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The 712 establishments from which returns were received employed 108,782 persons, whose average earnings during the year amounted to $452.04 per employee. The establishments were in operation an average of 297.4 days during the year. The gross value of the product was $209,396,535. Of this amount $19,173,588, or 23.5 per cent, were paid in wages.

The following table shows, by industries, the aggregate wages paid each year from 1896 to 1900, inclusive, in 514 identical establishments:

WAGES PAID IN 1896, 1897, 1898, 1899, AND 1900, AND PER CENT OF INCREASE FROM 1896

TO 1900.

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28

9.1 19.2

9.1 13.4 19.3

Brass and brass goods .
Carriages and carriage

parts
Corsets
Cotton goods
Cotton mills
Cutlery and tools
General hardware.
Hats and caps
Hosiery and knit goods
Iron and iron found-

ries .....
Leather goods.
Machine shops
Musical instruments

and parts
Paper and paper goods
Rubber goods
Shoes ..
Silk goods.
Silver and plated ware
Wire and wire goods..
Woodworking
Woolens and woolen

mills Miscellaneous

58 $6,742,063 $6,145, 719 $7, 331, 757 $7,988, 095 $8,656, 853
11 364, 007 327, 697 342, 839 361, 480 376, 211
10 1, 450, 626 1, 409, 196 1, 551, 851 1,571, 879 1, 582, 076
21 806, 330 722, 422 842, 039 908, 946 961, 462
20 2, 027,857 1,897, 269 2,078, 752 2,016, 784 2, 212, 588
24 632, 821 506, 745 603, 325

618, 841 717,765
26 3, 261, 245 2,759, 460 2,965, 081 3, 486, 376 3,890, 651
17 820, 438 764, 520 777, 095 856, 799 892, 793
17 1,063, 885 848, 695 880, 948 1,014, 699 1,089, 478
33 1,622, 558 1, 469, 305 1,593, 279 1,768, 077 2, 102, 913
11 214, 084 251, 170 243, 342 218, 709 252, 153
60 4,952, 903 4,280, 690 4, 900, 107 4,935, 035 5,308, 076

9 423, 312 388, 818 365, 530 415, 051 514, 247
83 618, 157 581, 261 589, 400 602, 832 651, 523
10 1,574, 089 1, 426, 122 1, 864,525 1, 816, 893 1,731, 314
5 94, 984 104, 439 97, 192

91, 847

84, 413 14 1, 403, 379 1,343, 154 1, 459, 029 1,741, 062 1,923,019 15 1,098, 961 1,044, 135 1, 154, 235 1, 263, 774 1, 190, 591 16 427, 883 357, 502 396, 566 456, 515 587, 895 15

433, 662 413, 813 501, 089 488, 521 569, 458 35 1,732, 198 1, 451, 498 1, 709, 325 1,517, 059 1,800, 295 54 1, 292, 530 1,217, 917 1,357, 993 1,414,085 1,569, 922 514 33,058, 002 29, 711, 547 33, 605, 299 35, 553, 358 38,696, 646

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Total

17.1

a Decrease.

The statistics of aggregate wages given above show an improvement each year except in 1897, when there was a decrease in the amount of wages paid as compared with the preceding year. The average increase during the entire period was 17.1 per cent. There was an increase of 8.8 per cent in 1900 as compared with the preceding year.

NEW CONSTRUCTIONS.---This chapter gives an account of the buildings constructed for manufacturing purposes in the State during the year ending July 1, 1900, showing in each case the name of the establishment, the material of which the building was constructed, number of stories, dimensions, cost of construction, and the increase in the number of employees resulting from the increased capacity. It appears that 245 manufacturing buildings were erected in 59 towns, at a total estimated cost of $1,949,104, exclusive of machinery, etc. By the erection of these new factories and additions 3,965 more persons were employed.

ARTICLES MANUFACTURED.-An alphabetically arranged list is given several thousand articles manufactured in the State. For succeeding ports it is the intention to add to and improve the list.

FREE EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES.- This part of the report contains an count of a canvass of 4+ private employment agencies in the State, nd a résumé of the work of public employment offices in the States f Ohio, California, Montana, New York, Missouri, Illinois, and in he city of Seattle, Wash.

STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS.-An account is given of each of 51 strikes nd 2 lockouts, reported from July, 1, 1899, to December 1, 1900, and

tabular statement showing the date, name of the labor organization, lame of the firm, number of persons involved, duration, cause, and esult of each strike and lockout. Of these disputes 18 were successul, 12 partly successful, and 23 failed. There were 5,776 persons hrown out of employment on account of strikes and lockouts during hat period, resulting in a loss of 98,64 working days.

