« PreviousContinue »
RECENT FOREIGN STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS.
Die Arbeitseinstellungen und Aussperrungen in Österreich während des
Jahres 1899. Herausgegeben vom Arbeitsstatistischen Amte im k. k. Handelsministerium. 390 pp.
This is the sixth annual report on strikes and lockouts published by the Austrian Government. Its scope is the same as that for the preceding year. The data are presented in a series of 6 tables, containing (1) strikes according to geographical distribution, (2) strikes according to industries, (3) general summary of strikes, (4) comparative figures for the years 1894 to 1899, (5) details of each individual strike in 1899, (6) details of each individual lockout in 1899. An appendix contains a brief review of industrial conditions in 1899, an extract from a report of the Austrian trade-union commission showing tradeunion membership and contributions in aid of strikes, and copies of papers and documents relating to strikes and lockouts in 1899.
STRIKES IN 1899.—The year 1899 shows a much greater number of strikes, strikers, and establishments affected than the preceding year. There were, in 1899, 311 strikes, affecting 1,330 establishments, and involving 54,763 strikers and 5,374 other employees who were thrown out of employment on account of the strikes. The strikers represented 60.23 per cent of all employees in the establishments affected. Of the striking employees 51,080 were reemployed, 1,115 new employees took the places of strikers; 35,809, or 65.39 per cent, of the strikers were males and 18,954, or 34.61 per cent, were females. Of the 311 strikes, 121, involving 33,881 strikers, occurred through the intervention of labor organizations. Of these strikes, 13.22 per cent succeeded, 57.03 per cent succeeded partly, and 29.75 per cent failed. Of the entire number of strikes in 1899, 15.43 per cent succeeded, 45.02 per cent succeeded partly, and 39.55 per cent failed.
Of the 311 strikes reported, 259 involved but 1 establishment each, 25 involved from 2 to 5 establishments, 7 from 6 to 10 establishments, 8 from 11 to 20 establishments, 8 from 21 to 50 establishments, and 4 involved more than 50 establishments.
The strikes were mostly of short duration, 170, or over one-half the total number, having lasted from one to five days. Forty-six strikes
lasted over thirty days. The following table shows the results of strikes in 1899 according to their duration:
The following table shows the number of strikes, strikers, establishments affected, etc., during 1899, by industries:
The strikes in the textile trades were more numerous and extensive than those in any other group of industries, 84 strikes, involving 30,249, or over half of all the strikers, belonging to this group. This large number of strikers was due largely to a general strike of textile workers in Moravia for a 10-hour day, which involved 10,141 strikers and lasted 66 days. The groups of building trades and mining were next in importance with regard to the number of strikers involved.
In the presentation of strikes by causes, the cause and not the strike is made the unit, and the figures, therefore, show the number of times that each cause figured as an incentive to a strike, regardless of the actual number of strikes. Thus, in 1899 there were 311 strikes, while 370 causes were enumerated. The following table shows the causes of strikes by industries:
CAUSES OF STRIKES, BY INDUSTRIES, 1899.
Against Against against
method tion of
The most frequent cause of strikes in 1899 was the demand for increased wages. Next in importance was the demand for reduced hours of labor. Of the demands relating to wages, 16.13 per cent were successful, 44.24 per cent were partly successful, and 39.63 per cent were unsuccessful. Of the demands relating to hours of labor, 31.97 per cent were successful, 23.77 per cent were partly successful, and 44.26 per cent were unsuccessful.
The following table shows the results of strikes in 1899, classified according to industries:
STRIKES DURING SIX YEARS.-During the period from 1894 to 1899, inclusive, there was an average of 250 strikes, and 49,139 strikers per year. The following table gives the strike statistics for each year from 1894 to 1899, inclusive:
STRIKES, BY YEARS, 1894 TO 1899,
The following two tables show the number of strikes and strikers during each year from 1894 to 1899, inclusive, by industries:
STRIKES, BY INDUSTRIES, 1894 TO 1899.
By far the greater number of strikers during this period were engaged in three groups of industries, namely, 67,887 in mining, 64,888 in the textiles, and 52,568 in the building trades.
Of the 1,498 strikes during the six years, 665 were due either wholly or in part to demands for increased wages, 158 to demands against a reduction of wages, 291 for a reduction in the hours of labor, 213 against the discharge of employees, and 138 for the discharge of foremen, workmen, etc.
The following table shows the causes of strikes during each year of the period, the cause and not the strike being made the unit:
CAUSES OF STRIKES, 1894 to 1899.
charge Against Against
duction men, ious
method tion of
The results of strikes from 1894 to 1899 are shown in the following table:
RESULTS OF STRIKES, 1894 TO 1899.
Of the total number of strikes reported in six years 20.16 per cent succeeded, 36.52 per cent succeeded partly, and 43.32 per cent failed.