainly of a directory of these organizations. In addition it contains short summary tables, a reproduction of the law of March 21, 188+, and the Government decrees enforcing the same, and a review of the orders, instructions, and decisions relating to such organizations. The first of the two tables following shows the number of these organizations on July 1 of each year from 198+ to 1896, and on December 31 from 1897 to 1899, and the second table shows their membership each year from 1890 to 1899.
a For the provisions of this law see Bulletin No. 25, p. 838.
INDUSTRIAL, COMMERCIAL, AND AGRICULTURAL ASSOCIATIONS IN EXISTENCE ON JILY
1 OF EACH YEAR FROM 1884 TO 1896 AND ON DECEMBER 31 FROM 1897 TO 1X09.
MEMBERSHIP OF INDUSTRIAL, COMMERCIAL, AND AGRICULTURAL ASSOCIATIONS ON
JULY 1 OF EACH YEAR FROM 1890 TO 1896 AND ON DECEMBER 31 FRON 1897 TO 1899.
Besides the individual organizations above enumerated the report also deals with federations of industrial, commercial, and agricultural associations and labor exchanges. The following table shows the number of federations, associations federated, and total membership on December 31, 1897, 1998, and 1899: FEDERATIONS OF INDUSTRIAL, COMMERCIAL, AND AGRICULTURAL ASSOCIATIONS IN
EXISTENCE ON DECEMBER 31, 1897 TO 1899.
791 915 927
1899 Membership of federations:
1897 1898 1839
1, 118, 110
879, 642 1 1,028,983
There were 65 labor exchanges (bourses du travail) in 1899, with 1,350 participating associations and 239,449 members. Most of these exchanges are assisted by the municipal and departmental governments. The annual subsidies received by the labor exchanges in 1899 amounted to 445,980 francs (886,074.14) from municipal and 23,250 francs ($1,487.25) from departmental appropriations. The labor exchanges secured employment for 103,714 persons during the year.
NEW SOUTH WALES.
Seventh Annual Report of the Gorernment Labor Bureau of Nero
South Wales, for the year ending June 30, 1899. 39 pp. The labor bureau of New South Wales is not a statistical office, but confines its work chiefly to the assisting of the unemployed. The information contained in this report, therefore, relates mainly to the work of the bureau and the expenditures incurred in securing work for the people and providing relief when needed. Tables show, by occupations, the number of registrations and of persons assisted and sent to work, their wages, and a comparison of these figures with those for previous years.
The following table gives a statement of the number of persons registered and the number assisted and sent to work during each fiscal year since the bureau was organized:
a For the period February 18, 1895, to June 30, 1896.
o For the period February 18, 1896, to June 30, 1896. The reason that the number sent to work exceeds the number registered is due to the fact that a man registers only once, but there is no limit to the number of times he may be sent or assisted to work.
The year ending June 30, 1899, shows a continued decrease in the number of registrations of persons seeking employment, and also in the number assisted and sent to work. Of the 3,843 persons registered 2,196 were single and 1,617 married men, representing 4,941 children, of whom 1,630 were self-supporting and 3,311 were dependent.