LABOR ORGANIZATIONS.— This part of the report consists of an account of organized labor in the State, a list of labor organizations, a directory of the names and addresses of their principal officers, and a table showing for each of the 122 organizations reporting in 1900 the date of organization, membership, wages and hours of labor of the members, weeks employed during the year, receipts, and benefits. The following table shows the number of organizations and their membership, by occupations:

MEMBERSHIP OF LABOR ORGANIZATIONS, BY OCCUPATIONS, 1900.

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The 122 organizations reported a total membership of 14,244 in 1900. These organizations provided benefits for their members as follows: Disability and death, 31; strike, disability, and death, 17; death, 13; strike, out of work, traveling, disability, and death, 8; strike and death, 6; disability, 6; strike, 5; out of work, disability, and death, 2; strike, out of work, disability, and death, 1; death and insurance of tools, 1; strike and disability, 1. The remaining 31 organizations reported no benefit features. The strike benefits paid during the year amounted to $10,147, of which $8,056 were paid to beneficiaries in another State. The total benefits paid for all purposes were reporter to be $39,636.80. The total receipts reported from all sources were $90,068.21.

MINNESOTA.

Seventh Biennial Report of the Bureau of Labor of the State

of Minnesota. 1899–1900. Martin F. McHale, Commissioner.

351 PP:

The following subjects are treated in the present report: Factory inspection, 172 pages; wage statistics, 59 pages; mines and mining, 46 pages; labor organizations, 36 pages; child labor, 18 pages; Sunday labor, 9 pages.

WAGE STATISTICS.---- This is the first comprehensive collection of wage data undertaken by the Minnesota bureau of labor. In presenting the wage statistics, the method of classifying the wage-earners according to wage groups was adopted. Such a classification is made for each of 97 industries and for all industries combined. The statistics cover the wages of 48,416 employees in 2,129 establishments in 1899 and 66,956 employees in 2,846 establishments in 1900. Each table shows by sex the number and per cent of employees receiving the wages specified in the respective groups. Following is a summary of the wage statistics for all industries:

NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES AND PER CENT OF TOTAL, AT SPECIFIED WEEKLY WAGEN,

IN 2,129 ESTABLISHMENTS IN 1899 AND 2,846 ESTABLISHMENTS IN 1900.

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Num- Per Num. Per Num- Per Num. Per Num.' Per Num. Per

ber. cent.ber. cent.

ber. cent. ber. cent.

ber. cent.

ber. (nt.

Under $3 $3 or under $4. $1 or under $.7 $5 or under $6. $6 or under $7. $7 or under $8. 88 or under $9. 89 or under $10. $10 or under $12. $12 or under $15. $15 or under $18. $18 or under $20. $20 or over ....

1
2:27
0.53 2141
4.32
0.97 107 0.71

565

5.7+ 972 1. 13 630 1. 17 575 10.18 1, 203 2. 49 1,004 1.76 1.103 11. 26 2,113 3. !6 704 1.63 639 11.31 1,313 2.77 1,039 1.82 1, 301 13.21 2, 3)

1.56 1,087 19.24 1,763 3.02 877 1.54 1,783 17.59 2, +10 1,293 3.02 1,339 23.70 2,632 5. 45 1,626 2.85 2,257 22.91 3,823 5. NO 2, 119 5.66 529 9.37 2, 9151 6. 09. 2, 919 5.11 1,016 10.62 3,95 5 ore 2,01 4.82

7.91 2, 508 5.18 2,937' 5.14 630 6. 40 3,7 9,012 21.07 205 4.69 9, 277 19.16' 9,552 16.73

355

3. 00 9,907 14. 8,874 20.75 290 5.14 9,164 18.93 12, 802 22.52

4.13, NJ 8,863 20.72 143 2.53 9,006 18.60 11.576 20.27

2. 07 11,3 17. 1,696 10.901 1.12 4.719 9.81 6,711 11.8

.96 6,86 10. 21 1,530 3.62 16 .28 1,566 3.23 2, 411 4. 23 29 22. #13 1,782 4.17 .21) 1,794 3. 71 3,151 5.52

. 45 3, 195

12

Total..

12,767,100.00 5,619,100.00 48, 41c100.00 57, 105 100.00 9,851 100.00 66.556 100.00

The greater number of male employees during each of the two years received from $9 to $15 per week, and the greater number of female employees received from $1 to $7 per week. By comparing the two years it is seen that the percentage of male employees increased in 1900 in the classes receiving under $5 per week, $8 or under $9, $10 or under $12, and $15 per week or over. In the case of females an increase is seen in the percentage receiving under $5 per week, $7 or under $8, $12 or under $15, and $18 per week or over.

