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4.2 per cent were partly successful, and 32.8 per cent were unsuccessful. Demands relating to working time and changes in methods of wage payments were likewise mostly successful or partly successful, while demands for the reinstatement of employees were usually unsuccessful. The following table shows the results of strikes by causes:

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The strikers in 1899 were mostly engaged in a few large strikes, over one-half of their number having participated in 96 strikes involving over 200 persons each. Strikes involving 10 persons or less usually failed, while the larger strikes were, mostly, either successful or partly successful, particularly those involving over 500 persons each, only one-fourth of which were failures. In the following table the strike data are grouped according to the number of strikers involved:

STATISTICS OF STRIKES, BY NUMBER OF STRIKERS INVOLVED, 1899.

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The strikes were mostly of short duration, 763 out of a total of 1,288 lasting 10 days or less each, 288 lasting from 11 to 30 days, and 237 lasting over 30 days. In the following table the strike data are grouped according to the duration of the strikes:

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Of the 1,288 strikes, 1,019 are classed as offensive strikes and 269 as defensive strikes; 931 were individual and 357 were collective strikes; 744 strikes were either ordered or aided by trade organizations.

LOCKOUTS.-There were 23 lockouts affecting 427 establishments and 5,298 employees. The demands of employers related to wages in 22 cases, to working time in 10 cases, and to others matters in 12 cases, some lockouts being due to two or more demands. The lockouts were successful in 6 cases, partly successful in 9 cases, and unsuccessful in 8 cases.

GREAT BRITAIN.

Report by the Chief Labor Correspondent on the Strikes and Lockouts of

1899, with Statistical Tables. 1900. xciv, 124 pp. (Published by the Labor Department of the British Board of Trade).

The present report on strikes and lockouts in the United Kingdom is the twelfth issued since the commencement of the series in 1888. The report contains a detailed statement showing for each dispute beginning in 1899 the locality, the number of establishments, the number and occupations of working people affected, the cause or object of the dispute, the date of beginning and ending, and the result. It also contains summary tables, comparative data for recent years, an analysis of the statistics of strikes and lockouts, statistics of conciliation and arbitration, the text of certain agreements terminating trade disputes, and specimen schedules of inquiry. The general method of inquiry pursued and the plan of presentation have been the same as during the past few years.

STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN 1899.—The most noticeable feature of the data for 1899 is the great decrease in the importance of the disputes. While the number of separate strikes and lockouts was greater than in

1898, the figures for 1899 are in all other respects the lowest of any of the six years for which statistics for comparison are available. There were, in 1899, 719 strikes and lockouts, affecting 138,058 persons directly and 42,159 persons indirectly, and causing an aggregate loss of 2,516,416 working days.

The disputes in 1899, as in previous years, were mostly due to wages, 460 out of a total of 719 strikes and lockouts resulting chiefly from this cause. Of the total of 138,058 persons directly engaged in disputes from all causes, 94,651, or 68.6 per cent, were involved in wage disputes; 17,895, or 13.0 per cent, in disputes relating to working arrangements, rules, and discipline; 8,187, or 5.9 per cent, in disputes due to the employment of particular classes of persons; 5,130, or 3.7 per cent, in disputes due to questions of trade unionism; 3,857, or 2.8 per cent, in disputes due to hours of labor; and 8,338, or 6.0 per cent, in disputes due to other causes.

The following table shows the number of strikes and lockouts and the number of persons directly involved in 1899, classified according to the principal causes and the results obtained:

STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS, BY CAUSES AND RESULTS, AND WORKING DAYS LOST, 1899.

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Persons

a For strikes and lockouts ending in 1899, including those that may have begun in 1898. affected means all persons thrown out of work.

STRIKERS AND PERSONS LOCKED OUT, BY CAUSES AND RESULTS, 1899.

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Of the 719 disputes, 230 were in favor of the employees, 245 were in favor of employers, 236 were compromised, and 8 were indefinite or remained unsettled. Of the persons directly involved, 36,808, or 26.7 per cent, were engaged in disputes settled in favor of employees, 60,275, or +3.7 per cent, in disputes settled in favor of employers, and 40,237, or 29.1 per cent, in disputes that were compromised. The remaining employees were engaged in disputes which were indefinite or unsettled at the close of the year. Persons involved in disputes due to the employment of particular classes of persons and to questions of trade unionism were mostly unsuccessful, while a majority of those engaged in disputes for other causes were either wholly or partly successful.

In 1899, as in previous years, the great majority of disputes affected comparatively few working people. This is shown in the following table:

STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS, BY GROU'PS OF PERSONS AFFECTED, 1999.

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a Disputes involving less than 10 persons, and those which lasted less than 1 day, have been omitted. except when the aggregate duration exceeded 100 working days.

Thus 416 disputes, or 58 per cent of the total number, involved only 15,946, or 9 per cent of the working people. On the other hand, 2 disputes alone involved 41,500, or 23 per cent, of the total employees affected.

The disputes were mostly of short duration, more than half of them having been settled in less than two weeks. This is shown in the following table, in which the disputes are grouped according to the total number of weeks of duration:

STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS AND PERSONS AFFECTED, BY DURATION OF DISPUTES, Isu

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The following tables show the extent to which each of the various groups of industries were involved in the strikes and lockouts in 1899, and the results of the disputes in each case:

STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS, BY INDUSTRIES AND RESULTS, AND WORKING DAYS LOST,

1899.

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a For strikes and lockouts ending in 1899, including those that may have begun in 1898.

STRIKERS AND PERSONS LOCKED OUT, BY INDUSTRIES AND RESULTS, 1899.

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The group of building trades in the above tables shows the largest number of disputes and of aggregate working-days lost, although the largest number of persons directly engaged in strikes and lockouts is found in the group of textiles, namely, 51,822, or 37.5 per cent of the entire number. This is due to a strike of 35,000 employees in the jute industry. The largest measure of success on the part of employees was attained in the mining and quarrying industry and in the building trades, 42.71 per cent of the employees in the former, and 41.13 per cent of the employees in the latter, having been entirely successful. In the case of employees of public authorities, 85.06 per cent failed completely.

STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS DURING Six YEARS.-During the period from 1894 to 1899 there was a yearly average of 816 strikes and lockouts in which an average of 186,464 employees were directly involved. The figures for 1899 are much below these yearly averages.

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