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Of the strikers 9.43 per cent succeeded, 57.04 per cent succeeded partly, and 33.53 per cent failed.
Strikes during this period were most frequent in the spring; that is, during the months of March, April, and May. They were least frequent in the winter, or the months of January, February, and December
Over one-half of the strikes in each year during the 6-year period lasted from 1 to 5 days. The average duration of strikes was 12.34 days in 1894, 13 days in 1895, 15 days in 1896, 12.47 days in 1897, 11.18 days in 1898, and 14 days in 1899.
LOCKOUTS.—There were 5 lockouts in 1899, involving 38 establishments and affecting 3,457 persons locked out. Of the latter 3,448 were reemployed, 4 were discharged, and 5 refused to return. Of the lockouts 2 were on account of Labor Day (May 1), 1 was against a threatened strike for a 10-hour day, and 2 were to force strikers in other establishments to relinquish their demands. The following table gives the statistics of lockouts for each year from 1894 to 1899:
Statistique des Grèves et des Recours à la Conciliation et à l'Arbitrage
Survenus Pendant l'Année 1899. Office du Travail, Ministère du Commerce, de l'Industrie, des Postes et des Télégraphes. xviii,
The present volume is the ninth of a series of annual reports on strikes, and conciliation and arbitration, issued by the French labor bureau. The information is presented in form similar to the preceding annual reports, except that in the present volume a recapitulation is given of all the strikes reported in France from 1890 to 1899, inclusive.
STRIKES IN 1899.- There were 740 strikes in 1899, involving 176,926 strikers and 4.290 establishments. The strikes resulted in an aggregate loss of 3,550,734 working days, including 1,038,310 days lost by 35,576 employees who were not strikers. The average time lost per striker was 20 days. Of the strikers 143,367 were men, 23,417 were women, and 10,042 were children. The year 1899 had the largest number of strikes, strikers, and days lost on account of strikes of any year since the publication of strike data. In addition to the strikes there were, in 1899, 10 lockouts, affecting 28 establishments and 1,243 employees.
Of the 740 strikes reported in 1899, 441 were participated in by members of labor organizations, and in 218 strikes the employers were organized. Twenty-nine labor organizations and 3 employers' associations were created while strikes were in progress. Regular aid was given by labor organizations for the relief of strikers in 44 strikes, and in the case of 63 strikes the intervention of labor organizations was accepted by employers.
Of the 740 strikes reported 575 involved but 1 establishment each, 65 involved from 2 to 5 establishments, 32 from 6 to 10 establishments, 44 from 11 to 25 establishments, 10 from 26 to 50 establishments, 9 from 51 to 100 establishments, and the remaining 5 involved from 150 to 450 establishments each.
As regards the results of the disputes in 1899, 180 strikes, involving 21,131 strikers, were successful; 282 strikes, involving 124,767 strikers, were partly successful, and 277 strikes, involving 30,874 strikers, failed. In the case of 1 strike, involving 2 establishments and 54 employees, the strike was terminated by the destruction of the establishments by lightning. For this reason this strike is not considered in the strike tables presented in the report.
The two following tables show the number of strikes, strikers, and establishments involved, according to the results of strikes, also the number of working days lost, and the proportion that the number of strikers is to the total number of working people, according to 17 groups of industries:
STRIKES, BY INDUSTRIES, 1899.
a One strike involving 2 estab ishments and 5t employees not included.
STRIKERS AND DAYS OF WORK LOST BY ALL PERSONS AFFECTED BY STRIKES IN 1899,
a Census of 1891.
Of the different industries, the textiles furnished 204 strikes and 39,928 strikers; metals and metallic goods, 140 strikes and 48,906 strikers; the building trades, 111 strikes and 17,537 strikers; mining, 32 strikes and 31,099 strikers, making 487 strikes and 137,470 strikers for these four groups of industries, or nearly two-thirds of the total number of strikes and more than three-fourths of the total number of strikers. Considering the number of persons actually engaged in the various industries according to the census of 1891, it is shown that the relative prevalence of strikes was greatest in the metal-refining industry, 227.95 out of every 1,000 employees having taken part in disputes during the year. The two groups of mining and quarrying and chemical industries came next, with 174.12 and 99.34 strikes per 1,000 employees, respectively.
In the two following tables the strike data are shown by causes:
STRIKES, BY CAUSES, 1899.
(A considerable number of strikes were due to two or more causes, and the facts in such cases have
been tabulated under each cause. Hence the totals for this table necessarily would not agree with those for the preceding tables.]
For increase of wages
labor with present or in
creased wages Relating to time and method
of payment of wages, etc.. For or against modification
of conditions of work Against piecework For or against modification
of shop rules For abolition or reduction
of fines Against discharge of work
men, foremen, or direct. ors or for their reinstate
ment.. For discharge of workmen,
foremen, or directors Against employment of
women For limitation of number of
apprentices... Relating to deduction from
wages for the support of
insurance and aid funds Other..
STRIKERS AND DAYS OF WORK LOST BY ALL PERSONS AFFECTED BY STRIKES IN 1999,
BY CAUSES. (A considerable number of strikes were due to two or more causes, and the facts in such cases have been tabulated under each cause. Hence the totals for this table necessarily would not agree with those for the preceding tables.)
Cause or object.
work lost Total strikers.
Suc- Partly Strikes cessful successiul which strikes. strikes. failed.
For increase of wages.
ors or for their reinstatement
of insurance and aid funds. Other..
32, 290 321, 115 42, 735 2,028, 713 11, 924 212,231 2, 616
17,916 5,598 32,447 8,133 130, 192
Strikes due to wage disputes continued in 1899, as in preceding years, to be the most numerous, 167 strikes, involving 139,561 strikers, being due to this cause alone. Over three-fourths of the persons
engaged in strikes on account of wages were either successful or partly successful. Of the other causes of strikes, those relating to the time and method of wage payments and to hours of labor were most prevalent, and but a very small proportion of persons engaged in such strikes failed. Those involved in strikes against piecework and for the abolition or reduction of fines were mostly unsuccessful.
The next two tables show, respectively, the results of strikes according to their duration and according to the number of strikers involved:
a One strike, involving 2 establishments and 54 employees, not included.
DURATION AND RESULTS OF STRIKES, BY NUMBER OF STRIKERS INVOLVED, 1899.
a One strike, involving 2 establishments and 54 employees, not included.
As in the preceding year, the strikes were mostly of short duration, 492 of the 739 strikes lasting 7 days or less, 123 lasting from 8 to 15 days, 62 from 16 to 30 days, 57 from 31 to 100 days, and 5 lasting more than 100 days.
Over one-half of the strikes involved 50 strikers or less each. The smaller strikes, involving 25 strikers or less each, were mostly failures, while most of the larger strikes were either wholly or partly successful.
STRIKES DURING 10 YEARS.-During the period from 1890 to 1899, inclusive, there was an aggregate of 1,210 strikes, 924,486 strikers, and 15,021,841 working days lost, making a yearly average of 421 strikes, 92,449 strikers, and 1,502,184 days lost. Most of these disputes occurred in three industries, namely, 1,368 strikes with 255,887 strikers in the textile industry, 619 strikes with 101,472 strikers in the metal industry, and 596 strikes with 132,803 strikers in the building trades. It may be stated that the textile industry, which has furnished