The report also contains tabulated returns from 329 logging camps in the State. These camps were in operation an average of 20 weeks during the season of 1899–1900 and employed 15,886 men and 8,285 horses. A total of 1,112,000,000 feet of logs were cut. The average wages paid were about $37 per month, including board and sleeping accommodations.

MINES AND MINING.—This chapter contains an account of the rise and growth of the iron-mining industry of the State, the location of the mines, statistics of ore transportation, labor and wages, accidents in mines, and descriptive notes, with statistics of production of individual mines. The total output of Minnesota iron mines was 5,899,712 tons in 1898 and 8,214,726 tons in 1899. The mines employed an average of 4,431 persons in 1898 and 5,686 persons in 1899. The wages paid amounted to $2,113,634 in 1898 and $3,318,512 in 1899. The average cost of transportation of iron ore was $1.43 per ton in 1898 and $1.46 per ton in 1899.

The following table shows the total number of iron-mine employees and the average daily wages paid in iron mines in 1899 and 1900:

NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES AND AVERAGE DAILY WAGES PAID IN IRON MINES, 1899 AND

1900.

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a Skilled laborers comprise engineers, carpenters, blacksmiths, electricians, machinists, pump and pipe inen, skip tenders, landers, and oilers.

Labor ORGANIZATIONS.-Returns for the year ending June 1, 1900, were received by the bureau from 206 labor organizations having a total membership of 17,736. Nearly one-half of these organizations came into existence during the 5 years ending June 1, 1900. The statistics presented in this report show the name, age, and membership of each organization, the name and address of the secretary, the cost of membership and financial benefits, trades and industries organized and the hours of labor, average daily wage rates, percentage of nonemployment, etc., of the members. The following table shows the number and membership of labor organizations, by occupations:

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7
1

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2

1
1
1

315

3

4

176 310 50 34 41 256 2:22

60
109
291
70
13
30
78
130
1,733

416
242
410

40
382

979

1
1

301

3
6

230 201

3 3

Bakers
Barbers.
Belt makers
Blacksmiths.
Boiler makers
Bookbinders
Boot and shoe workers
Box makers
Brewers ..
Bricklayers
Bridge builders
Broom makers
Butchers
Cabinetmakers
Candy makers.
Carpenters.
Cigar makers.
Clerks, retail
Conductors, railway.
Cooks and waiters.
Coopers
Core makers.
Dressmakers.
Electrical workers.
Electrotypers.
Engineers, locomotive
Engineers, stationary
Engravers
Federated laborers
Firemen, city
Firemen, locomotive.
Firemen, stationary
Flour-mill employees
Flour packers and nailers.
Freight handlers..
Furniture workers
Furriers
Glaziers
Hack and cab men..
Harness and saddle makers
Horseshoers
Lathers...
Laundry workers,

4 1 4 1 1

Lithographers..
Longshoremen
Machinists
Mail carriers
Marble and tile setters
Mason tenders.
Mattress makers.
Metal polishers.
Molders, iron.
Musicians
Painters and decorators
Plasterers
Plumbers.
Potters
Pressmen.
Printers
Salesmen, retail.
Sheet metal workers
Stage employees.
Steam fitters.
Stereotypers
Stonecutters.
Stone masons.
Switchmen.
Tailors and garment makers
Teamsters
Tile layers..
Trainmien
Tugmen
C'pholsterers
Wood carvers.
Wood workers
Wooden ware workers.
Miscellaneous:
Allied printing, binding,

etc. (b).
Building trades councilsib
Label leagues (1)
Trudes and labor assem-
blies (b)...

Total..

27

31 115

1 8

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100 a 100

12 555 212

18 320 538 486 135

75 367 365 52 60 50 65

35 a 46

80 70

3
1

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a Full membership not reported.

Membership consists of delegates from other organizations.

Brief accounts are given of 21 strikes and 2 lockouts reported by labor organizations during the year ending June 1, 1900. Several minor strikes are also mentioned.

Short chapters are devoted to the requirements and regulations of labor organizations with regard to apprenticeships, the street-car strike at Duluth, May, 1899, labor strikes in general, and an address on compulsory arbitration by the governor of the State.

CHILD LABOR.-An account is given of the provisions of law with regard to child labor and compulsory education and the operations of

Owing to the advantages taken of certain exceptions permitted under the law the latter has been made inoperative to some

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