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The number of labor organizations reporting to the bureau increased steadily during the period. There was likewise a decided increase in the membership, although some fluctuations occurred during the period.
The number of unemployed members fluctuated from quarter to quarter and from year to year, being greater during the spring and winter than during the fall and summer months of each year.
A comparison of the corresponding quarters of 1897, 1898, and 1899, respectively, shows with two exceptions, a general decrease in the number of the unemployed during the quarter. The percentage of members of labor organizations unemployed was smaller on June 30 and September 30, 1899, than at the end of any other quarter of the period.
A comparison of the average number of days of employment during 1897, 1898, and 1899 shows a slight falling off in 1898; but a general increase in 1899. The average earnings of members of labor organizations likewise show a decided improvement in 1899. This is especially noticeable in the case of female members whose earnings had decreased during the preceding year.
The following tables show, by industries, the number and membership of labor organizations and the per cent of members unemployed at the end of each of the last four quarters:
ORGANIZATIONS REPORTING AND MEMBERSHIP AT THE END OF EACH QUARTER FROM
DECEMBER 31, 1898, TO SEPTEMBER 30, 1899.
niture.. Restaurants and retail
86 8, 391 9,518
31 11 20 36
2,083 1, 796
3, 207 3, 727 1. 108 3,884
7 15 32
7 18 32
PER CENT OF MEMBERS OF LABOR ORGANIZATIONS UNEMPLOYED AT THE END OF EACH
QUARTER FROM DECEMBER 31, 1898, TO SEPTEMBER 30, 1899.
ACCIDENTS AND EMPLOYERS' LIABILITY.- This elaborate report corers not only the results of an original investigation of accidents and accident insurance in New York State, but deals also with the subject of industrial accidents and the liability of employers in various States of the Union and in 17 foreign countries, showing the legislation enacted and the workings of the same, and in some instances, statistics of accidents, etc. It concludes with a general review of the problem of industrial insurance and its application to the United States.
The original statistics of accidents for New York State were obtained from labor organizations and manufacturers by means of schedules of inquiry, and show for the months of April, May, and June, 1899, the nature and causes of accidents, age and sex of persons injured, the extent of the disabilities and loss of working turns resulting, together with the number of dependents and sources of support of those injured. Of 4,931 establishments from which returns were received, 691 reported 1,817 persons injured by accident, 29 of whom were killed, during these three months. The reports of trade-union secretaries for the same period show a total of 155 persons injured, 9 fatally, out of a total membership of 188,455 on June 30, 1899. These reports are said to be defective and incomplete and probably show too low a proportion of accidents. Of the 4,931 establishments making returns, 1,078 reported that they carried accident or liability insurance, chiefly the latter.
EMPLOYMENT AND WAGES FROM 1896 to 1899.-This is the second inquiry regarding employment and wages in manufacturing establishments undertaken by this bureau, the preceding one covering the five years ending June 1, 1895. The present inquiry covers the four years ending June 30, 1899, and shows for 3,553 establishments in the State. the number of employees on June 30, and the total wages paid during
each year. Statistics for nine years are given for 66 establishments, principally in the iron and steel industries.
The following two tables show the number of employees and total wages paid in each of 12 groups of industries during the four years ending June 30, 1899:
EMPLOYEES IN 3,553 ESTABLISHMENTS FROM JUNE 30, 1896, TO JUNE 30, 1899.
WAGES PAID IN 3,553 ESTABLISHMENTS FROM THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1896, TO THE
YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1899.
From June 30, 1896, to June 30, 1899, the number of employees in 3,553 establishments increased 18.8 per cent. From the first to the second year the number increased 1.5 per cent, the next year 7.1 per cent, and the last year 9.3 per cent. The increase during the four years was smallest, 5.3 per cent, in the group of pulp, paper, and cardboard industries, and greatest, 26.0 per cent, in the group of metals, machinery, and apparatus. Each of the twelve groups of industries shows an increase during the past two years.
The amounts paid for wages in 3,553 establishments increased 15.2 per cent from the year ending June 30, 1896, to the year ending June 30, 1899. During the year ending June 30, 1897, there was a decrease of 1.8 per cent in the amount of wages paid; this was followed by an increase of 9.2 per cent in 1898, and of 7.5 per cent in 1899. The increase during the four years was smallest, 2.1 per cent, in the group of building trades, and greatest, 25.1 per cent, in the groups of clothing, millinery, laundering, etc., and of public utility.
A study of employment and wages for a longer period is afforded by the returns from 66 establishments manufacturing metal, stone, and clay products, which cover the nine years ending June 30, 1899, as shown in the following table:
EMPLOYEES AND WAGES IN 66 ESTABLISHMENTS FROM THE YEAR ENDING MAY 31, 1891,
TO THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1899.
These returns show a steady increase in business activity from June 1, 1890, to May 31, 1893; a great decline in 1894, a gradual recovery in 1895 and 1896; another decline in 1897, and a decided increase in 1898 and 1899, the figures for the latter year being far in excess of those of any other year of the period.
STATE FREE EMPLOYMENT BUREAU.-During the year 1899, 5,289 persons registered for employment, of whom 2,135 were men and 3,154 were women. There were 99 applications from employers for men and 2,94 for women. Ninety-eight males and 2,303 females, or a total of 2, 101 persons, obtained employment through the agency of this bureau.
Twenty-third Annual Report of the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the
State of Ohio, for the year 1899. John P. Jones, Commissioner.
The contents of the present report are as follows: Introduction, 13 pages; labor laws and court decisions, 78 pages; convict labor, 5 pages; manufacturing, 184 pages; statistics of cities, 19 pages; free employment offices, 18 pages; chronology of labor bureaus, 4 pages.
ConvicT LABOR. - Statistics are given of the number of convicts employed in each of the various industries at the penal institutions of the State, and the number of persons employed at free labor in the same industries; also a copy of the State law regulating the employment of convicts.
MANUFACTURING.–As in preceding years, this subject occupies the greater part of the annual report. Detailed statistical tables are given showing, by occupations and for cities and villages, the number of males and females employed in various industries, their average daily and yearly earnings, and hours of daily labor in 1898, and the average number of days employed in 1897 and 1898. Other series of tables show, by industries, for cities, villages, and the State, the number of establishments reported, number of males and females employed each month, and monthly average of males and females for 1897 and 1898; total wages paid in 1897 and 1898, and the number and salaries of office employees, capital invested, value of product, and value of material used in 1898.
Following is a brief summary of some of the figures presented: In 2,226 establishments $53,520,558.18 was paid in wages during 1898, which amount was an increase of $6,208,775.03 over the wages paid in the same establishments during 1897. During 1898 the total value of goods made in 2,216 establishments was $238,729,697.96, and the value of the material used was $121,839,652.76. In 2,231 establishments an average of 102,393 males and 21,723 females were employed during 1898.
STATISTICS OF CITIES.- In this chapter are reproduced so much of the statistics of cities, published in the Bulletin of the United States Department of Labor, for September, 1899, as relates to cities in Ohio.
EMPLOYMENT OFFICES.-During the year ending December 29, 1899, the free employment offices at Cincinnati, Cleveland, Columbus, Toledo, and Dayton received applications from employers for 6,216 males and 17,681 females. Applications for situations were made by 15,259 males and 10,886 females. Positions were secured for 5,058 males and 9,931 females.